Battlestar Galactica is an American science fiction media franchise created by Glen A. Larson; the franchise began with the original television series in 1978 and was followed by a short-run sequel series, a line of book adaptations, original novels, comic books, a board game, video games. A re-imagined version of Battlestar Galactica aired as a two-part, three-hour miniseries developed by Ronald D. Moore and David Eick in 2003; that miniseries led to a weekly television series, which aired until 2009. A prequel series, aired in 2010. All Battlestar Galactica productions share the premise that in a distant part of the universe, a human civilization has extended to a group of planets known as the Twelve Colonies, to which they have migrated from their ancestral homeworld of Kobol; the Twelve Colonies have been engaged in a lengthy war with a cybernetic race known as the Cylons, whose goal is the extermination of the human race. The Cylons offer peace to the humans. With the aid of a human named Baltar, the Cylons carry out a massive attack on the Twelve Colonies and on the Colonial Fleet of starships that protect them.
These attacks devastate the Colonial Fleet, lay waste to the Colonies, destroy their populations. Scattered survivors flee into outer space aboard a ragtag array of available spaceships. Of the entire Colonial battle fleet, only the Battlestar Galactica, a gigantic battleship and spacecraft carrier, appears to have survived the Cylon attack. Under the leadership of Commander Adama, the Galactica and the pilots of "Viper fighters" lead a fugitive fleet of survivors in search of the fabled thirteenth colony known as Earth. Glen A. Larson, the creator and executive producer of Battlestar Galactica, claimed he had conceived of the Battlestar Galactica premise, which he called Adam's Ark, during the late 1960s; as James E. Ford detailed in “Battlestar Galactica and Mormon Theology,” a paper read at the Joint Conference of the American Culture and Popular Culture Associations on 17 April 1980, the series incorporated many themes from Mormon theology, such as marriage for "time and eternity", a "council of twelve," a lost thirteenth tribe of humans, a planet called Kobol, as Larson was a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
However, he was unable to find financial backing for his TV series for a number of years. Battlestar Galactica was produced in the wake of the success of the 1977 film Star Wars; the original Cylons of Battlestar Galactica, robotic antagonists bent on destroying all humankind, owe much to Fred Saberhagen's berserker stories, including Saberhagen's fictional race The Builders whose "sliding single red eye" became the signature design element for the Cylons. Larson had envisioned Battlestar Galactica as a series of made-for-TV movies for the American Broadcasting Company. A shortened version of the three-hour pilot, Saga of a Star World, was screened in Canadian theaters and in American and Australian theaters on. Instead of two additional TV movies, ABC decided to commission a weekly TV series of one-hour episodes. In 1979 at the sixth annual People's Choice Awards, the TV series won in the category of "Best New TV Drama Series"; the first episode of the TV series was broadcast on September 17, 1978.
However, about 30 minutes before the end, that broadcast was interrupted by the announcement of the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Camp David Accords. After the interruption, the episode picked back up. During the eight months after the pilot's first broadcast, 17 original episodes of the series were made, equivalent to a standard 24-episode TV season. Citing declining ratings and cost overruns, ABC canceled Battlestar Galactica in April 1979, its final episode "The Hand of God" was telecast on April 29, 1979. During the autumn of 1979, ABC executives met with Battlestar Galactica's creator Glen A. Larson to consider restarting the series. A suitable concept was needed to draw viewers, it was decided that the arrival of the Colonial Fleet at present-day Earth would be the storyline. A new TV movie called. Again, it was decided this new version of Battlestar Galactica would be made into a weekly TV series. Despite the early success of the premiere, this program failed to achieve the popularity of the original series, it was canceled after just ten episodes.
In this 1980 sequel series, the Colonial fleet finds the Earth, it covertly protects it from the Cylons. This series was a quick failure due to its low budget panned writing, ill-chosen time slot; the TV series had to adhere to strict content restrictions such as limiting the number of acts of violence and being required to shoehorn educational content into the script and dialogue. To cut costs, the show was set on the contemporary Earth, to the great dismay of fans. Another factor for fan apathy was the nearly complete recasting of the original series: Lorne Greene reprised his role as Adama, Herb Jefferson, Jr. played "Colonel" Boomer in about half of the episodes, Dirk Benedict as Starbuck for one episode (the abrupt final episode, though his character was to h
Stadium–Chinatown is an elevated station on the Expo Line of Metro Vancouver's SkyTrain rapid transit system. The station is located in Vancouver, British Columbia, at the eastern entrance of the Dunsmuir Tunnel, it is one of four stations on the Expo Line. As its name implies, the station is located near both Chinatown. TransLink's Compass Customer Service Centre and lost property office are located at this station. Stadium station, built in 1985, was named such due to its proximity to BC Place Stadium. Both the station and the stadium were vital to Vancouver's Expo 86; the "Chinatown" portion of the station's name was added in 2004, after Vancouver City Council felt it would increase tourism to the area and increase awareness to visitors about Vancouver's ever-expanding Chinatown district, just one block away. During Expo 86, the station served as a transfer point between the main site of the World's Fair and the Canadian Pavilion, located on Burrard Inlet at Waterfront station. Transferring between these two stations was free to fair attendees during the World's Fair using special shuttle trains, which ran from a third platform at Stadium station to the Canadian Pavilion at Waterfront station.
An automated announcement was aired during people's shuttle ride explaining how SkyTrain and automated driverless technology operated. The third platform and track was shut out of revenue use after Expo 86 except in rare cases of extreme crowds from hockey games and concerts; the third platform and track is used for training purposes, train storage, special event service, rerouting during rail replacement. The station was constructed with a passageway under Beatty Street to the west in anticipation of future development; when the Amec Building, built across Beatty Street, did not link to the underground passage, the passage was closed and has been occupied by the Lost Property Office since 1991. The staircase on the west side of Beatty was filled with sand and topped with a concrete sidewalk so that the passage could be reopened in the future; until 1988, the Expo Boulevard/Abbott Street entrance was just an open-stair emergency exit. However, with the closing of the entrance tunnel under Beatty Street as well as poor accessibility to Stadium station from False Creek, the emergency exit was redesigned and enclosed, opening up in 1989 as the second point of entrance/exit point to and from the station.
The most important destinations near the station are Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium, where home games of the Vancouver Canucks, BC Lions, Vancouver Whitecaps FC are played and other major events are held. Following an event at BC Place or Rogers Arena, the passenger volumes are sufficiently large that it is feasible to post TransLink personnel to collect and check fares at this station, in contrast to the proof-of-payment system, in force prior to the roll out of the Compass Card; the Queen Elizabeth Theatre as well as the downtown location of Vancouver Community College is located a few blocks away from the station. Chinatown is located north east of the intersection of Keefer; the station entrance closest to Chinatown is marked by traditional Chinese characters in addition to English. The sign reads: "Stadium - Chinatown 體育館／華埠（唐人街）"; this makes the station the only station on the system to be marked in Chinese. The International Village shopping centre and the Chinatown location of T & T Supermarket are located at the intersection of Abbott and Keefer.
Beatty Street Entrance is a accessible entrance at the west end of the platform, serving BC Place and the downtown area. An elevator connects the upper street, concourse and restricted levels. TransLink's Compass Customer Service Centre can be accessed from this entrance. Keefer Place Entrance is located at the concourse level shared with Beatty entrance, beside the lost property office, it is the closest entrance serving the Chinatown area. Expo Boulevard Entrance is located on the east end of the platform. No elevator and escalator access is available from this entrance. There is no access to platform 3. Local and suburban bus stops are located near the intersection of Hamilton Street and Dunsmuir Street, two blocks west from the Beatty Street entrance: 5 Robson 6 Davie 17 Oak 240 15th Street 241 Upper Lonsdale 242 Lynn Valley 246 Highland 247 Upper Capilano 257 Horseshoe Bay N15 Cambie Night Bus N24 Lynn Valley Night BusIn addition, local community shuttles serving the north False Creek area operates on Expo Boulevard and Abbott Street, on the east side of the station near the Expo Boulevard entrance: 23 Beach 23 Main Street Station Media related to Stadium-Chinatown Station at Wikimedia Commons
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
DA Architects + Planners
DA Architects + Planners is an architectural firm founded in 1969 and located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The company is notable for its involvement in many of the major iconic buildings in the city of Vancouver, B. C. including Canada Place with Zeidler Roberts Partnership and MCMP, Vancouver Convention Centre West with LMN and MCMP and Vancouver's Library Square with Moshe Safdie. Barry Vance Downs and Richard Archambault met in 1954 at the firm of Thompson Berwick and Pratt and Partners. After going their separate ways, the pair reunited to launch Downs/Archambault and Partners in 1969; the firm's early work includes the North Vancouver Civic Centre and Britannia Community Services Centre, Vancouver. C.. C. In the last 20 years the firm has produced a wide variety of projects, among them, Canada Place & the Pan Pacific Hotel, Concord Pacific Place, the Yaletown Roundhouse Neighbourhood, Library Square in Downtown Vancouver, Nicklaus North Clubhouse, Irvin K. Barber Learning Centre with Pfeiffer Partners, Vancouver Convention Centre West with LMN & MCMP, Coast Coal Harbour Hotel and the River Rock Casino Resort.
In 2008 the firm name was changed to DA Architects + Planners in response to the retirement of the founding partners. The partnership consists of Mark Ehman Architect AIBC, Randy Knill, Architect AIBC and James Kao, Architect AIBC. 2014 Order of Canada - Barry V. Downs -'For his contributions as an architect who creates spaces that meld buildings with their natural surroundings.' 2012 Heritage Project Achievement Award - Ridgeway Elementary School – North Vancouver, BC 2011 WAN Effectiveness Award - Vancouver Convention Centre West – Vancouver, BC 2011 AIA National Honor Award, Interior Architecture - Vancouver Convention Centre West – Vancouver, BC. LMN Architects – with DA Architects + Planners, Musson Cattell Mackey Partnership 2010 Lumen West Award of Excellence 2010 IESNA Illumination Design Award of Merit - Vancouver Convention Centre West – Vancouver, BC 2009 Wood First Champion – Government of British Columbia - Vancouver Convention Centre West – Vancouver, BC 2009 GLOBE Foundation and World Green Building Council - Vancouver Convention Centre West – Vancouver, BC 2009 CISC – 2009 BC Steel Design Award – Krentz Award - Vancouver Convention Centre West – Vancouver, BC 2008 Masonry Institute of British Columbia – Special Recognition – Restoration - Irving K.
Barber Learning Centre, University of British Columbia Official website AIBC Profile Industry Canada Profile Architizer Profile
Douglas Noel Adams was an English author, essayist, humorist and dramatist. Adams was author of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, which originated in 1978 as a BBC radio comedy before developing into a "trilogy" of five books that sold more than 15 million copies in his lifetime and generated a television series, several stage plays, comics, a computer game, in 2005 a feature film. Adams's contribution to UK radio is commemorated in The Radio Academy's Hall of Fame. Adams wrote Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency and The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul, co-wrote The Meaning of Liff, The Deeper Meaning of Liff, Last Chance to See, three stories for the television series Doctor Who. A posthumous collection of his works, including an unfinished novel, was published as The Salmon of Doubt in 2002. Adams was an advocate for environmentalism and conservation, a lover of fast cars, technological innovation and the Apple Macintosh, a self-proclaimed radical atheist. Adams was born on 11 March 1952 to Christopher Douglas Adams in Cambridge.
The family moved to the East End of London a few months after his birth, where his sister, was born three years later. His parents divorced in 1957. Adams attended Primrose Hill Primary School in Brentwood. At nine, he passed the entrance exam for Brentwood School, he attended the prep school from 1959 to 1964 the main school until December 1970. Adams was stopped growing at 6 feet 5 inches, his form master, Frank Halford, said Adams's height had made him stand out and that he had been self-conscious about it. His ability to write stories made, he became the only student to be awarded a ten out of ten by Halford for creative writing, something he remembered for the rest of his life when facing writer's block. Some of his earliest writing was published at the school, such as a report on its photography club in The Brentwoodian in 1962, or spoof reviews in the school magazine Broadsheet, edited by Paul Neil Milne Johnstone, who became a character in The Hitchhiker's Guide, he designed the cover of one issue of the Broadsheet, had a letter and short story published in The Eagle, the boys' comic, in 1965.
A poem entitled "A Dissertation on the task of writing a poem on a candle and an account of some of the difficulties thereto pertaining" written by Adams in January 1970, at the age of 17, was discovered in a cupboard at the school in early 2014. On the strength of an essay on religious poetry that discussed the Beatles and William Blake, he was awarded an Exhibition in English at St John's College, going up in 1971, he wanted to join the Footlights, an invitation-only student comedy club that has acted as a hothouse for comic talent. He was not elected as he had hoped, started to write and perform in revues with Will Adams and Martin Smith, forming a group called "Adams-Smith-Adams", became a member of the Footlights by 1973. Despite doing little work—he recalled having completed three essays in three years—he graduated in 1974 with a B. A. in English literature. After leaving university Adams moved back to London, determined to break into TV and radio as a writer. An edited version of the Footlights Revue appeared on BBC2 television in 1974.
A version of the Revue performed live in London's West End led to Adams being discovered by Monty Python's Graham Chapman. The two formed a brief writing partnership, earning Adams a writing credit in episode 45 of Monty Python for a sketch called "Patient Abuse"; the pair co-wrote the "Marilyn Monroe" sketch which appeared on the soundtrack album of Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Adams is one of only two people. Adams had two brief appearances in the fourth series of Monty Python's Flying Circus. At the beginning of episode 42, "The Light Entertainment War", Adams is in a surgeon's mask, pulling on gloves, while Michael Palin narrates a sketch that introduces one person after another but never gets started. At the beginning of episode 44, "Mr. Neutron", Adams is dressed in a pepper-pot outfit and loads a missile onto a cart driven by Terry Jones, calling for scrap metal; the two episodes were broadcast in November 1974. Adams and Chapman attempted non-Python projects, including Out of the Trees.
At this point Adams's career stalled. To make ends meet he took a series of odd jobs, including as a hospital porter, barn builder, chicken shed cleaner, he was employed as a bodyguard by a Qatari family. During this time Adams continued to submit sketches, though few were accepted. In 1976 his career had a brief improvement when he wrote and performed Unpleasantness at Brodie's Close at the Edinburgh Fringe festival. By Christmas, work had dried up again, a depressed Adams moved to live with his mother; the lack of writing work hit him hard and low confidence became a feature of Adams's life. You can't fix the weather – you just have to get on with it"; some of Adams's early radio work included sketches for The Burkiss Way in 1977 and The News Huddlines. He
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a vote on a ballot question; some definitions of'plebiscite' suggest that it is a type of vote to change the constitution or government of a country. However, some other countries define it differently. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In Ireland, the vote to adopt its constitution was called a "plebiscite", but a subsequent vote to amend the constitution is called a'referendum', so is a poll of the electorate on a non-constitutional bill; the word referendum is a general word used for both legislative referrals and initiatives.'Referendum' is the gerundive form of the Latin verb refero "to carry back". As a gerundive is an adjective, not a noun, it cannot be used alone in Latin and must be contained within a context attached to a noun such as Propositum quod referendum est populo, "A proposal which must be carried back to the people".
The addition of the verb sum to a gerundive, denotes the idea of necessity or compulsion, that which "must" be done, rather than that, "fit for" doing. Its use as a noun in English is thus not a grammatical usage of a foreign word, but is rather a freshly coined English noun, which therefore follows English grammatical usage, not Latin grammatical usage; this determines the form of the plural in English, which according to English grammar should be "referendums". The use of "referenda" as a plural form in English is thus insupportable according to the rules of both Latin and English grammar alike; the use of "referenda" as a plural form is posited hypothetically as either a gerund or a gerundive by the Oxford English Dictionary, which rules out such usage in both cases as follows: Referendums is logically preferable as a plural form meaning'ballots on one issue'. The Latin plural gerundive'referenda', meaning'things to be referred' connotes a plurality of issues, it is related to the political agenda, "those matters which must be driven forward", from ago, to drive.
The name and use of the'referendum' is thought to have originated in the Swiss canton of Graubünden as early as the 16th century. The term'plebiscite' has a similar meaning in modern usage, comes from the Latin plebiscita, which meant a decree of the Concilium Plebis, the popular assembly of the Roman Republic. Today, a referendum can often be referred to as a plebiscite, but in some countries the two terms are used differently to refer to votes with differing types of legal consequences. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In contrast, Ireland has only held one plebiscite, the vote to adopt its constitution, every other vote has been called a referendum. Plebiscite has been used to denote a non-binding vote count such as the one held by Nazi Germany to'approve' in retrospect the so-called Anschluss with Austria, the question being not'Do you permit?' but rather'Do you approve?' of that which has most already occurred.
The term referendum covers a variety of different meanings. A referendum can be advisory. In some countries, different names are used for these two types of referendum. Referendums can be further classified by who initiates them: mandatory referendums prescribed by law, voluntary referendums initiated by the legislature or government, referendums initiated by citizens. A deliberative referendum is a referendum designed to improve the deliberative qualities of the campaign preceding the referendum vote, and/or of the act of voting itself. From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy. However, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy. Therefore, they tend to be used quite selectively, covering issues such as changes in voting systems, where elected officials may not have the legitimacy or inclination to implement such changes. Since the end of the 18th century, hundreds of national referendums have been organised in the world.
Italy ranked second with 72 national referendums: 67 popular referendums, 3 constitutional referendums, one institutional referendum and one advisory referendum. A referendum offers the electorate a choice of accepting or rejecting a proposal, but not always; some referendums give voters the choice among multiple choices and some use Transferable voting even. In Switzerland, for example, multiple choice referendums are common. Two multiple choice referendums were held in Sweden, in 1957 and in 1980, in which voters were offered three options. In 1977, a referendum held in Australia to determine a new national anthem was held in which voters had four choices. In 1992, New Zealand held a five-option referendum on their electoral system. In 1982, Guam had referendum that used six options, with an additional blank option for anyone wishing to vote for their own seventh option. A multiple choice referendum pose
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, newspapers, films, prints, microform, CDs, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē: derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque; the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries provide quiet areas for studying, they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources, they are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.
Libraries are becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. As community centers, libraries are becoming important in helping communities mobilize and organize for their rights; the relationship between librarianship and human rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, the homeless, the disabled, LGBTQ community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC; these archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt; the earliest discovered. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet; the colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. The clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. According to legend, mythical philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty.
Evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e.g. medical science, histor