Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a silvery-grey, malleable transition metal; the elemental metal is found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium since upon heating most of the salts turned red. Four years he was convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís. Both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content.
In 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element. Vanadium occurs in about 65 minerals and in fossil fuel deposits, it is produced in Russia from steel smelter slag. Other countries produce it either from magnetite directly, flue dust of heavy oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining, it is used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels. The most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid; the vanadium redox battery for energy storage may be an important application in the future. Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms as a toxin; the oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate toxicity. In the ocean, vanadium is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae. Vanadium was discovered in 1801 by the Spanish mineralogist Andrés Manuel del Río. Del Río extracted the element from a sample of Mexican "brown lead" ore named vanadinite.
He found that its salts exhibit a wide variety of colors, as a result he named the element panchromium. Del Río renamed the element erythronium because most of the salts turned red upon heating. In 1805, French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils, backed by del Río's friend Baron Alexander von Humboldt, incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was an impure sample of chromium. Del Río retracted his claim. In 1831, Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores; that year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work. Sefström chose a name beginning with V, he called the element vanadium after Old Norse Vanadís, because of the many beautifully colored chemical compounds it produces. In 1831, the geologist George William Featherstonhaugh suggested that vanadium should be renamed "rionium" after del Río, but this suggestion was not followed; the isolation of vanadium metal was difficult. In 1831, Berzelius reported the production of the metal, but Henry Enfield Roscoe showed that Berzelius had produced the nitride, vanadium nitride.
Roscoe produced the metal in 1867 by reduction of vanadium chloride, VCl2, with hydrogen. In 1927, pure vanadium was produced by reducing vanadium pentoxide with calcium; the first large-scale industrial use of vanadium was in the steel alloy chassis of the Ford Model T, inspired by French race cars. Vanadium steel allowed reduced weight while increasing tensile strength. For the first decade of the 20th century, most vanadium ore was mined by American Vanadium Company from the Minas Ragra in Peru; the demand for uranium rose, leading to increased mining of that metal's ores. One major uranium ore was carnotite, which contains vanadium. Thus, vanadium became available as a by-product of uranium production. Uranium mining began to supply a large share of the demand for vanadium. In 1911, German chemist Martin Henze discovered vanadium in the hemovanadin proteins found in blood cells of Ascidiacea. Vanadium is a medium-hard, steel-blue metal, it is electrically thermally insulating. Some sources describe vanadium as "soft" because it is ductile and not brittle.
Vanadium steels. It has good resistance to corrosion and it is stable against alkalis and sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, it is oxidized in air at about 933 K, although an oxide passivation layer forms at room temperature. Occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope, 51V, one radioactive isotope, 50V; the latter has a half-life of 1.5×1017 years and a natural abundance of 0.25%. 51V has a nuclear spin of 7⁄2, useful for NMR spectroscopy. Twenty-four artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, ranging in mass number from 40 to 65; the most stable of these isotopes are 49V with a half-life of 330 days, 48V with a half-life of 16.0 days. The remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than an hour, most below 10 seconds. At least four isotopes have metastable excited states. Electron capture is the main decay mode for isotopes lighter than 51V. For the heavier ones, the most common mode is beta decay; the electron capture reactions lead to the formation of element 22 (titaniu
A Meter Point Administration Number known as MPAN, Supply Number or S-Number, is a 21-digit reference used in Great Britain to uniquely identify electricity supply points such as individual domestic residences. The gas equivalent is the Meter Point Reference Number; the system was introduced in 1998 in order to provide a competitive environment for the electricity companies, allows consumers to switch their supplier as well as simplifying administration. Although the name suggests that an MPAN refers to a particular meter, an MPAN can have several meters associated with it, or indeed none where it is an unmetered supply. A supply receiving power from the network operator has an Import MPAN, while generation and microgeneration projects feeding back into the DNO network are given Export MPANs. An MPAN is separated into two sections: the core and the top line data; the core is the unique identifier. The top line data gives information about the characteristics of the supply and is the responsibility of the supplier.
The full MPAN is required to be depicted on electricity bills. The core data is on the supplementary data on the first; the first two digits of a full MPAN reflect its profile class. Profile class 00 supplies are half-hourly metered, i.e. they record electricity consumption for every half hour of every day, supplies of the other profile classes are non-half-hourly metered. A NHH supply must be upgraded to HH where: HH data is recorded by the meter and collected by an onsite download, or by remote communication methods such as GSM, SMS, GPRS or telephone line. Domestic NHH import MPANs always have a profile class of 01 or 02. Domestic NHH export MPANs are allocated a profile class of 08; the MTC is a 3 digit code that reflects the various registers a meter may have, such as a single rate, day/night split, or a seasonal time of day. The Line Loss Factor Class or LLFC is used to identify the related Distribution Use of System charges for the MPAN; the figure reflects both the amount of distribution infrastructure used to supply the exit point and the amount of energy lost through heating of cables, etc.
The MPAN core is the final 13 digits of the MPAN, uniquely identifies an exit point. It consists of a two-digit Distributor ID, followed by an eight-digit unique identifier by two digits and a single check digit. Great Britain is divided into fourteen distribution areas. For each area a single company, the distribution network operator, has a licence to distribute electricity, they carry electricity from the National Grid to the exit points where the customers are. The owner of the distribution network charges electricity suppliers for carrying the electricity in their network, their DNO licensed regions are the same geographic areas as the former nationalised electricity boards. In addition to the distribution network operators noted above who are licensed for a specific geographic area, there are independent distribution network operators; these own and operate electricity distribution networks which are network extensions connected to the existing distribution network, e.g. to serve new housing developments.
Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution provide distribution services in South Scotland as an IDNO and Southern Electric Power Distribution provide IDNO services in all other England and Wales areas. Other IDNOs have no "base" area; the final digit in the MPAN is the check digit, validates the previous 12 using a modulus 11 test. The check digit is calculated thus: Multiply the first digit by 3 Multiply the second digit by the next prime number Repeat this for each digit Add up all these products The check digit is the sum modulo 11 modulo 10; the supply identified by the MPAN can be in one of four states: disconnected, de-energised and new. Disconnected: The service cable has been removed and the MPAN will not be reused. De-energised: The service cable is in place, but the fuse has been removed; the meter remains connected to the distribution network. Live: Both the service cable and the fuse are in place; the supply is operational. New: A new MPAN has been generated, the top line is not yet complete.
The service cable may not be installed. These terms are by no means standardised. For example, a disconnected supply might be referred to as a'dead' supply; the vast majority of MPANs are import MPANs. However, if a supply exports to the distribution network an export MPAN is issued. If a supply both imports and exports both an import MPAN and export MPAN are issued. Export MPANs required a half-hourly compliant meter to be installed. Since 2003, it has been possible for microgeneration projects, with a capacity of 30 kW or below, to have a non-half-hourly meter to export back into the distribution network; the uptake was slow, with the first microgeneration export MPAN being issued in June 2005. Some suppliers may not bother to register the export MPAN in MPAS. Export capacity over 30 kW is required to be half-hourly metered; the Metered Supply Point is the point at which the meter measuring a customer's consumption is located. It is thus the point at which either the distribution network operator's supply, or the building network operator's lateral cable and the customer's equipment begins.
In order to establish a supply's MSP, the MPAN needs to
Pierre Rabon was a French portrait painter, active during the reign of Louis XIV. Rabon was died in Paris, he became a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture on 3 July 1660. His reception piece was a portrait of Antoine de Ratabon, who at the time was both Superintendant of Buildings and the director of the Académie. Rabon exhibited a portrait of a Monsieur Perier at the Paris Salon of 1673, his other works include Portrait of a Woman and three other portraits known from engravings: Claude Gallard, Councillor at the Parlement, engraved by Jean-Baptiste Humbelot. There are records of copies commissioned by the Bâtiments du Roi: Christ on the Cross after Charles Le Brun in 1667 for the Menagerie at Versailles and Equestrian portrait of Louis XIV after Mignard in 1671. Pierre Rabon married in 1643, his son Nicolas Rabon became a history painter. Bajou, Thierry. La peinture à Versailles: XVIIe siècle. Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux. ISBN 9782283017647. ISBN 9782283017654. Ballon, Hilary.
Louis Le Vau: Mazarin's Collège, Colbert's Revenge. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691048956. Benezit Dictionary of Artists, vol. 11, p. 575. Paris: Gründ. ISBN 9782700030709. Fontaine, André. Académiciens d'autrefois. Paris: H. Laurens. Copy at Internet Archive. Hardouin, Christophe. "La Collection de portraits de l'Académie royale de Peinture et de Sculpture: Peintures entrées sous le règne de Louis XIV (1648–1715", Mémoire de D. E. A. Université de Paris IV, 1994, pp. 164–166. Laprade, Albert. "Portraits des premiers architectes de Versailles", Revue des Arts, March 1955, pp. 21–24. ISSN 0482-7872 Laprade, Albert. François d'Orbay: Architecte de Louis XIV. Paris: Éditions Vincent, Fréal. OCLC 562063179, 780531730, 1096782. Montaiglon, Anatole de. Procès-verbaux de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, 1648-1793, Volume 1. Paris: Charavay frères. Copy at Internet Archive. Montaiglon, Anatole de. Descriptions de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture par son secrétaire Nicolas Guérin et par Antoine-Nicolas Dézallier d'Argenville le fils.
Marc Mayer is a Canadian arts manager and curator. Strategic adviser at the Museum of Contemporary Art Toronto. Director and chief executive officer of the National Gallery of Canada. Mayer began this appointment on December 8, 2008. Mayer fulfilled two five year terms as director, completed his mandate on January 18, 2019. During his tenure as director and CEO, he led many largescale acquisitions and oversaw numerous projects including the creation of the Canadian Photography Institute, he worked to increase the recognition of indigenous work with the opening of the Canadian and Indigenous Galleries in June 2017. That year, Mayer published Art in Canada, a book that celebrated Canadian and Canadian Indigenous artists, it was released to coincide with Canada's sesquicentennial. The book, designed by Paprika, won third prize in the Pictorial category for the 36th annual Alcuin Society Awards for Excellence in Book Design in Canada. Prior to his appointment at the National Gallery of Canada, he served as director of the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal and The Power Plant in Toronto, as well as deputy director at the Brooklyn Museum in New York City and curator of the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York.
In Paris he was Head of Visual Arts with the Cultural Services of the Canadian Embassy and was a correspondent for the New York periodical Rizzoli’s The Journal of Art. In 1986 he began his career when named Assistant to the Director and Assistant Director of the 49th Parallel Centre for Contemporary Canadian Art in New York. Mayer began his university studies in the history department at Carleton University, he transferred to McGill University. Where he completed a Bachelor of Arts degree with Honours in Art History. Mayer was raised in a Franco-Ontarian family in Sudbury, Ontario. Mayer is bilingual and is proficient in German and Italian languages, his mother, worked as a legal secretary and his father Gilbert worked in advertising sales for local television and radio stations. He ran as a Liberal candidate in Nickel Belt in the 1974 federal election, recorded comedic commentaries for CKSO-TV under the pseudonym "Marcel Mucker". Mayer's interest in art was encouraged by his uncle Réo who operated a small gallery in the basement of an army and navy store and was a hobbyist painter.
The National Gallery of Canada's "Meet the New Director"
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Kansas City, like most North American cities, operated streetcars in Kansas City as their primary public transit mode. Kansas City once had one of the most extensive streetcar systems in North America, but the last of its 25 streetcar routes was shut down in 1957. Indeed, all but five North American cities – Toronto, Philadelphia, San Francisco and New Orleans – replaced all their streetcar networks with buses, including Kansas City; the first streetcars introduced in Kansas City in 1870 were horse-powered. On some early routes the streetcars were propelled by gripping moving underground cables, like San Francisco's cable cars; the city granted its first franchise to the Metropolitan Street Railway Company, owned by Thomas Corrigan. William Rockhill Nelson, publisher of the Kansas City Star, believed Corrigan was corrupt, used his paper to lobby against renewing his franchise. By 1908, all but one of the city's streetcar routes had been converted to being powered by electricity.
When the Kansas City Public Service Company was created in 1925 it inherited over 700 streetcars, owned and operated by private companies. The streetcar routes operated by the KSPS served commuters across the state line in Kansas City, Kansas; the KSPS planned to replace all its older streetcars with new, state-of-the-art PCC streetcars, an order that would have required 371 vehicles. Only 24 were delivered prior to World War II; the KSPS acquired 184 PCC vehicles. Well-known Kansas City developer Jesse C. Nichols was known for constructing streetcar lines to serve the new communities he built. A modern streetcar was opened to the public in 2016 -- KC Streetcar, it runs a similar, but shorter, route to the last line that ran when service ended in 1957. Kansas City Public Service streetcar 551 is a PCC streetcar preserved for static display in the River Market neighborhood of Kansas City, it was built in 1947 by the St. Louis Car Company for service in Kansas City; when the city closed its streetcar service, it was sold to the Toronto Transit Commission in 1957 and became TTC 4762.
In 1973, the streetcar was sold to the San Francisco Municipal Railway, renumbered as Muni 1190 and ran as a tourist attraction. In 1979, the streetcar was sold to the Western Railway Museum remaining as Muni 1190. In 2006, KC Regional Transit Alliance purchased the streetcar, restored it as KCPS 551 and put it on static display at Kansas City Union Station. In 2016, the streetcar was put into storage. In 2017 the streetcar was moved again for display on its current River Market site next to the modern KC Streetcar line. There was some thought to restore 551 to operating condition and run it on the KC Streetcar line for special events. However, the idea was abandoned because 551 was a single-ended car, the KC Streetcar line had no turning loops. Streetcar 551 is located on a lot at 426 Delaware Street at the corner of West Fifth Street. Denver-based Epoch Developments owns the streetcar as well as ten buildings along Delaware Street. Epoch plans to use the streetcar interior for a cafe. Media related to 20th Century streetcars in Kansas City, Missouri at Wikimedia Commons
Chambao were a flamenco-electronic band from Málaga, known for a Flamenco Chill sound that fuses flamenco sounds and palos with electronic music. The name of the band is taken from an improvised form of beach tent, constructed as a means of sheltering from the wind and sun; the three original members of Chambao were María del Mar Rodriguez Carnero, Eduardo Casañ and Daniel Casañ. They made waves in the world music scene with their new brand of flamenco, called flamenco chill, which combined the passion and vocal style of traditional Andalusian flamenco with elements of electronica chillout. Formed in the early morning hours of the 2001 summer solstice in Malaga, Chambao first appeared to the greater public on the 2002 Sony compilation Flamenco Chill, to which they contributed eight songs, featuring Mari on vocals and the others on the instrumentation. Two years their first solo full-length, Endorfinas en la Mente, produced by Italian electronica expert Bob Benozzo, was released, followed the next year by Pokito a Poko, a record on which Dani contributed little, as he left the group before it was finished.
After touring for Pokito a Poko, Edi decided to depart from the band, leaving Mari alone as the last remaining member. After battling breast cancer, the singer returned to the stage and studio with Chambao, this time with a new seven-piece backing band. In 2007 the band released their fourth studio album Con Otro Aire. Frontwoman La Mari took the helm of composing and production duties and her African and Mexican influences are audible throughout the record. Chambao returned five years with their self-titled fifth release, they enlisted Carlos Raya on production duties whose sleek skills complement the band’s ambient mixture of flamenco and electronic music. ~ Marisa Brown Discovered by the Dutch musician Henrik Takkenberg. In 2005 El Edi and Dani departed the band. In 2003, they were winners of the Premios Ondas musical award for their debut album, Endorfinas en la mente. Flamenco Chill Endorfinas en la Mente Pokito a Poko Con Otro Aire En el Fin del Mundo Chambao 10 Años Around The World Nuevo Ciclo Official website https://web.archive.org/web/20051231090815/http://www.esflamenco.com/bio/en11564.html