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A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people. Depending on the type of van, it can be bigger or smaller than a truck and SUV, bigger than a common car. There is some varying in the scope of the word across the different English-speaking countries; the smallest vans, are used for transporting either goods or people in tiny quantities. Mini MPVs, Compact MPVs, MPVs are all small vans used for transporting people in small quantities. Larger vans with passenger seats are used such as transporting students. Larger vans with only front seats are used for business purposes, to carry goods and equipment. Specially-equipped vans are used by television stations as mobile studios. Postal services and courier companies use large step vans to deliver packages. Van means; the earliest records of a van as a vehicle in English are in the mid 19th century meaning a covered wagon for transporting goods. Caravan with the same meaning has records since the 1670s. A caravan, meaning one wagon, had arisen as an extension or corruption of caravan meaning a convoy of multiple wagons.

The word van has different, but overlapping, meanings in different forms of English. While the word always now applies to boxy cargo vans, other applications are found to a greater or lesser extent in the different English-speaking countries. In Australian English, the term van is used to describe a minivan, a passenger minibus, or an Australian panel van as manufactured by companies such as Holden and Ford at various times. A full-size van used for commercial purposes is known as a van; the term van can sometimes be used interchangeably with caravan, which in the U. S. is referred to as a travel trailer. The British term people mover is used in Australian English to describe a passenger van; the American usage of van to mean a cargo box trailer or semi-trailer is used if in Australia. In India, the van is one of the most common modes of transport and is used for transporting school children to and from schools when parents working parents, are too busy to pick their children up from school or when school buses are full and unable to accommodate other children.

Early Japanese vans include Mazda Bongo and the Toyota LiteAce van. The Japanese produced many vans based on the American flat nose model, but mini-vans which for the American market have evolved to the long-wheelbase front wheel drive form factor pioneered by the Nissan Prairie and Mitsubishi Chariot. Microvans, vans that fulfill kei car regulations, are popular for small business; the term is used to describe full-fledged station wagons and hatchbacks with a basic trim package intended for commercial use. These are sometimes referred to as "Light Vans". In British English, the word van refers to vehicles that carry goods only, on both rails. What would be called a minivan in American English is called a people-carrier or MPV, or multi-purpose vehicle, larger passenger vehicles are called a minibus; the Telegraph newspaper introduced the idea of "White Van Man", a typical working class man or small business owner who would have a white Ford Transit, Mercedes-Benz Sprinter, or similar panel van.

Today the phrase "man and van" refers to light removal firms operated by a sole business owner transporting anything from the contents of a whole house to just a few boxes. The word "van" refers to railway covered goods wagons, called "boxcars" in the United States. In the United States, a van can refer to a box-shaped trailer or semi-trailer used to carry goods. In this case there is a differentiation between a "dry van", used to carry most goods, a refrigerated van, or reefer, used for cold goods. A railway car used to carry baggage is called a van. A vehicle referred to as a full-size van is a large, boxy vehicle that has a platform and powertrain similar to their light truck counterparts; these vans may be sold with the space behind the front seats empty for transporting of goods, or furnished for passenger use by either the manufacturer or another company for more personal comforts, such as entertainment systems. Full-size vans have a short hood, with the engine block moved to within the passenger cabin.

A cutaway van chassis is a variation of the full size van, developed for use by many second stage manufacturers. Such a unit has a van front end, driver controls in a cab body which extends only to a point aft of the driver and passenger seats, where the rest of the van body is cutoff. From that point aft only the chassis frame rails and running gear extend to the rear when the unit is shipped as an "incomplete vehicle". A second stage manufacturer known as a bodybuilder, will complete the vehicle for uses such as recreational vehicles, small school buses, type III ambulances, delivery trucks. A large portion of cutaway van chassis are equipped with dual rear wheels; some second stage manufacturers add a third weight-bearing single wheel "tag axle" for larger minibus models. The term van may refer to a minivan. However, minivans are distinguished by their smaller size and traditionally front wheel drive powertrain, although many now are being equipped with four wheel drive. Minivans offer seven or eight passenger seating capacity (similar to the smalles

The Beat Goes On (Vanilla Fudge album)

The Beat Goes On is the second album by the American psychedelic rock band Vanilla Fudge, released in early 1968. The album doesn't contain any actual "songs", but rather a sound collage featuring many different elements: the voices of world leaders past and present, the band reciting pre-written mantras and reflections, excerpts of songs by The Beatles and Sonny Bono; the group was at odds with producer George "Shadow" Morton during recording, as Morton made his own concept album without significant input from them. In the liner notes of Sundazed Records' 1990 CD reissue, the band denounces it as a failed experiment on the producer's part; the Fudge's third album, released after The Beat Goes On, would be Morton's last collaboration with the band. In his autobiography Stick It!, Carmine Appice declares: "Even listening to it now – which, let me tell you, I fucking do – The Beat Goes On sounds like an album that Spinal Tap would be wary of making." While not as successful as their debut album, The Beat Goes On was a moderate hit despite the band's reservations, peaking at #17 on the Billboard album charts in March 1968.

Vanilla Fudge's The Beat Goes On is used as bumper music in the Pop Chronicles music documentary. "Sketch" - 2:55Phase One "Intro: The Beat Goes On" - 1:57 Eighteenth Century: Variations on a Theme by Mozart: "Divertimento No. 13 In F Major" - 0:46 Nineteenth Century: "Old Black Joe" - 0:46 Twentieth Century - 3:09 "Don't Fence Me In" - 0:52 "12th Street Rag" - 0:49 "In The Mood" - 0:45 "Hound Dog" - 0:43 The Beatles - 1:45 "I Want To Hold Your Hand" "I Feel Fine" "Day Tripper" "She Loves You" "Hello Goodbye" Phase Two "The Beat Goes On" - 1:32 Beethoven: "Fur Elise" & "Moonlight Sonata" - 6:33 "The Beat Goes On" - 1:05 "The Beat Goes On" - 1:00Phase Three "Voices in Time": Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Other Voices - 8:09Phase Four "The Beat Goes On" - 1:50 "Merchant/The Game Is Over" - 8:57 "Merchant" "The Game Is Over": Vinnie "Merchant" "The Game Is Over": Tim "Merchant" "The Game Is Over": Carmine "Merchant" "The Game Is Over": Mark "Merchant" "The Beat Goes On" - 2:20Bonus Phase "You Can't Do That" "Come By Day, Come By Night" Carmine Appice - drums, vocals Tim Bogert - bass, vocals Vince Martell - guitar, vocals Mark Stein - lead vocals, keyboards

Washington Journal

Washington Journal is an American television series on the C-SPAN network in the format of a political call-in and interview program. The program features elected officials, government administrators and journalists as guests, answering questions from the hosts and from members of the general public, who call into the studio or submit questions via e-mail and social media; the three-hour program airs every day of the year beginning at 7 a.m. Eastern Time, except when special events or coverage of Congress preempts all or part of the program; the audio of the program airs on WCSP-FM as a simulcast with the television broadcast. Washington Journal's antecedent is the C-SPAN daily call-in, a fixture of the network since October 7, 1980; the inaugural Washington Journal program aired on January 4, 1995, the program continues to be shown on C-SPAN in its original time slot. Saturday and Sunday editions were just two hours long. Simulcasts of Washington Journal on C-SPAN's radio station, WCSP-FM, began on October 9, 1997.

One hour of the Sunday edition of Washington Journal is simulcast on BBC Parliament in the United Kingdom, preceded by America This Week, an hour of recorded C-SPAN programming. At the beginning of each program, the host reads noteworthy articles and editorials from current newspapers and periodicals as viewers discuss a timely topic chosen by C-SPAN; the program features "open phones" segments when callers may discuss any topic of their choosing. In multiple segments following, the host interviews guests invited to discuss a specific political or legislative issue, takes calls from the public. Most guests appear in C-SPAN's Washington or New York City studios, while some guests are interviewed from remote locations; the program is noted for the participation of its viewers who may call in, submit questions and comments via e-mail or, since March 5, 2009, Twitter. As facilitators of conversation between the public and C-SPAN guests, Washington Journal hosts do not offer their own perspective on issues, leave more pointed questions to callers, though they will ask for clarifications from callers and guests.

Consistent with its emphasis on reflecting a wide variety of viewpoints, C-SPAN aims to take 60 calls in each program, 20,000 calls per year. In the early days of Washington Journal, callers were not screened by ideology; this was changed at the recommendation of University of Maryland professor John Splaine, hired by C-SPAN to ensure the network's objectivity, who noticed that C-SPAN received a disproportionate number of calls from conservative viewers. Washington Journal producers now set up separate phone lines by party affiliation and take alternate calls from each line. In some cases, a dedicated call-in line is made available for the international audience, or for a particular group of callers. For example, a program about college tuition may have a line for recent graduates. In the fall of 2006, Washington Journal recorded two shows in New Orleans and set up a call-in line for locals to tell their stories from Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath; the show is hosted from C-SPAN's Washington, D.

C. studio overlooking the Capitol Building and is hosted by a revolving set of hosts. In November 2009, C-SPAN named veteran television news producer Michele Remillard as executive producer of Washington Journal; the Washington Journal theme music is the third movement of Concerto for Trumpet, no. 2 by Johann Melchior Molter, played at various points during each broadcast. The theme is used as introductory music, as an interlude during transitions, is played again as the program concludes. Video simulcast of the C-SPAN Radio studio has been shown during transitions at the top of an hour, with the radio host reading the day's news headlines; the program airs 365 days a year. Washington Journal uses no delay, so obscene or other objectionable language will be heard, though offending callers are cut off promptly. Callers are asked to wait 30 days between phoning in, though this rule is pointed out to be violated by the program's regular viewers occasionally. For several days following the September 11 attacks, Washington Journal began at 6 a.m. instead of 7 a.m.

Following Hurricane Katrina, Washington Journal featured discussions on the issue of New Orleans' recovery. On August 21 and 22, 2006, a remote broadcast was set up in the city to interview key players, including U. S. senators David Vitter and Mary Landrieu, local homeowners. Among C-SPAN's anonymous callers, recording artist and entertainer Cher made waves by calling into the show on October 27, 2003. Although intending to call anonymously, host Peter Slen guessed her identity, which she reluctantly admitted, she called again on May 28, 2006, waited on hold for her call to be taken. Cher subsequently appeared on the program on June 14, 2006, to speak about Operation Helmet, a nonprofit organization providing helmet upgrades for U. S. soldiers. Steve Scully, political editor and senior producer Greta Wodele Brawner Pedro Echevarria John McArdle Peter Slen Paul Orgel Jesse J. Holland Brian Lamb, C-SPAN Chairman and CEO Official website First Washington Journal program, January 4, 1995

2012–13 NCAA football bowl games

The 2012–13 NCAA football bowl games were a series of college football bowl games. They concluded the 2012 NCAA Division I FBS football season, included 35 team-competitive games and four all-star games; the games began on Saturday December 15, 2012 and, aside from the all-star games, concluded with the 2013 BCS National Championship Game in Miami Gardens, Florida, played on January 7, 2013. The total of 35 team-competitive bowls was unchanged from the previous year. While bowl games had been the purview of only the best teams for nearly a century, this was the seventh consecutive year that teams with non-winning seasons participated in bowl games. To fill the 70 available team-competitive bowl slots, a total of 13 teams with non-winning seasons participated in bowl games—12 had a.500 season and, for the second consecutive year, a team with a sub-.500 season was invited to a bowl game. As per 2010 and 2011, initial bowl eligibility would go to teams with no lower than a non-losing record for the season.

On August 2, 2012, the NCAA Division I Board of Directors approved a significant change to the process to determine bowl eligible teams, going so far as to allow 5-7 teams to go to a bowl, in case there were not enough regular bowl-eligible teams to fill every game. If a bowl has one or more conferences/teams unable to meet their contractual commitments and there are no available bowl-eligible teams, the open spots can be filled – by the particular bowl's sponsoring agencies – as follows: Teams finishing 6-6 with one win against a team from the lower Football Championship Subdivision, regardless of whether that FCS school meets NCAA scholarship requirements; until now, an FCS win counted only if that opponent met the scholarship requirements—specifically, that school had to award at least 90% of the FCS maximum of 63 scholarship equivalents over a two-year period. In the 2012 season, programs in four FCS conferences cannot meet the 90% requirement —the Ivy League, which prohibits all athletic scholarships.

6-6 teams with two wins over FCS schools. Teams that finish 6-7 with loss number seven in their conference championship game. 6-7 teams that play a 13-team schedule, such as Hawaii's home opponents. Although Hawaii plays a 13-game schedule, it only played 12 games this season. FCS teams who are in the final year of the two-year FBS transition process, if they have at least a 6-6 record. 5-7 teams that have a top-5 Academic Progress Rate score. This was adjusted to allow other 5-7 teams to be selected thereafter—in order of their APR; this process was created as a number of schools were banned, self-banned or banned from the 2012 bowls, risking unfilled bowl games under the previous process: Ohio State, Penn State, North Carolina and UCF received bowl bans for this season, while there were unresolved NCAA cases examining Oregon and Miami. Note: Georgia Tech lost in the ACC Championship Game to go 6-7 on the season. Georgia Tech applied for a waiver, distinct from the bowl-eligibility contingency plan, stating that they were forced to play the ACC Championship Game because higher finishing Miami self-imposed a postseason ban in a bid to lessen possible NCAA sanctions resulting from their school's 2011 athletics scandal.

The NCAA granted Georgia Tech direct, non-contingent, eligibility for bowl play. Ten teams were selected for the Bowl Championship Series: Conference Champions Alabama qualified directly for the 2013 BCS National Championship Game as BCS #2. Alabama won the SEC Championship Game. Stanford qualified by winning the Pac-12 Championship Game and played in the 2013 Rose Bowl, which agreed to host the Pac-12 champion. Florida State qualified by winning the ACC Championship Game and played in the 2013 Orange Bowl, which agreed to host the ACC champion. Wisconsin qualified by winning the Big Ten Championship Game and played in the 2013 Rose Bowl, which agreed to host the Big Ten champion. Kansas State qualified by winning Big 12's spot in a tie-breaker over Oklahoma, having defeated them in the head-to-head matchup, played in the 2013 Fiesta Bowl, which hosts the Big 12 champion. Louisville qualified by winning the Big East Conference; the Big East champion rotated among bowls. At-Large Bids Notre Dame, an independent, qualified as BCS #1 and played in the 2013 BCS National Championship Game.

Florida, a member of the SEC, was selected to play in the 2013 Sugar Bowl. Oregon, a member of the Pac-12, was eligible for an at-large selection as BCS #4 and was selected to play in the 2013 Fiesta Bowl. Northern Illinois, the winner of the MAC championship game, qualified by being the highest-ranked member of a non-AQ conference to finish in the Top 16 of the BCS and higher ranked than at least one AQ-conference champion. NIU was selected to play in the 2013 Orange Bowl. ACC: Clemson, Florida State, Duke, NC State, Virginia Tech, Georgia Tech Big East: Louisville, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh Big Ten: Northwestern

Fallen Grace

Fallen Grace is a book by Mary Hooper set in Victorian London in 1861. It is a story about two sisters and Lily Parkes. Who, as a result of the death of their mother and the absence of their father, are orphans. Grace takes on the role of mother to her older sister with a cognitive disability, they live in impoverished conditions until they are taken in by a wealthy family with ulterior motives. This book has received positive reviews from Booklist, Kirkus Reviews, the New York Times; this book is appropriate for young adults. "Fallen Grace, by Mary Hooper". Booklist Online. 2011-02-15. Retrieved 2012-06-18. "Fallen Grace by Mary Hooper". Kirkus Book Reviews. 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2012-06-18. Foreman, Amanda. "The Hard-Knock Life". The New York Times. P. 24. "Review: Fallen Grace by Mary Hooper". Wondrous Reads: Young Adult & Children's Fiction: Reviews, Interviews. 2010-06-25. Archived from the original on 2012-06-26. Retrieved 2012-06-18

Gerald Robinson (basketball, born 1989)

Gerald Anthony Robinson Jr. is an American professional basketball player for Frutti Extra Bursaspor of the Turkish Super League. Standing at 1.85 m, he plays at shooting guard positions. After finishing collegiate career at Georgia in 2012, Robinson started his pro career in Belgium with Leuven Bears. In July 2013, Robinson joined the Memphis Grizzlies for the 2013 NBA Summer League in Las Vegas. In August 2013, he signed a one-year deal with Gilboa Galil of Israel. On August 25, 2014, he signed with Latvian powerhouse VEF Rīga. On July 1, 2015, he signed with French club JSF Nanterre. On March 30, 2017, Robinson moved to ALBA Berlin of the German Basketball Bundesliga. On July 6, 2017, Robinson signed with AS Monaco. On October 24, 2019, Robinson signed with Promitheas Patras. On January 24, 2020, he has signed with Frutti Extra Bursaspor of the Turkish Super League. VEF Rīga Profile Gerald Robinson Bio Profile at