Civic Center, San Francisco
It has two large plazas and a number of buildings in classical architectural style. The Bill Graham Civic Auditorium, the United Nations Charter was signed in the War Memorial Veterans Buildings Herbst Theatre in 1945 and it is where the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco was signed. The San Francisco Civic Center was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, the Civic Center is bounded by Market Street on the south, Franklin Street on the west, Turk Street on the north, and Leavenworth and Seventh streets on the east. The Civic Center was built in the early 20th century after a city hall was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. Although the noted architect and urban planner Daniel Burnham had provided the city plans for a neo-classical Civic Center shortly before the 1906 earthquake. A temporary city hall was put up on Market Street, but planning for a permanent structure. The current civic center was planned by a group of local architects, the current City Hall was completed in 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition.
The War Memorial Opera House and its twin, the War Memorial Veterans Building, the Main Library. During World War II, Army barracks and Victory gardens were constructed in the plaza in front of City Hall. The Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall and Harold L. Zellerbach Rehearsal Hall were added in 1980, the 1990s saw the construction of a new Main Library with the conversion of the old Main Library building into the Asian Art Museum, and the removal of all public benches. In 1998, the city officially renamed part of the plaza the Joseph L. Alioto Performing Arts Piazza after the former mayor. Its central location, vast open space, and the collection of government buildings have made and it has been the scene of massive anti-war protests and rallies since the Korean War. It was the scene of major moments of the Gay Rights Movement, activist Harvey Milk held rallies and gave speeches there. After his assassination on November 27,1978, a candlelight vigil was held there. Later, it was the scene of the White Night Riots in response to the lenient sentencing of Dan White, Civic Center was the center point of the Gay Marriage activism, as Mayor Gavin Newsom married couples there.
The centerpiece of the Civic Center is the City Hall, which heads the complex, the section of the street in front of the building was renamed for Dr. Carlton B. Goodlett, a local African American activist, across the street on McAllister Street is the headquarters of the Supreme Court of California. Across from that building is the Asian Art Museum, opened in 2004 in the building of the San Francisco Library which is now in a newer building constructed in 1995
Interstate 80 in California
Interstate 80 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, running between the U. S. states of California and New York. The highway has its terminus in San Francisco. From there it heads east across the Bay Bridge to Oakland, I-80 traverses the Sierra Nevada, cresting at Donner Summit, before crossing into the state of Nevada within the Truckee River Canyon. The speed limit is at most 65 miles per hour along the route instead of the states maximum of 70 mph. I-80 has portions designated as the Eastshore Freeway and Alan S. Hart Freeway, throughout California, I-80 was built along the corridor of U. S. Route 40, eventually replacing this designation entirely. The prior US40 corridor itself was built along several historic corridors in California, notably the California Trail, the route has changed from the original plans in San Francisco due to freeway revolts canceling segments of the originally planned alignment. Similarly in Sacramento, the freeway was re-routed around the city plans to upgrade the original grandfathered route through the city to Interstate highway standards were cancelled.
I-80 is recognized as the Dwight D. Eisenhower Highway in the western United States, in California, it follows the original corridor of the Lincoln Highway from Sacramento to Reno. According to the California State Highway system, I-80 begins at its intersection with U. S. Route 101 in San Francisco, the Interstate designation is interpreted by some to actually beginning on the Bay Bridge approach itself, at the location of the Fremont Street off-ramp. Thus, the first 1.20 miles of the signed Interstate may not be officially an actual Interstate, the Eastshore Freeway is a segment of Interstates 80 and 580 along the northeast shoreline of San Francisco Bay in northern California. It begins at the Carquinez Bridge and ends at the MacArthur Maze interchange just east of the end of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Interstate 580 joins the Eastshore Freeway at an interchange known locally as the Hoffman Split in Albany. S, the Eastshore Highway began in El Cerrito at an intersection with San Pablo Avenue at Hill Street between Potrero Avenue and Cutting Blvd.
Adjacent to the location today of the El Cerrito Del Norte station of BART and it was not a freeway in that access was at intersections with adjoining streets rather than by ramps. The Eastshore Highway ran from El Cerrito to the Bay Bridge along the routing as todays freeway. A causeway was constructed for this purpose by filling in part of the mudflats along the bayshore, the frontage road along the east side of todays Eastshore Freeway between Buchanan Street in Albany and Hearst Avenue in Berkeley retains the name Eastshore Highway. The terminal segment of the old Eastshore Highway in El Cerrito between Potrero and San Pablo Avenues is today named Eastshore Boulevard, the name Eastshore Freeway was applied to what is today known as the Nimitz Freeway upon its construction in 1947. This freeway was dedicated in 1958 to Admiral Nimitz, and so for a few years in the 1950s prior, until the late 1960s, the Eastshore Freeway was designated as part of State Route 17 together with the Nimitz Freeway.
The Eastshore Freeway was officially renamed the Kent D. Pursel Memorial Freeway in 1968, but this name is hardly recognized as such by the public, and most maps still show the name Eastshore Freeway
Geary Boulevard is a major east-west 5. Geary Boulevard terminates near Sutro Heights Park at 48th Avenue, close to the Cliff House above Ocean Beach at the Pacific Ocean, at 40th Avenue, Geary intersects with Point Lobos Avenue, which takes through traffic to the Cliff House, Ocean Beach and the Great Highway. It is a commercial artery through the Richmond District, it is lined with stores and restaurants. The boulevard borders Japantown between Fillmore and Laguna Streets, the roadway was originally called Point Lobos Avenue, a name which survives as a branch and extension of the current street. The modern name pays tribute to John W. Geary, the first mayor of San Francisco after California became a U. S. state, Geary Boulevard has the highest address and block numbers in San Francisco, with the last block being the 8300 block. In addition, although it is unsigned and contains no habitable structures, the right-of-way began as a dirt carriage track to the Cliff House and Ocean Beach, two popular local attractions.
For a time, a flat track paralleled the road where horsemen raced their mounts on Sundays, cable cars were operated on the street from 1880 to 1912 by the Geary Street and Ocean Railway. They initially ran from Market Street to Central, connecting to an extension running steam powered cars along Geary to 1st Avenue, in 1892, the cable car line was extended to 5th Avenue, where it turned south to reach Golden Gate Park directly. Despite its name, the Geary Street Park & Ocean Railway never actually reached the ocean, the B Geary line eventually reached Playland and Ocean Beach after turning south at 33rd Avenue and west on Balboa Avenue. This made the length of Geary from Market Street to 48th served by streetcars. If and when a streetcar line is built along Geary. The section of the boulevard between Franklin Street and Masonic Avenue was upgraded to an expressway in 1961. It features between four and eight lanes and two grade separations at Masonic and Fillmore, complete with frontage lanes.
Geary Boulevard lends its name to the open source email client Geary. There have been feasibility studies by Muni that have investigated the possibility of creating a rail line on Geary. A bus rapid transit line is being planned on Geary Boulevard between Van Ness and 33rd Avenue, with a target completion date is 2019-2020. The McLoughlin Gallery, an art gallery at 49 Geary Street Media related to Geary Boulevard
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
California Department of Transportation
The California Department of Transportation is an executive department within the U. S. state of California. Caltrans manages the highway system and is actively involved with public transportation systems throughout the state. It supports Amtrak California and the Capitol Corridor, the department is part of the state cabinet-level California State Transportation Agency. Like the majority of government agencies, Caltrans is headquartered in Sacramento. In 2015, Caltrans released a new statement, Provide a safe, sustainable and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy. The earliest predecessor of Caltrans was the Bureau of Highways, which was created by the California Legislature and this agency consisted of three commissioners who were charged with analyzing the state road system and making recommendations. At the time, there was no highway system, since roads were purely a local responsibility. After the commissioners submitted their report to the governor on November 25,1896, voters approved an $18 million bond issue for the construction of a state highway system in 1910, and the first Highway Commission was convened in 1911.
On August 7,1912, the department broke ground on its first construction project, the year 1912 saw the founding of the Transportation Laboratory and the creation of seven administrative divisions. In 1913, the legislature started requiring vehicle registration and allocated the funds to support regular highway maintenance. In 1921, the legislature turned the Department of Engineering into the Department of Public Works, the history of Caltrans and its predecessor agencies during the 20th century was marked by many firsts. In late 1972, the legislature approved a reorganization in which the Department of Public Works was merged with the Department of Aeronautics to become the modern Department of Transportation, for administrative purposes, Caltrans divides the State of California into 12 districts, supervised by district offices. Most districts cover multiple counties, District 12 is the district with one county. The largest districts by population are District 4 and District 7, like most state agencies, Caltrans maintains its headquarters in Sacramento, which is covered by District 3.
Official California Department of Transportation website Named Highways, Freeways and Other Appurtenances in California
Mission District, San Francisco
This mission, San Franciscos oldest standing building, is located in the northwest area of the neighborhood. The Mission District is located in east-central San Francisco and it is bordered to the east by U. S. Route 101, which forms the boundary between the eastern portion of the district, known as Inner Mission, and its eastern neighbor, Potrero Hill. Sanchez Street separates the neighborhood from Eureka Valley to the north west, the part of the neighborhood from Valencia Street to Sanchez Street, north of 20th Street, is known as the Mission Dolores neighborhood. South of 20th Street towards 22nd Street, and between Valencia and Dolores Streets is a neighborhood known as Liberty Hill. Cesar Chavez Street is the border, across Cesar Chavez Street is the Bernal Heights neighborhood. North of the Mission District is the South of Market neighborhood, bordered roughly by Duboce Avenue, the principal thoroughfare of the Mission District is Mission Street. South of the Mission District, along Mission Street, are the Excelsior and Crocker-Amazon neighborhoods, the Mission District is part of San Franciscos supervisorial districts 6,9 and 10.
The Mission is often warmer and sunnier than other parts of San Francisco, the Missions geographical location insulates it from the fog and wind from the west. The Mission includes four recognized sub-districts, the northeastern quadrant, adjacent to Potrero Hill is known as a center for high tech startup businesses including some chic bars and restaurants. The northwest quadrant along Dolores Street is famous for Victorian mansions, prior to the arrival of Spanish missionaries, the area which now includes the Mission District was inhabited by the Ohlone people who populated much of the San Francisco bay area. The Yelamu Indians inhabited the region for over 2,000 years, Spanish missionaries arrived in the area during the late 18th century. They found these people living in two villages on Mission Creek and it was here that a Spanish priest named Father Francisco Palóu founded Mission San Francisco de Asis on June 29,1776. The Mission was moved from the shore of Laguna Dolores to its current location in 1783, franciscan friars are reported to have used Ohlone slave labor to complete the Mission in 1791.
This period marked the beginning of the end of the Yelamu culture, the Indian population at Mission Dolores dropped from 400 to 50 between 1833 and 1841. The lands around the abandoned mission church became a focal point of raffish attractions including bull and bear fighting, horse racing, baseball. A famous beer parlor resort known as The Willows was located along Mission Creek just south of 18th Street between Mission Street and San Carlos Street. From 1865 to 1891, a conservatory and zoo known as Woodwards Gardens covered two city blocks bounded by Mission Street, Valencia Street, 13th Street, and 15th Street. During Californias early statehood period, in the 19th and 20th century, large numbers of Irish and settlement intensified after the 1906 earthquake, as many displaced businesses and residents moved into the area, making Mission Street a major commercial thoroughfare
A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather. Stirrups are usually paired and are used to aid in mounting and they greatly increase the riders ability to stay in the saddle and control the mount, increasing the animals usefulness to humans in areas such as communication and warfare. In antiquity, the earliest foot supports consisted of placing their feet under a girth or using a simple toe loop. Later, a single stirrup was used as a mounting aid, the stirrup was invented in China in the first few centuries C. E. and spread westward through the nomadic peoples of Central Eurasia. The use of paired stirrups is credited to the Chinese Jin Dynasty, some argue that the stirrup was one of the basic tools used to create and spread modern civilization, possibly as important as the wheel or printing press. Stirrups are safer to use when riding boots are worn, and proper sizing, the English word stirrup stems from Old English stirap, Middle English stirop, styrope, i. e. a mounting or climbing-rope.
From Old English stīgan to ascend, the stirrup, which gives greater stability to a rider, has been described as one of the most significant inventions in the history of warfare, prior to gunpowder. As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare, the stirrup is often called the third step in equipment, after the chariot. The basic tactics of mounted warfare were significantly altered by the stirrup, a rider supported by stirrups was less likely to fall off while fighting, and could deliver a blow with a weapon that more fully employed the weight and momentum of horse and rider. Among other advantages, stirrups provided greater balance and support to the rider, contrary to common modern belief, however, it has been asserted that stirrups actually did not enable the horseman to use a lance more effectively, though the cantled saddle did. The earliest manifestation of the stirrup was a toe loop that held the big toe and was used in India late in the second century B. C. E, though may have appeared as early as 500 B. C. E.
This ancient foot support consisted of a rope for the big toe which was at the bottom of a saddle made of fibre or leather. Such a configuration was suitable for the climate of south. Buddhist carvings in the temples of Sanchi and the Bhaja caves dating back between the 1st and 2nd century B. C. E, figure horsemen riding with elaborate saddles with feet slipped under girths. In this regard archaeologist John Marshall described the Sanchi relief as the earliest example by some five centuries of the use of stirrups in any part of the world, later, a single stirrup was used as a mounting aid by a nomadic group known as the Sarmatians. The invention of the saddle tree allowed development of the true stirrup as it is known today. Without a solid tree, the weight in the stirrups creates abnormal pressure points. Modern thermography studies on treeless and flexible-tree saddle designs have found there is considerable friction across the center line of a horses back
South of Market, San Francisco
SoMa is home to many of the citys museums, to the headquarters of several major software and Internet companies, and to the Moscone Conference Center. The areas boundaries are Market Street to the northwest, San Francisco Bay to the northeast, Mission Creek to the southeast and it is the part of the city in which the street grid runs parallel and perpendicular to Market Street. As with many neighborhoods, the boundaries of the South of Market area are fuzzy. From 1848 until the construction of the Central Freeway in the 1950s, since the 1950s, the boundary has been either 10th Street, 11th Street, or the Central Freeway. Similarly, the entire Mission Bay neighborhood may or may not be counted as part of SoMa, redevelopment agencies, social service agencies, and community activists frequently exclude the more prosperous areas between the waterfront and 3rd Street. Some social service agencies and nonprofits count the economically distressed area around 6th, 7th, the terms South of Market and SoMa refer to both a comparatively large district of the city as well as a much smaller neighborhood.
Before being called South of Market this area was called South of the Slot, while the cable cars have long since disappeared from Market Street, some old timers still refer to this area as South of the Slot. Since 1847, the name of the South of Market area has been the 100 Vara Survey or simply 100 Vara for short. Since the mid-20th century, the name has been gradually forgotten, and today is found mainly in history books, legal documents, title deeds. At the time, the streets of San Francisco were aligned approximately with the points, running north to south. Each block was divided into six lots 50 varas on a side. e, northeast to southwest, and northwest to southeast. He decided to make the new blocks twice as long and twice as wide, finally, OFarrell created a grand promenade linking the old pueblo with the new subdivision, Market Street. Since then, downtown San Francisco north of Lower Market Street has been known as 50 Vara. Rincon Hill became an enclave for the wealthy, while nearby South Park became an enclave for the middle class.
The neighborhood became a largely working-class and lower-middle-class community of recent European immigrants, power stations, the 1906 earthquake completely destroyed the area, and many of the quakes fatalities occurred there. Following the quake, the area was rebuilt with wider than usual streets, the construction of the Bay Bridge and U. S. Route 101 during the 1930s saw large swaths of the area demolished, including most of the original Rincon Hill. The waterfront redevelopment of the Embarcadero in the 1950s pushed a new population into this area in the 1960s, the incipient gay community, and the leather community in particular. From 1962 until 1982, the gay community grew and thrived throughout South of Market, most visibly along Folsom Street
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. In simple terms, it may be thought of as the value of a data set. For example, in the set, the median is 6. The median is a commonly used measure of the properties of a set in statistics. The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small values, and so it may give a better idea of a typical value. For example, in understanding statistics like household income or assets which vary greatly, Median income, for example, may be a better way to suggest what a typical income is. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the numbers from smallest to greatest, if there is an odd number of numbers, the middle one is picked. For example, consider the set of numbers,1,3,3,6,7,8,9 This set contains seven numbers, the median is the fourth of them, which is 6. If there are a number of observations, there is no single middle value.
For example, in the set,1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9 The median is the mean of the middle two numbers, this is ÷2, which is 4.5. The formula used to find the number of a data set of n numbers is ÷2. This either gives the number or the halfway point between the two middle values. For example, with 14 values, the formula will give 7.5, and you will be able to find the median using the Stem-and-Leaf Plot. There is no accepted standard notation for the median. In any of these cases, the use of these or other symbols for the needs to be explicitly defined when they are introduced. The median is used primarily for skewed distributions, which it summarizes differently from the arithmetic mean, the median is 2 in this case, and it might be seen as a better indication of central tendency than the arithmetic mean of 4. The widely cited empirical relationship between the locations of the mean and the median for skewed distributions is, however. There are, various relationships for the difference between them, see below
Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, one-point-seven-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, and it has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed and it opened in 1937 and was, until 1964, the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacifics automobile ferries became very profitable, the trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes.
Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County, San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. San Franciscos City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, which would have been $2.12 billion in 2009 and he asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strausss initial drawings were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy, Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California.
The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources, the Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. The navy feared that a collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs, in May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Another ally was the automobile industry, which supported the development of roads. The bridges name was first used when the project was discussed in 1917 by M. M