The London to Brighton Veteran Car Run is the longest-running motoring event in the world. The first run was in 1896, it has taken place most years since its initial revival in 1927. To qualify, the cars must have been built before 1905, it is the world's largest gathering of veteran cars – 443 started in 2005, 484 in 2009, compared to 37 starters in 1927, 51 starters in 1930 and 131 in 1938. It takes place on the first Sunday in November and starts at sunrise from Hyde Park and follows the old A23 road to finish at Brighton – a distance of 54 miles. There are two official stops along the way: Preston Park. Preston Park is the official finishing point; the event is organised on behalf of the Royal Automobile Club who emphasise that the event is not a race – they do not publish the order in which cars finish, participants are not permitted to exceed an average speed of 20 mph. Any that finish before 4:30 pm are awarded a medal. There are a few other events preceding the Veteran Car Run such as Motoring Forum, Veteran Car Run Sale, a motor show, participant reception.
The first run took place on a wet Saturday. Organised by Harry J. Lawson, named "The Emancipation Run", it was a celebration of the passed Locomotives on Highways Act 1896, which had replaced the restrictive Locomotive Acts of 1861, 1865 and 1878 and increased the speed limit to 14 mph. Since 1878 the speed limit had been 4 mph in the country and 2 mph in the town and an escort had been required to walk 20 yards ahead of the vehicle; the 1865 act had required the escort to carry a red flag at a distance of 60 yards. The run was the first meet of the Motor Car Club, of which Lawson was President; the event started with a breakfast at the Charing Cross Hotel, which included the symbolic tearing in two by Lord Winchelsea of a red flag. The competitors gathered outside the Metropole Hotel, with the cars accompanied by a "flying escort" – estimated by one witness as "probably 10,000" – of pedal cyclists, recreational cycling having become popular with the English in the final decades of the 19th century.
A total of 33 motorists set off from London for the coast and 17 arrived in Brighton. The first of the cars set off from London at 10:30 am and the first arrival in Brighton, by a Duryea Motor Wagon, beating the next closest Brighton arrivals by more than an hour. Two Duryea cars participated in the run, marking the first appearance of American motor vehicles in Europe. During the next few years, Commemoration Run took place between Whitehall Place and Sheen House Club covering the distance of about eight miles; the run was not staged again until 1927, annually run from 1927 until the onset of the Second World War. Owing to petrol rationing, the event was cancelled until 1947. With all this considered, it is the world's longest running motoring event. Since 1930, the event has been controlled by the Royal Automobile Club; the 1953 comedy movie Genevieve is set during one of these runs. Many racing drivers and celebrities have taken part in the event, including Richard Shuttleworth, S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Sir Malcolm Campbell, Prince Bira, George Eyston, Richard Seaman, Kaye Don, George Formby, Phil Hill, Stirling Moss, Jochen Mass, Nigel Mansell and Damon HillThe 72nd anniversary run took place in 1968 and was joined by celebrity participants Prince Rainier and Princess Grace of Monaco, in a 1903 De Dion-Bouton.
That year Stirling Moss participated, driving a 1903 four-cylinder Mercedes. Some participants dress up in a late Edwardian style of clothing. In 1971 Queen Elizabeth II was a passenger in a 1900 Daimler. A regular participant is Prince Michael of Kent. In 2010 the RAC launched the Brighton to London Future Car Challenge, following the same route as the veteran car run, but starting in Brighton and finishing at Regent Street, London – and taking place on the day prior to the veteran run; the event is intended to showcase low energy impact vehicles of various technologies – Electric and Low-Emission ICE. Participants compete to minimise energy consumption using "road legal" vehicles in "real world" conditions; the results of the inaugural 2010 event showed that the electric vehicles used the least energy, compared to the hybrid vehicles and the diesel powered internal combustion engine vehicles. The event was not organised as a race, but the general classification of the fastest finishers was: Genevieve London to Brighton events London to Brighton in Four Minutes – BBC short film of early 1950s showing speeded-up train journey Brighton Speed Trials Official website LBVCR 2010 Information Veteran Car Club of Great Britain's page about LBVCR Cuckfield Companion's page about LBVCR Sponsor Renault Sport's page about LBVCR 1950s cine film London to Brighton Veteran Car Run flickr.com group Future Car Challenge website LBVCR Press Release relating to Historic Electric Vehicles A US version of the car run, from New London to New Brighton
Anacletus II, born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled in opposition to Pope Innocent II from 1130 until his death in 1138. After the death of Pope Honorius II, the college of cardinals was divided over his successor. A majority of cardinals elected Pietro; this led to a major schism in the Roman Catholic Church. Anacletus had the support of most Romans, the Frangipani family, forced Innocent to flee to France. North of the Alps, Innocent gained the crucial support of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, Emperor Lothar III, leaving Anacletus with few patrons. Anacletus, with little remaining support, died in the middle of the crisis. In 1139 the second Lateran Council ended the schism. Pietro was born to the powerful Roman family of the son of the Consul Pier Leoni. One of his great-great grandparents, maybe Baruch in Hebrew, was a Jew who converted into Christianity; as a second son with ambitions, Pietro was destined for an ecclesiastical career. He entered the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny.
He went to Rome and occupied several important positions. In 1130, Pope Honorius II lay dying and the cardinals decided that they would entrust the election to a commission of eight men, led by papal chancellor Haimeric, who had his candidate Cardinal Gregory Papareschi hastily elected as Pope Innocent II, he was consecrated on February 14, the day after Honorius' death. On the same day, the other cardinals, led by the senior Cardinal Bishop, Pietro of Porto, met with the leaders of Rome in the Basilica of S. Marco, announced that Innocent had not been canonically elected, he nominated Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, a Roman whose family were the enemy of Haimeric's supporters the Frangipani, elected by the Cardinals, clergy and People of Rome. Anacletus' supporters included the entire Roman aristocracy, with the exception of the Frangipani, the majority of the Cardinals. With the support of the People, in opposition to the French Haimeric, the Pierleoni were powerful enough to take control of Rome, while Innocent was forced to flee north of the Alps.
However, north of the Alps, Innocent gained the crucial support of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, other prominent reformers who helped him to gain recognition from European rulers such as Emperor Lothar III, leaving Anacletus with few patrons. Anacletus had been a acceptable candidate for the Papacy, being well-respected, so rumors centering on his descent from a Jewish convert were spread to blacken his reputation. Among Anacletus' supporters were duke William X of Aquitaine, who decided for Anacletus against the will of his own bishops, the powerful Roger II of Sicily, whose title of "King of Sicily" Anacletus had approved by papal bull after his accession. By 1135 Anacletus' position was weak despite their aid, but the schism only ended with his death in 1138, after which Gregorio Conti was elected as Victor IV but submitted to Innocent within a month. Innocent ruled without opposition. Innocent II convened the Second Lateran Council in 1139 and reinforced the Church's teachings against usury, clerical marriage, other problems.
Though the Pierleoni family submitted to Innocent and his successors, Anacletus' brother Giordano, leader of the Commune of Rome opposed Innocent's successors in the following decade. Papal selection before 1059 Papal conclave Arnulfi Sagiensis, Episcopus Sexoviensis, "Tractatus de schismate orto post Honorii II papae decessum," Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus III, pars 1, pp. 423–432. Anastasio, Lodovico Agnello. Istoria degli Antipapi di Lodovico Agnello Anastasio arcivescovo di Sorrento. Tomo primo. Napoli: Stamperia Muziana. Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Storia degli antipapi e di taluni memorabili avvenimenti delle epoche rispettive dello scisma. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja. Richard, Étienne. Étude historique sur le schisme d'Anaclet en Aquitaine de 1130 à 1136. Poitiers: Henri Oudin. Zöpffel, Richard. Die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im Zusammenhange stehenden Ceremonien von 11.-14. Jahrhunderts, 267-395. Fedele, Pietro. Le famiglie di Anacleto II e di Gelasio II. Roma..
Brixius, J. M. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Mann, Horace K; the Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume IX. 1130-1159, 1-66. Bloch, Herbert; the Schism of Anacletus II and the Glanfeuil Forgeries of Peter the Deacon of Monte Cassino. New York: Fordham University Press. Zenker, Barbara. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalcollegiums von 1130 bis 1159. Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. Stroll, Mary; the Jewish Pope: Ideology and Politics in the Papal Schism of 1130. New York: E. J. Brill. ISBN 978-9004085909. Stroll, Mary. Symbols As Power: The Papacy Following the Investiture Contest. New York-Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09374-4. Houben, Herbert. Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65573-6. Catholic Encyclopaedia account of Anacletus II