1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Spencer is a town in Van Buren County, United States. The population was 1,601 as of the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Van Buren County. Spencer is named after Thomas Sharp Spencer, a long hunter who passed through the Van Buren County area in the mid-18th century; the town was established in 1850 and incorporated in 1909. Burritt College was located in Spencer from 1848 until its closure in 1939. In July 1946, James Monroe Smith, former president of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, accepted the position as head of academic studies at Burritt Preparatory School for Boys, a down-graded version of Burritt College. Spencer is located at 35°44′37″N 85°27′30″W; the town is situated at the western edge of the Cumberland Plateau, just above the Caney Fork valley. The river forms Van Buren's boundary with White County several miles north of Spencer. Spencer is topographically isolated by the Cumberland Plateau's escarpment to the north and west, the Cane Creek Valley to the east, the Dry Fork Gulf to the south.
Cane Creek, along with its tributary, Dry Fork, slices a narrow valley as it spills down northward toward its confluence with the Caney Fork dividing the Spencer area from the rest of the plateau. Cane Creek's upper watershed, known for its scenic waterfalls and geological formations, comprises the bulk of Fall Creek Falls State Park. Spencer is concentrated along State Route 30, which connects Spencer with Pikeville in the Sequatchie Valley to the east, McMinnville to the west. State Route 111, which traverses the eastern part of Spencer, connects the town with Sparta and Cookeville to the north, Dunlap in the Sequatchie Valley to the south. Spencer is 30 miles south of Cookeville and 25 miles west of Pikeville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 6.8 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,601 people residing in 632 households, with an average household size of 2.35. The racial makeup of the town was 97.2% White, 1.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 1.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. Within the 632 households, 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 32.1% had someone, 65 years of age or older. The town's population age spread was: 23.0% up to the age of 19, 10.4% from 20 to 29, 12.1% from 30 to 39, 11.7% from 40 to 49, 16.5% from 50 to 59, 14.7% from 60 to 99, 11.6% who were 70 years of age or older. The median age was 43.4 years. Women comprise 51.2% of the population. The median income for a household in the town was estimated at $19,033, while the per capita income was $13,555. 34.3% of the population was estimated to be below the poverty line. No data was available as to health insurance coverage. Media related to Spencer, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons Municipal Technical Advisory Service entry for Spencer — information on local government and link to charter
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, is therefore an alkali metal nitrate, it occurs in nature as niter. It is a source of nitrogen. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre. Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks, it is one of the major constituents of gunpowder. In processed meats, potassium nitrate generates a pink color. Potassium nitrate, because of its early and global use and production, has many names. Hebrew and Egyptian words for it had the consonants n-t-r, indicating cognation in the Greek nitron, Latinised to nitrum or nitrium. Thence Old French had Middle English nitre. By the 15th century, Europeans referred to it as saltpeter and as nitrate of potash, as the chemistry of the compound was more understood; the Arabs called it "Chinese snow". It was called "Chinese salt" by the Iranians/Persians or "salt from Chinese salt marshes".
Potassium nitrate has an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms to a trigonal system at 129 °C. Potassium nitrate is moderately soluble in water; the aqueous solution is neutral, exhibiting pH 6.2 at 14 °C for a 10% solution of commercial powder. It is not hygroscopic, absorbing about 0.03% water in 80% relative humidity over 50 days. It is not poisonous. Between 550–790 °C, potassium nitrate reaches a temperature dependent equilibrium with potassium nitrite: 2 KNO3 ⇌ 2 KNO2 + O2 The earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya. In this book, al-Rammah describes first the purification of barud by boiling it with minimal water and using only the hot solution the use of potassium carbonate to remove calcium and magnesium by precipitation of their carbonates from this solution, leaving a solution of purified potassium nitrate, which could be dried.
This was used for the manufacture of gunpowder and explosive devices. The terminology used by al-Rammah indicated a Chinese origin for the gunpowder weapons about which he wrote. At least as far back as 1845, Chilean saltpeter deposits were exploited in Chile and California, USA. A major natural source of potassium nitrate was the deposits crystallizing from cave walls and the accumulations of bat guano in caves. Extraction is accomplished by immersing the guano in water for a day and harvesting the crystals in the filtered water. Traditionally, guano was the source used in Laos for the manufacture of gunpowder for Bang Fai rockets; the most exhaustive discussion of the production of this material is the 1862 LeConte text. He was writing with the express purpose of increasing production in the Confederate States to support their needs during the American Civil War. Since he was calling for the assistance of rural farming communities, the descriptions and instructions are both simple and explicit.
He details the "French Method", along with several variations, as well as a "Swiss method". N. B. Many references have been made to a method using only straw and urine, but there is no such method in this work. Turgot and Lavoisier created the Régie des Poudres et Salpêtres few years before the French Revolution. Niter-beds were prepared by mixing manure with either mortar or wood ashes, common earth and organic materials such as straw to give porosity to a compost pile 4 feet high, 6 feet wide, 15 feet long; the heap was under a cover from the rain, kept moist with urine, turned to accelerate the decomposition finally leached with water after one year, to remove the soluble calcium nitrate, converted to potassium nitrate by filtering through potash. LeConte describes a process using only urine and not dung. Urine is collected directly, in a sandpit under a stable; the sand itself is dug out and leached for nitrates which were converted to potassium nitrate using potash, as above. From 1903 until the World War I era, potassium nitrate for black powder and fertilizer was produced on an industrial scale from nitric acid produced using the Birkeland–Eyde process, which used an electric arc to oxidize nitrogen from the air.
During World War I the newly industrialized Haber process was combined with the Ostwald process after 1915, allowing Germany to produce nitric acid for the war after being cut off from its supplies of mineral sodium nitrates from Chile. Potassium nitrate can be made by combining potassium hydroxide. NH4NO3 + KOH → NH3 + KNO3 + H2O An alternative way of producing potassium nitrate without a by-product of ammonia is to combine ammonium nitrate, found in instant ice packs, potassium chloride obtained as a sodium-free salt substitute. NH4NO3 + KCl → NH4Cl + KNO3 Potassium nitrate can be produced by neutralizing nitric acid with potassium hydroxide; this reaction is exothermic. KOH + HNO3 → KNO3 + H2O On industrial scale it is prepared by the double displacement reaction between sodium nitrate and pota
Caney Fork River
The Caney Fork River is a river that flows through central Tennessee in the United States, draining a substantial portion of the southwestern Cumberland Plateau and southeastern Highland Rim regions. It is a major tributary of the Cumberland River, is part of the Cumberland and Mississippi basins; the river is 143 miles long, its watershed covers 1,771 square miles in eleven counties. Monterey, Sparta, Smithville, McMinnville, Altamont and Gordonsville are among the towns that are at least drained by the river; the Caney Fork flows through two impoundments— Center Hill Lake and Great Falls Lake— both of which create sizeable artificial lakes. The river's basin is home to numerous protected lands and recreational areas, including five state wilderness areas, six interpretive areas, a wildlife management area. Two state parks— Edgar Evins State Park and Rock Island State Park— are located along the river, three others— Fall Creek Falls State Park, Burgess Falls State Park and South Cumberland State Park— are located within its basin.
The river is a popular stream for kayaking. The name "Caney Fork" comes from the dense cane breaks that grew along the river's banks when European explorers first arrived in the area; the river is a major drainage feature of the Cumberland Plateau and the largest tributary of the Cumberland River. Tributaries include: Caney Creek; the Caney Fork rises in Cumberland County about 6 miles west-northwest of Crossville before flowing southwest and crossing into White County. In southeastern White County it descends off the Cumberland Plateau through a deep and steep gorge known as Scott's Gulf in a remote area west of Scott Pinnacle, a locally-known mountain. Farther downstream, near the Dodson community, the stream becomes the border between White and Van Buren County, it receives the flow of several minor tributaries. Located at the confluence of the Caney Fork, the Collins River and the Rocky River, is Great Falls Lake; this reservoir is impounded by Great Falls Dam, a project of the former Tennessee Electric Power Company, now owned and operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority.
This is the only dam outside of the Tennessee River drainage system directly operated by TVA. This dam impounds a small but deep lake due to the depth of the gorges carved by the rivers it impounds; this area was something of a resort area in the early 20th century when such projects were uncommon in the southeastern United States, but other than a few cabins, there is little evidence of this today, as the area has been supplanted by larger, more modern developments. The dam is named for the Great Falls of the Caney Fork, caused by the descent of the stream off of the Highland Rim to the level of the Nashville Basin. Located on the lake is Rock Island State Park, developed on the site of former woolen mills in the 19th century predating the electrical development; this area was used for a considerable number of exterior shots and stunts in the Sylvester Stallone film, The Specialist. At the foot of Great Falls Dam the water is slack except during periods of high discharge due to the influence of the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers Center Hill Dam project in DeKalb County further downstream, developed in the late 1950s. Unlike the Great Falls Dam, this project flooded several small communities and thousands of acres of land devoted to agriculture, it is crossed by a scenic bridge on State Route 56. Along its shores is Edgar Evins State Park, named for the father of the area's former Representative, Joe L. Evins, former chairman of the House Appropriations Committee. Below Center Hill Dam, the stream crosses into Smith County and is bridged by Interstate 40 five times in under four miles; this downstream section is annually stocked with Rainbow and Brook trout by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, is considered to be one of the best trout rivers in the state. A final bridge, reconstructed in 2014, is on U. S. Route 70N near the Elmwood community; the river's mouth into the Cumberland River, considered to be a world class striper fishery, is directly opposite the Smith County seat of Carthage.
A farm belonging to former Vice President Al Gore and his late father, Senator Albert Gore Sr. is located along here. The bluegrass band Balsam Range has a song of the same name on their album "Last Train to Kitty Hawk". Canadian Folksinger, Old Man Luedecke has a song entitled "Caney Fork River" on his album "My Hands Are On Fire and Other Love Songs." Scott's Gulf Rock Island State Park Center Hill Lake List of rivers of Tennessee Caney Fork River Water Quality Management Plan Caney Fork Watershed Association
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf