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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals force, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is a distance-dependent interaction between atoms or molecules. Unlike ionic or covalent bonds, these attractions do not result from a chemical electronic bond; the van der Waals force vanishes at longer distances between interacting molecules. Van der Waals force plays a fundamental role in fields as diverse as supramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, surface science, condensed matter physics, it underlies many properties of organic compounds and molecular solids, including their solubility in polar and non-polar media. If no other force is present, the distance between atoms at which the force becomes repulsive rather than attractive as the atoms approach one another is called the van der Waals contact distance; the van der Waals force has the same origin as the Casimir effect, arising from quantum interactions with the zero-point field. The term van der; the term always includes the London dispersion force between instantaneously induced dipoles.

It is sometimes applied to the Debye force between a permanent dipole and a corresponding induced dipole or to the Keesom force between permanent molecular dipoles. Van der Waals forces include attraction and repulsions between atoms and surfaces, as well as other intermolecular forces, they differ from covalent and ionic bonding in that they are caused by correlations in the fluctuating polarizations of nearby particles. Being the weakest of the weak chemical forces, with a strength between 0.4 and 4kJ/mol, they may still support an integral structural load when multitudes of such interactions are present. The force results from a transient shift in electron density; the electron density may temporarily shift more to one side of the nucleus. This generates a transient charge to which a nearby atom can be either repelled; when the interatomic distance of two atoms is greater than 0.6 nm the force is not strong enough to be observed. In the same vein, when the interatomic distance is below 0.4 nm the force becomes repulsive.

Intermolecular forces have four major contributions: A repulsive component resulting from the Pauli exclusion principle that prevents the collapse of molecules. Attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions between permanent charges, quadrupoles, in general between permanent multipoles; the electrostatic interaction is sometimes called the Keesom interaction or Keesom force after Willem Hendrik Keesom. Induction, the attractive interaction between a permanent multipole on one molecule with an induced multipole on another; this interaction is sometimes called Debye force after Peter J. W. Debye. Dispersion, the attractive interaction between any pair of molecules, including non-polar atoms, arising from the interactions of instantaneous multipoles. Returning to nomenclature, different texts refer to different things using the term "van der Waals force"; some texts describe the van der Waals force as the totality of forces. All intermolecular/van der Waals forces are anisotropic, which means that they depend on the relative orientation of the molecules.

The induction and dispersion interactions are always attractive, irrespective of orientation, but the electrostatic interaction changes sign upon rotation of the molecules. That is, the electrostatic force can be attractive or repulsive, depending on the mutual orientation of the molecules; when molecules are in thermal motion, as they are in the gas and liquid phase, the electrostatic force is averaged out to a large extent, because the molecules thermally rotate and thus probe both repulsive and attractive parts of the electrostatic force. Sometimes this effect is expressed by the statement that "random thermal motion around room temperature can overcome or disrupt them"; the thermal averaging effect is much less pronounced for the attractive induction and dispersion forces. The Lennard-Jones potential is used as an approximate model for the isotropic part of a total van der Waals force as a function of distance. Van der Waals forces are responsible for certain cases of pressure broadening of spectral lines and the formation of van der Waals molecules.

The London-van der Waals forces are related to the Casimir effect for dielectric media, the former being the microscopic description of the latter bulk property. The first detailed calculations of this were done in 1955 by E. M. Lifshitz. A more general theory of van der Waals forces has been developed; the main characteristics of van der Waals forces are: They are weaker than normal covalent and ionic bonds. Van der Waals forces can not be saturated, they have no directional characteristic. They are all short-range forces and hence only interactions between the nearest particles need to be considered. Van der Waals attraction is greater. Van der Waals forces are independent of te

Jerry Sabloff

Jeremy "Jerry" Arac Sabloff is an American anthropologist and past president of the Santa Fe Institute. Sabloff is an expert on pre-industrial urbanism, his academic interests have included settlement pattern studies, archaeological theory and method, the history of archaeology, the relevance of archaeology in the modern world, complexity theory, trans-disciplinary science. Sabloff received his Bachelor's degree from the University of Pennsylvania and his PhD in 1969 from Harvard, where his doctoral supervisor was archaeologist Gordon Willey, he was the Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, as well as the Williams Director of the University of Pennsylvania Museum and interim director of the museum, he has taught at Harvard University, the University of Utah, the University of New Mexico, the University of Pittsburgh. He retired as Santa Fe Institute president on July 31, 2015. Sabloff is an outspoken proponent of science communication.

In 2010 he delivered the distinguished lecture at the American Anthropological Association's annual meeting, encouraging anthropologists to make their work accessible to their relevant publics and cultivate a new generation of scientist-communicators. Sabloff is past president of the Society for American Archaeology, a past anthropology section chair of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, past editor of American Antiquity, he has served as chair of the Smithsonian Science Commission and chairs the visiting committee for the Peabody Museum at Harvard University. He is a member of the National Advisory Board of the National Museum of Natural History, the Board of Trustees of the SRI Foundation, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he is a fellow of both the Society of Antiquaries and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is the author of Excavations at Seibal: Ceramics, The Cities of Ancient Mexico, The New Archaeology and the Ancient Maya, Archaeology Matters.

He is co-author of A History of American Archaeology, A Reconnaissance of Cancuen, Guatemala, Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica, Cozumel: Late Maya Settlement Patterns, The Ancient Maya City of Sayil. He has edited or co-edited 12 books, the most recent of, The Ancient City. Sabloff resides in New Mexico, he is married to anthropologist Paula Sabloff. National Academy of Science interview with Jeremy Sabloff American Anthropological Association 2010 Distinguished Lecture Archaeology Matters

Cerball mac DĂșnlainge

Cerball mac Dúnlainge was king of Ossory in south-east Ireland. The kingdom of Ossory occupied the area of modern County Kilkenny and western County Laois and lay between the larger provincial kingdoms of Munster and Leinster. Cerball came to prominence after the death of Fedelmid mac Crimthainn, King of Munster, in 847. Ossory had been subject for a period to the Eóganachta kings of Munster, but Feidlimid was succeeded by a series of weak kings who had to contend with Viking incursions on the coasts of Munster; as a result, Cerball was in a strong position and is said to have been the second most powerful king in Ireland in his years. Upon his death, he was succeeded by his brother Riagan mac Dúnlainge. Kjarvalr Írakonungr, a figure in the Norse sagas who appears as an ancestor of many prominent Icelandic families, is identified with Cerball. A large body of contemporary and near-contemporary material on early medieval Ireland has survived. From the titles of works mentioned in these sources, it is clear that a great deal of additional material has now been lost.

The surviving materials exist in the form of much copies, it is only from comparison of the various texts that the original documents can be reconstructed. The Irish annals which document the ninth century are derived from the now-lost Chronicle of Ireland, being compiled in the midlands of Ireland. All annals include material derived from other sources, or added at a date. None are complete, although the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Inisfallen cover Cerball's lifetime; the Annals of Clonmacnoise survive only in an eccentric 17th-century English translation, the Annals of Tigernach for this period are lost, although Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh's abbreviated copy known as the Chronicon Scotorum supplies much of the missing material. The Annals of the Four Masters are late, include some material of doubtful origin. While the annals provide a considerable amount of information, they are terse, most focus their attention on the doings of the Uí Néill, sometimes to the extent of omitting inconvenient events.

A source which concentrates on Cerball's career is the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, so called because only fragments remain of a longer work, these again copied by Mac Fhirbhisigh in the 17th century from a 15th-century manuscript. The fragment which deals with Cerball's lifetime ends in the early 870s, so that the last fifteen years of his life are missing. Joan Radner and translator of the modern edition of the Fragmentary Annals, argues that these were compiled at the court of Cerball's great-great-grandson Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic. Although called annals, these are closer to narrative history and are derived from a number of sources; the basic framework is from the Chronicle of Ireland, but to this has been added a variety of material whose source is unknown including early sagas, which concerns Cerball. The Fragmentary Annals were intended to magnify Cerball's achievements, to present his dealings with Vikings and Norse–Gaels in a favourable light. If the various annals are partisan, the remaining sources which concern Cerball are notably unreliable.

Inspired by the Fragmentary Annals, which offer some positive views of Vikings and may have been popular in the Norse-Gael Dublin of the 11th century, many Icelandic genealogies include Cerball—Kjarvalr Írakonungr—as an ancestor. Lastly, The Prophecy of Berchán, an 11th-century verse history of kings in Ireland and Scotland presented as a prophecy, may include Cerball. A large number of genealogies exist, along with geographical and legal texts. Of these last, the Frithfolad Muman, a document purporting to set out the obligations of the Kings of Munster to their allies and subjects is of interest as it sheds light on the position of Osraige within the provincial kingship of Munster. A memory of the kingdom of Osraige survives today in the name and boundaries of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ossory; the earliest recorded seat of the bishops was at Saighir moved to Aghaboe, this appears to have been the principal church of the kingdom by the eighth century when the life of Saint Cainnech of Aghaboe was composed.

The name Osraige—the Deer people—is among the oldest group of Irish tribal names. Although genealogists in the Early Christian period explained such names by recourse to eponymous ancestors, the names are those of totemic animals or tribal deities. Osraige was only one túath among 150 in Ireland; the average túath was small 500 square kilometres in area with a population of some three to four thousand. Osraige was atypical, much larger than this, covering 2000 square kilometres astride the River Barrow in the modern counties of Kilkenny and Offaly. In principle, each tuath had its own king and court and bishop, but political power rested with the provincial over-kings. At the time of Cerball's birth Osraige lay within the province and kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta from the royal centre of Cashel. Osraige lay at the extreme eastern edge of Munster bordering the neighbouring province of Leinster. For a period in the seventh century, most of southern Osraige was ruled by the Corcu Loígde, rulers of Munster before the coming of the Eóganachta.

The Frithfolad Muman text states that the Osraige had once been kings of Munster and makes it clear that they were a privileged and powerful group, but no longer a major force, "the respectable has-beens of Munster politics". The period of Cerball's life covered much of the first Viking Age, he is notably mentioned in Nordic sources; the Icelandic Landnámabók describes Cearbhall as ruler of Dublin a

Mission Accomplished (The Wire)

"Mission Accomplished" is the 12th and final episode of the third season of the HBO original series, The Wire. The episode was written by David Simon from a story by David Simon & Ed Burns and was directed by Ernest Dickerson, it aired on December 19, 2004. Carcetti wonders whether Hamsterdam is a step in the right direction, but D'Agostino encourages him to use the issue in the mayoral campaign. Carcetti believes that Mayor Royce is holding off on shutting down Hamsterdam so that he can first concoct a story claiming that it was part of an enforcement strategy. Royce meets with Demper and public health academics, still considering keeping Hamsterdam open under a banner other than drug legalization. Parker is disgusted. Meanwhile and Foerster question Bunk about his investigation of Bell's murder. At the crime scene, McNulty and Greggs are despondent that Bell was killed before they could arrest him. McNulty admits to Bunk, they execute a search warrant on Bell's address. McNulty sees that Stringer's book collection includes scholarly works including The Wealth of Nations, realizing how little he knew about his suspect.

Elsewhere, Avon mourns Bell's death while his men, assuming Marlo is behind the killing, are spoiling for retaliation. Avon tells Slim Charles that Stringer died for reasons beyond his control and that Marlo is not responsible. Avon admits he has lost interest in battling Marlo, but Charles tells him they must finish the gang war they started regardless. At the Major Case Unit and Freamon learn from the wiretaps that Marlo is being blamed for Bell's death, anticipate an escalation in the violence. Colvin, put on permanent leave, gives McNulty the location of Avon's safe house that Bell divulged before his murder. At the bar, Bunk speculates that Omar was involved in the murder due to shotgun shells found at the scene. Freamon meets with Prez, anxious on how the review board will rule over his accidental shooting and now feels he is not meant to be a cop; when Daniels shows reluctance to move on the safe house on the basis of an anonymous tip, McNulty becomes impatient and reveals that Bell was the informant.

Daniels orders the MCU to monitor the wiretaps and prepare a warrant for the safe house. On the wiretap, the MCU learns that Charles has tracked Marlo to Vinson's rim shop, ordering his soldiers to prepare to strike; this prompts the unit to move against the safe house. Herc and the Western's Drug Enforcement Unit assist in the bust, which leads to the arrests of Avon and his crew. Avon defiantly tells McNulty that he will be able to get out of jail, only for McNulty to reveal that Bell had betrayed him. Meanwhile, Brother Mouzone releases Dante. On the street and his crew take credit for Bell's murder, they eat dinner at the rim shop, unaware. Facing a media onslaught, Rawls and Reed become concerned that Royce will make them scapegoats. Carcetti and Gray give interviews about Hamsterdam, with Gray announcing his run against the mayor. In his office, Royce sees news footage of Hamsterdam and realizes it was a political mistake to sustain the zones; when Burrell is told he will be relieved over Hamsterdam, he threatens to tell the press that the zones were operated under pressure from Royce to keep crime down.

Burrell demands a full term as commissioner in exchange for pinning the blame on Colvin. Afterwards, he gives Rawls the go-ahead to forcibly empty Hamsterdam; that night, after the area has been cleared of dealers and addicts, an officer finds Johnny dead from an overdose in a vacant building. Cutty tells Grace about his community boxing gym, she says she is proud of him. Cutty finds that many of his young boxers have stopped going to the gym because there is work for them selling drugs for Marlo. Cutty tracks down Justin, selling drugs on a corner. After Fruit arrives and shares an awkward silence with Cutty, Justin promises to be at the gym. Meanwhile and Rawls put Colvin through humiliating treatment before relieving him of duty at a ComStat meeting. Royce manages to persuade the Deputy Drug Czar from allowing the government to cut federal funding for Baltimore over Hamsterdam. Royce meets with Watkins. However, due to Burrell's threats, Royce refuses to let him go and tries to appease Watkins by offering support for Marla Daniels' run for a city council seat, knowing that Watkins is mentoring her.

Carcetti plans his next move with D'Agostino so as to present Burrell with difficult questions at a subcommittee hearing. There, Carcetti lets. Burrell places the blame with Colvin, but Carcetti refuses to accept his excuses and makes a speech about his inability to forgive the way that West Baltimore has been neglected. After Carcetti's speech, Watkins is congratulatory, but Gray realizes that Carcetti is planning to run for mayor and feels betrayed. Daniels reports the success of his case to Burrell, who refers to him as "Major Daniels." Surprised at the belated promotion, Daniels is told by Burrell that his promotion has been approved due to the mayor's alliance with his wife Marla, that with the Western District vacancy, he will be named District Commander immediately. Daniels celebrates the promotion with a public meal with Pearlman. Daniels tells Pearlman that now that Marla has obtained the mayor's support, she no longer needs her husband, they have sex and laugh together about their good fortune.

McNulty visits the Western District and talks to Colvin. Colvin jok

Antoine Bonfanti

Antoine Bonfanti was a French sound-engineer, chief-operator and sound-mixer, professor at cinema schools, cinema-institutes in France and in foreign countries. Born 26 October 1923 in Ajaccio, died 4 March 2006 in Montpellier, he began learning his profession as a trainee boom-operator on the film La Belle et la Bête by Jean Cocteau. He is considered as being one of the pioneers of direct-sound in film-making on location: “the school of direct-sound is French - said the sound-engineer Jean-Pierre Ruh- it began with Antoine Bonfanti”, he is characterised by his collaborations with directors as Bernardo Bertolucci, André Delvaux, Amos Gitaï, Jean Luc Godard, Joris Ivens, William Klein, Chris Marker, Gérard Oury, Alain Resnais, René Vautier, Paul Vecchiali.. His primary occupation is the authenticity of sound: above all he likes building the whole universe of sound of one film, through every stage from filming to sound-mixing. In this pattern, he had 120 films. Otherwise, his filmography includes about 420 titles of long and short Films of fiction or documentary.

Member of the Résistance and, volunteer soldier in the war-years 1943-1945. He shared his sound-artist's talent and he has trained several generations of sound-engineers in many countries, where to make of the cinema is a matter of fight; the film "Antoine Bonfanti - Traces sonores d’une écoute engagée" by Suzanne Durand, reconstitutes a professional path of more than 50 years which demonstrate a commitment going far-beyond the simple trade and his collaboration with a lot of film-makers. He recounts it himself interviewed by Noël Simsolo in a transmission on France-Culture, called "Mémoire du siècle, Antoine Bonfanti" on 20 August 1997, broadcast during "Les Nuits de France-Culture" at midnight of 25 January 2016. Antoine, nicknamed "Nono" by his Corsican family, "Toni" by his war comrades, "Bonbon" within the world of cinema, was born in Ajaccio in 1923; the family leaves again for Africa in 1926, having spent some years in Conakry in "République de Guinée". His father is "receveur principal des postes" in Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina-Faso.

Antoine spends some of his youth there but, when his eldest brother must go to high-school, the family returns to Corsica, before his father be appointed "percepteur" at Saint-Rambert d’Alban, after at Touquet-Paris-Plage. As a child, he discovers the paroquial-cine in Corsica. At Touquet, the family goes to the cinema pretty often, he remembers fondly the showing of the film "Les marins de Kronstadt" d’Efim Dzigan, organised by his father to mark the death of Roger Salengro in 1936, where spectators leave the theater singing "l’Internationale". He is 13 during the "Front populaire". At Boulogne-sur-Mer in the boarding-school at the "Collège Mariette" - and on his train journeys - he uses to pass near the steelworks, red flags hanging from the rooftops; the "pros and con" fight in the school-yard. There, Antoine "has been lucky enough to have Jean Marcenac as his teacher of Philosophy and French, who opened up the eyes and his library", his political awareness began in June 1940, after the "drôle de guerre".

He didn't understand Paul Reynaud’s phrase who said after the debacle: "I don’t believe in miracles, but if someone were to tell me that a single miracle could save France, I’d believe in that miracle". But two days the Germans were occupying Touquet. Boarding at College in Orléans, he was expelled in November 1941 for knocking out the chief-supervisor who deprives him of his meal, he feels the pull of the resistance. He produces pamphlets on linoleum "in private", tries on several times to reach England by small boats with friends, he is becoming dangerous for his father, part of one resistance-movement. He forms part of the “ Résistance armée urbaine” at the “Front National”: “we were in a war of liberation against the Germans, in a war of revolution against the Petain-regime”. In 1943, he commit himself as voluntary-soldier in the “Bataillon de choc”, he becomes “chasseur” in the fourth company. After the Toulon-loading, his batallon goes up as far as Tyrol. To his great detriment, he is only demobilized in September 1945.

He has two children from Jean-Claude and Francis. Years he married Maryvon Le Brishoual whom he met in Brazil in 1968, during the filming of “Le grabuge” by Edouard Luntz, produced by Fox, they have three children: Solène and Maël. En 1946, he took correspondence lessons from the “Conserva

Raymonde April

Raymonde April, is a Canadian contemporary artist and academic. April lives in Montreal, her work has been shown in museums and galleries in Canada and Europe. Her photographs have been featured in various publications and awarded the Prix du Québec. April was born in the early 1950s in Moncton, New Brunswick and raised in Rivière-du-Loup in Eastern Quebec, she studied at several universities for art. She attended the art college in Rivière-du-Loup and the École des arts visuels of the Université Laval, in Québec. April is known for her photography and academics, she has been a photographer since the 1970s. She attended and taught photography at Condordia University since 1985, she helped open La Chambre Blanche, a facility for artists in Québec. April explores narrative through her photography, her extensive series depict everyday life, transforming the average experiences into tremendous images. They include typical photographic tropes, like landscapes. Eduardo Ralickas argues April's work is articulated around a scene between near and far and disappearance, making distance a key factor in mapping the territory of the symbolic and the imaginary.

1986: Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography, Ottawa 1986: Voyage dans le monde des choses 1992: Jour de verre et autres fictions 1997: Leonard & Bina Ellen Art Gallery, Concordia University 1997: Les Fleuves invisibles 2001: Tout Embrasser 2003: Prix Paul-Émile-Borduas award. 2005: Paul de Hueck and Norman Walford Career Achievement Award for Art Photography from the Ontario Arts Foundation. 2010: Officer of the Order of Canada for having "made a significant contribution to the evolution of photography in Canada". Official website