Sequatchie County, Tennessee
Sequatchie County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,112, its county seat is Dunlap. Sequatchie County is part of the TN -- GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sequatchie County was created in 1857 from a portion of Hamilton County, it was named for the Sequatchie Valley. The word sequachee from ᏏᏆ ᎤᏤᏥᏍᏘ siqua utsedsdi in Cherokee means, "opossum" or "he grins." Settlers began arriving in what is now Sequatchie by the early 19th century, drawn to the area by the fertile land in the valley. At the outset of the Civil War, Sequatchie was divided over the issue of secession. On June 8, 1861, Sequatchie Countians voted in favor of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession by a vote 153 to 100. In October 1863, Confederate General Joseph Wheeler led a raid into Sequatchie, burning nearly a thousand wagons and capturing livestock. During the late 19th century, the Douglas Coal and Coke Company conducted extensive mining activities in the Dunlap area.
The company constructed 268 beehive ovens, now known as the Dunlap Coke Ovens, to convert coal into coke. The ovens are now the focus of a local park. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 266 square miles, of which 266 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Sequatchie is one of three counties situated in the Sequatchie Valley, a long, narrow valley running northeast-to-southwest across the eastern portion of the Cumberland Plateau; the county is flanked by the Plateau's Walden Ridge escarpment on the east. The Sequatchie River, which spans the valley, passes through the county. Two major highways, U. S. Route 127 and Tennessee State Route 111, intersect in Dunlap. While the two other counties in the Sequatchie Valley and Marion, are grouped with the East Tennessee grand division, Sequatchie is grouped with Middle Tennessee. Van Buren County Bledsoe County Hamilton County Marion County Grundy County Warren County North Chickamauga Creek State Natural Area Prentice Cooper State Forest Savage Gulf State Natural Area South Cumberland State Park As of the census of 2010, there were 14,112 people, 4,463 households, 3,311 families residing in the county.
The population density was 43 people per square mile. There were 4,916 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.66% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Sequatchie County was mentioned as an "Extreme Whitopia" in Rich Benjamin's book, Searching for Whitopia. There were 4,463 households out of which 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.80% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.80% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 30.00% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,959, the median income for a family was $36,435. Males had a median income of $27,535 versus $20,422 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,468. About 13.50% of families and 16.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.50% of those under age 18 and 20.30% of those age 65 or over. Sequatchie County has a consolidated school system, located in Dunlap; the system operates with an elected School Board. The Sequatchie County school system has three schools: Griffith Elementary School Sequatchie County Middle School Sequatchie County High School Sequatchie County is known as "The Hang Gliding Capital of the East", due in part to the presence of an active hang gliding association, the Tennessee Tree Toppers; this group maintains a hang gliding ramp at Henson's Gap, along the eastern wall of the Sequatchie Valley, where favorable flying conditions allow these unpowered aircraft to fly well into northwestern Georgia and northeastern Alabama after launch.
The gap is the site of numerous hang gliding competitions, is a popular tourist attraction for aficionodos of the sport from all over the world. Dunlap Lone Oak Brush Creek Cagle Lewis Chapel James Standifer, U. S. congressman William Stone, U. S. congressman National Register of Historic Places listings in Sequatchie County, Tennessee Official site Sequatchie County Chamber of Commerce Sequatchie County Schools Sequatchie County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Sequatchie County at Curlie
Warren County, Tennessee
Warren County is a county located in the central part of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,839, its county seat is McMinnville. Warren County comprises TN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Warren County was created in 1807 from a portion of White County, named for Joseph Warren, a soldier in the American Revolution; the revised Tennessee State Constitution of 1834 stated that no new county could be within 12 miles of the county seat of the county from which it was formed. The boundaries of five counties formed from Warren— Grundy, Van Buren, Coffee and DeKalb— were 12 miles from Warren's county seat, McMinnville, giving the county its distinctive round shape. Warren County citizens voted to secede from the Union before the American Civil War in February 1861 in a State referendum. However, Tennessee overall decided to remain in the Union in that time, but when Abraham Lincoln demanded that Tennessee provide troops to fight against the Southern state in April 1861, this was viewed as a violation of Article 3, Section 3 of the U.
S. Constitution. At a new referendum in June, 1861, Warren County, along with a majority of Tennessee's counties, voted for independence. Unlike some states, slavery was not mentioned as one of the reasons in Tennessee's secession proclamation. Men from Warren County and surrounding upper Cumberland region formed and served in many units in Tennessee's defense, including the 16th Tennessee Infantry led by McMinnville, TN resident Col. John Houston Savage; the Confederate monument next to the county courthouse is dedicated in the memory of the men who served and died in the 16th and lists their names. Men from Warren County and upper Cumberland area joined the 16th TN Infantry Regiment, among others; this is the flag of the 16th H Company. The flag now resides in the Texas'Civil War' Museum in Fort Worth TX. http://home.freeuk.com/gazkhan/tenn_battle-flags_h-company.htm. Warren County was the site of several saltpeter mines. Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from several local caves.
Hubbards Cave, near Camp Woodlee, was a major operation. Henshaw Cave on Cardwell Mountain and Solomon Saltpeter Cave on Ben Lomond Mountain were small mining operations. Most saltpeter mining occurred in the Civil War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 434 square miles, of which 433 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. The county lies long the Eastern Highland Rim, near the Cumberland Plateau; the Caney Fork forms part of the county's borders with DeKalb counties to the north. The Rocky River, a tributary of the Caney Fork, forms part of the county's western border with Van Buren County; the Collins River a tributary of the Caney Fork, flows through the county, the Barren Fork, a tributary of the Collins, flows through McMinnville. Cardwell Mountain is an imposing natural feature located five miles due east of McMinnville, it is an erosional remnant of the nearby Cumberland Plateau. Cardwell Mountain is noted for Cumberland Caverns, an exceptionally long cave which lies underneath the mountain.
DeKalb County White County Van Buren County Sequatchie County Grundy County Coffee County Cannon County U. S. Route 70S State Route 8 State Route 30 State Route 55 State Route 56 State Route 108 State Route 136 Hubbard's Cave State Natural Area Morrison Meadow State Natural Area Rock Island State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 38,276 people, 15,181 households, 10,824 families residing in the county; the population density was 88 people per square mile. There were 16,689 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.66% White, 3.16% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.56% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 4.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,181 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families.
25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,920, the median income for a family was $37,835. Males had a median income of $28,409 versus $20,863 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,759. About 13.00% of families and 16.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.40% of those under age 18 and 17.20% of those age 65 or over. Rock Island State Park is located on the northeastern border with White County; this park is the site of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Great Falls Dam, includes many hiking trails, offers whitewater rafting.
Cumberland Caverns, located east of McMinnville under Cardwell Mountain, is Tennessee's largest show cave. It is the second longest mapped cave in Tennessee with 27.6 miles of passages, displays some of the largest cave rooms in eastern North America. Cumberland Caverns is the 15th longest cave in the United States. H
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
White County, Tennessee
White County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,841, its county seat is Sparta. On September 11, 1806, an act of the Tennessee General Assembly created White County out of Smith and Jackson counties, responding to a petition signed by 155 residents of the area; the county's original geographic area included all of what are now White and Warren counties, as well as parts of modern Cannon, Coffee, DeKalb, Grundy and Van Buren counties. The origin of the county's name is disputed; the county is held to be named for John White, a Revolutionary War soldier and frontiersman, the first known white settler of the area. White had moved his family to the Cumberland Mountains from Virginia in 1789. However, some historians suggest the county was named for Revolutionary War soldier James White, the founder of Knoxville. A temporary county seat was established near Rock Island, now in Warren County. Three years a permanent county seat was established on the banks of the Calfkiller River and named Sparta.
In 1840, White County became a destination for people from all over the country when Christopher Haufmann erected a large hotel on Bon Air Mountain, part of the Cumberland Plateau. The hotel was near some mineral springs as well as being at a high altitude. White County was the site of a large saltpeter mining operation during the Civil War; the Cave Hill Saltpeter Pits, located on Cave Hill near the mouth of England Cove, were intensively mined. Relics remain from that operation. Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from these caves; the Civil War affected White County, although no major battles were fought in the area. As it was on the border between the pro-Union East Tennessee and pro-Confederate Middle Tennessee, the county was the scene of bloodshed from partisans of both sides. One famous Confederate guerrilla operating in the area was Champ Ferguson, who caused much mayhem and destruction before he was arrested after the war on May 28, 1865.
Ferguson was tried by a military court and executed by hanging, one of only two Confederates executed for war crimes. He is buried in France Cemetery near Sparta. Over the subsequent decades, White County rebuilt from the ashes of war; the county was connected to the outside world by railroad because of the booming coal mining industries being started on Bon Air Mountain. The mountain was rich in bituminous coal, enterprising local businessmen were quick to realize the profit potential that represented. Several mining towns sprang up on the plateau part of the county, including Bon Air and Ravenscroft. In 1981, a dispute between a local mining company and residents escalated and became a Tennesee Supreme Court case known as Doochin v. Rackley; the disagreement began. The court ruled in favor of the defendants because the Broad Form Deed did not recognize strip mining as a legal form of mining. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 379 square miles, of which 377 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water.
The eastern part of the county lies atop the Cumberland Plateau, while the western portion is situated on the Highland Rim, at a lower elevation. The Plateau Escarpment is visible from much of the western part of the county; the Caney Fork, the county's primary drainage, flows across the southern portion of the county, forms part the county's border with Van Buren, Warren and DeKalb. The river descends from the Cumberland Plateau to the Highland Rim through Scott's Gulf, a dramatic gorge noted for scenic waterfalls, most notably the 110-foot Virgin Falls; the section of the Caney Fork in southern White County is part of Great Falls Lake, an artificial reservoir created by Great Falls Dam at Rock Island State Park. Downstream from this dam, the river enters Center Hill Lake; the Calfkiller River, a tributary of the Caney Fork, flows through the central part of White County, drains the county seat, Sparta. The Falling Water River a tributary of the Caney Fork, flows through the northwestern part of the county, forms part of the county's border with Putnam County.
The Falling Water River is noted for its 136-foot waterfall, Burgess Falls, which straddles the Putnam-White line. White County boasts over 1,200 documented caves, which makes White County one of the most cave-dense regions in the world. Putnam County Cumberland County Bledsoe County Van Buren County Warren County DeKalb County Blue Spring Cave, located five miles northeast of Sparta, is the longest mapped cave in Tennessee and the tenth longest cave in the United States, with 38 miles of passages; the footprints of extinct Pleistocene jaguars were discovered in the cave in 1990 by Bill Walter. Bledsoe State Forest Bridgestone/Firestone Centennial Wilderness Wildlife Management Area Burgess Falls State Park and Natural Area Rock Island State Park Sparta Rock House State Historic Site Virgin Falls State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 23,102 people, 9,229 households, 6,774 families residing in the county; the population density was 61 people per square mile. There were 10,191 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.63% White, 1.64% Black or African American, 0.20% Native
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren was an American statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841. He was the first president born after the independence of the United States from the British Empire. A founder of the Democratic Party, he served as the ninth governor of New York, the tenth United States secretary of state, the eighth vice president of the United States, he won the 1836 presidential election with the endorsement of popular outgoing President Andrew Jackson and the organizational strength of the Democratic Party. He lost his 1840 reelection bid to Whig Party nominee William Henry Harrison, due in part to the poor economic conditions of the Panic of 1837. In his life, Van Buren emerged as an elder statesman and important anti-slavery leader, who led the Free Soil Party ticket in the 1848 presidential election. Van Buren was born in New York to a family of Dutch Americans, he was raised speaking Dutch and learned English at school, making him the only U. S. president who spoke English as a second language.
He trained as a lawyer and became involved in politics as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. He won election to the New York State Senate and became the leader of the Bucktails, the faction of Democratic-Republicans opposed to Governor DeWitt Clinton. Van Buren established a political machine known as the Albany Regency and in the 1820s emerged as the most influential politician in his home state, he was elected to the United States Senate in 1821 and supported William H. Crawford in the 1824 presidential election. John Quincy Adams won the 1824 election and Van Buren opposed his proposals for federally funded internal improvements and other measures. Van Buren's major political goal was to re-establish a two-party system with partisan differences based on ideology rather than personalities or sectional differences, he supported Jackson's candidacy against Adams in the 1828 presidential election with this goal in mind. To support Jackson's candidacy, Van Buren ran for Governor of New York and resigned a few months after assuming the position to accept appointment as U.
S. Secretary of State after Jackson took office in 1829. Van Buren was a key advisor during Jackson's eight years as President of the United States and he built the organizational structure for the coalescing Democratic Party in New York, he resigned from his position to help resolve the Petticoat affair briefly served as the U. S. ambassador to the United Kingdom. At Jackson's behest, the 1832 Democratic National Convention nominated Van Buren for Vice President of the United States, he took office after the Democratic ticket won the 1832 presidential election. With Jackson's strong support, Van Buren faced little opposition for the presidential nomination at the 1835 Democratic National Convention, he defeated several Whig opponents in the 1836 presidential election. Van Buren's response to the Panic of 1837 centered on his Independent Treasury system, a plan under which the Federal government of the United States would store its funds in vaults rather than in banks, he continued Jackson's policy of Indian removal.
In the 1840 election, the Whigs rallied around Harrison's military record and ridiculed Van Buren as "Martin Van Ruin", a surge of new voters helped turn him out of office. At the opening of the Democratic convention in 1844, Van Buren was the leading candidate for the party's nomination for the presidency. Southern Democrats, were angered by his continued opposition to the annexation of Texas, the party nominated James K. Polk. Van Buren grew opposed to slavery after he left office, he agreed to lead a third party ticket in the 1848 presidential election, motivated additionally by intra-party differences at the state and national level, he finished in a distant third nationally, but his presence in the race most helped Whig nominee Zachary Taylor defeat Democrat Lewis Cass. Van Buren returned to the Democratic fold after the 1848 election, but he supported Abraham Lincoln's policies during the American Civil War, his health began to fail in 1861 and he died in July 1862 at age 79. He has been ranked as an average or below-average U.
S. president by historians and political scientists. Van Buren was born on December 5, 1782, in the village of Kinderhook, New York, about 20 miles south of Albany on the Hudson River. By American law, he was the first U. S. president not born a British subject, nor of British ancestry. However, because he was born during the American Revolution and before the Peace of Paris, he was for the purposes of British law a British subject at birth, his birth name was Maarten Van Buren. His father, Abraham Van Buren, was a descendant of Cornelis Maessen of the village of Buurmalsen, who had come to North America in 1631 and purchased a plot of land on Manhattan Island. Abraham Van Buren had been a Patriot during the American Revolution, he joined the Democratic-Republican Party, he served as Kinderhook's town clerk for several years. In 1776, he married Maria Hoes "Goes" Van Alen of Dutch extraction and the widow of Johannes Van Alen, she had three children from her first marriage, including future U. S.
Representative James I. Van Alen, her second marriage produced five children, including Martin. Van Buren spoke English unlike any other president. Van Buren received a basic education at the village sc