Valparaíso is a major city and educational centre in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile. "Greater Valparaíso" is the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Valparaíso is located about 120 kilometres northwest of Santiago by road and is one of the South Pacific's most important seaports. Valparaíso is the capital of Chile's second most populated administrative region and has been the headquarters for the Chilean National Congress since 1990. Valparaíso has several private universities. Valparaíso played an important geopolitical role in the second half of the 19th century when the city served as a major stopover for ships traveling between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by crossing the Straits of Magellan. Valparaíso mushroomed during its golden age, as a magnet for European immigrants, when the city was known by international sailors as "Little San Francisco" and "The Jewel of the Pacific". In 2003, the historic quarter of Valparaíso was declared a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization World Heritage site.

Notable features include Latin America's oldest stock exchange, the continent's first volunteer fire department, Chile's first public library, the oldest Spanish language newspaper in continuous publication in the world, El Mercurio de Valparaíso. The second half of the twentieth century was unfavorable to Valparaíso, as many wealthy families abandoned the city; the opening of the Panama Canal and reduction in ship traffic dealt a serious blow to Valparaíso's port-based economy. Over the first 15 years of the twenty-first century, the city reached a recovery, attracting artists and cultural entrepreneurs who have set up in the city's hillside historic districts. Today, many thousands of tourists visit Valparaíso from around the world to enjoy the city's labyrinth of cobbled alleys and colorful buildings; the port of Valparaíso continues to be a major distribution center for container traffic and fruit exports. Valparaíso receives growing attention from cruise ships that visit during the South American summer.

Most Valparaíso has transformed itself into a major educational center with four large traditional universities and several large vocational colleges. The city exemplifies Chilean culture, with festivals every year, street artists and musicians; the Bay of Valparaíso was first populated by the Picunche natives, known for their agriculture, or the Chango people, who were nomads dedicated to fishing, traveling between modern-day Caldera and Concepcion. Spanish explorers, considered the first European discoverers of Chile, arrived in 1536, aboard the Santiaguillo, a supply ship sent by Diego de Almagro; the Santiaguillo carried men and supplies for Almagro's expedition, under the command of Juan de Saavedra, who named the town after his native village of Valparaíso de Arriba in Cuenca Province, Spain. During Spanish colonial times, Valparaíso remained a small village, with only a few houses and a church. In 1810, a wealthy merchant built the first pier in the history of Chile and the first during the colonial era.

In its place today, stands the building of El Mercurio de Valparaíso. The ocean rose to this point. Reclamation of land from the sea moved the coastline five blocks away. Between 1810 and 1830, he built much of the existing port of the city, including much of the land reclamation work that now provides the city's commercial centre. In 1814, the naval Battle of Valaparaiso was fought offshore of the town, between American and British ships involved in the War of 1812. After Chile's independence from Spain, beginning the Republican Era, Valparaíso became the main harbour for the nascent Chilean navy, opened international trade opportunities, limited to Spain and its other colonies. Valparaíso soon became a desired stopover for ships rounding South America via the Straits of Magellan and Cape Horn, it gained particular importance supplying the California Gold Rush. As a major seaport, Valparaíso received immigrants from many European countries from Britain, France and Italy. German, French and English were spoken among its citizens, who founded and published newspapers in these languages.

The British community, La Colonia Britanica, prospered in Valparaíso between the 1920s. Firms such as Antony Gibbs & Sons, Duncan Fox, Williamson-Balfour Company were doing business in the town, which had become a significant trading center by 1840, with 166 British ships, out of a total of 287, anchored in its port; the British settled on Cerro Concepción. The Association of Voluntary Firemen was created in 1851, a telegraph service to Santiago was operating by 1852, Chile's first telephone service was set up in 1880; the British Hospital was founded in 1897, the British Arch, Arco Británico, was erected in 1911. However, by 1895, Italian immigrants exceeded the British, both the Italians and Germans were in larger numbers by 1907. By 1920, both the Italians and Spanish outnumbered the British, the primary British community within Chile resided in Santiago. International immigration transformed the local culture from Spanish origins and Amerindian origins, in ways that included the construction of the first non-Catholic cemetery of Chile, the Dissidents' Cemetery.

Football was introduced to Chile by English immigrants. Immigrants from Scotland and Germany founded the first private secular schools

MESIF protocol

The MESIF protocol is a cache coherency and memory coherence protocol developed by Intel for cache coherent non-uniform memory architectures. The protocol consists of five states, Exclusive, Shared and Forward; the M, E, S and I states are the same as in the MESI protocol. The F state is a specialized form of the S state, indicates that a cache should act as a designated responder for any requests for the given line; the protocol ensures that, if any cache holds a line in the S state, at most one cache holds it in the F state. In a system of caches employing the MESI protocol, a cache line request, received by multiple caches holding a line in the S state will be serviced inefficiently, it may either be satisfied from main memory, or all the sharing caches could respond, bombarding the requestor with redundant responses. In a system of caches employing the MESIF protocol, a cache line request will be responded to only by the cache holding the line in the F state; this allows the requestor to receive a copy at cache-to-cache speeds, while allowing the use of as few multicast packets as the network topology will allow.

Because a cache may unilaterally discard a line in the S or F states, it is possible that no cache has a copy in the F state though copies in the S state exist. In this case, a request for the line is satisfied from main memory. To minimize the chance of the F line being discarded due to lack of interest, the most recent requestor of a line is assigned the F state. Thus, the main difference from the MESI protocol is that a request for a copy of the cache line for read always enters the cache in the F state; the only way to enter the S state is to satisfy a read request from main memory. For any given pair of caches, the permitted states of a given cache line are listed in the table on the right; the order in which the states are listed has no significance other than to make the acronym MESIF pronounceable. There are other techniques for satisfying read requests from shared caches while suppressing redundant replies, but having only a single designated cache respond makes it easier to invalidate all copies when necessary to transition to the Exclusive state.

The F state in this protocol should not be confused with the "Owner" O state in the MOESI protocol. While both states identify one cache out of a set of sharers to efficiently transfer data using direct cache-to-cache transfers, there is a difference behind the intent of the two states. A cache line in the F state may be discarded at any time without notice. A cache line in the O state must be written back to memory before being discarded; the F state in the MESIF protocol is a way to choose one of the sharers of a clean cache line to respond to a read request for data using a direct cache-to-cache transfer instead of waiting for the data to come from the main memory. This optimization makes sense in architectures where the cache-to-cache latency is much smaller in comparison to the latency of accessing the main memory. A key point to be noted here is that, similar to the MESI protocol, when data is in the shared state the data is clean; the O state in the MOESI protocol is an optimization to the MESI protocol where the requirement of the shared data to be clean is relaxed.

In other words, caches can share data which are dirty as long as one of the sharers takes the responsibility of owning the data. Requests for the shared data now will be satisfied by the owner; this optimization allows delaying the writeback of data by allowing sharing of dirty data. The key difference in the MOESI protocol is that, unlike the MESIF protocol, the Owned state is not clean, it is possible to construct a MOESIF protocol. MSI protocol MESI protocol MOSI protocol MOESI protocol


MexScript is a multi-paradigm computer scripting language used in a number of game resource archive file handlers. It was created for the 16-bit command-line tool multiex, 32-bit versions of MultiEx Commander, it is a script that enables the end user to have the interpreting program perform a number of tasks needed to access file contents, as well as to replace file contents. The MexScript has since become one of the standards to process game archives, as is indicated by the implementation of the script in similar programs, such as Dragon UNpack, Game Extractor, FusePAK, the more recent dialect QuickBMS. MexScript was fed to the tool using. INI files; the script was improved upon in releases of MultiEx Commander. The name stems from the abbreviation of multiex to'mex', though it is referred to as Binary MultiEx Script which in essence is a compiled version of MexScript. MexScript is interpreted by a Dynamic-link library called "multiex.dll" for the Windows version of MultiEx Commander, a public version was released on the 24th of July 2003.

Besides MultiEx Commander, the MexScript has been implemented in a number of other applications. The multiex Dynamic-link library was used after initial release in a similar game archive file handler called Dragon UNpack; the scripting language itself has been implemented in the linux tool Fusepak and the Java application Game Extractor. A script exists to convert MexScript into Python for OpenMEX. There is a dialect of MexScript/BMS called QuickBMS console application, that first appeared on the Xentax Foundation's Game Research Forum on April 16, 2009. MexScript is a domain specific, structured functional scripting language designed for the end-user; the primary domain is the processes required to handle game resource archive formats. GRAF is a term first coined in November 2003; the purpose of writing in the MexScript scripting language is to manipulate the contents of GRAs in order to MOD a computer game. An extensive description of MexScript is found at the developer's site, while the dialect is explained here.

The last release of the 16-bit implementation in 1998 of MultiEx Commander featured statements and commands as follows:ID, EVENTS, NOFILENAMES, GetLong, FlipLong, GetInt, GetString, WriteLong, GetDString, GetNullString, StrCReplace, StrEReplace, LOOP, ENDLOOP, SavePos, GoTo, SET, SETFILECNT, ADD, SUBST, SETBYTESREAD, MULTIPLY, UP, DOWN, PROMPTUSER, ExtractFILE, SETPATH, FindFileID, SeparateHeader. Versions were much evolved to the current documentation, with greater functionality. Depending on the dialect or original implementation, the data types can differ substantially. MexScript for MultiEx Commander has the following: Long --> 32-bit value Int --> 16-bit value Byte --> 8-bit value ThreeByte --> 24-bit value String --> null-terminated string of characters Variables do not have to be declared before use. In such a case it is declared using a SET <variable> statement. All variables can be changed at run-time; the scripting language outputs a list of files contained in a game resource archive, along with the offsets and sizes, along with information on their name and putative compression.

This is done in 32-bit MultiEx Commander and other implementations using the Log statement, or CLog statement. MexScript provides several common control structures. Ifelse test do-while condition for-next loopsRecursion is MexScript's preferred processing paradigm. Output of the original multiex.exe was either extraction or importation of files contained in archives. The 32-bit implementation would output a list of files contained in the processed archive, along with information on their position, size and compression type; this list would be fed to MultiEx Commander, or similar tools. In the original 16-bit version, commands were to be written on one line, but versions allowed more. Anything written after the # is ignored; each line ends with a. MultiEx Commander - the official website Tutorial - Tutorial on using MexScript and QuickBMS in MultiEx Commander