Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. The definition of vandalism allows to distinguish hostile behavior aimed to damage or destroy the object, instrumental behavior consisting of damage or destruction caused to an object as a mean to achieve other goals, behavior motivated by a desire to express oneself through the degradation of objects as well as a play vandalism; the term includes property damage, such as graffiti and defacement directed towards any property without permission of the owner. The term finds its roots in an Enlightenment view that the Germanic Vandals were a uniquely destructive people; the Vandals, an ancient Germanic people, are associated with senseless destruction as a result of their sack of Rome under King Genseric in 455. During the Enlightenment, Rome was idealized, while the Goths and Vandals were blamed for its destruction; the Vandals may not have been any more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, but they did inspire British poet John Dryden to write, Till Goths, Vandals, a rude Northern race, Did all the matchless Monuments deface.

However, the Vandals did intentionally damage statues, which may be why their name is associated with the vandalism of art. The term Vandalisme was coined in 1794 by Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois, to describe the destruction of artwork following the French Revolution; the term was adopted across Europe. This new use of the term was important in colouring the perception of the Vandals from Late Antiquity, popularising the pre-existing idea that they were a barbaric group with a taste for destruction. Vandalism has been justified by painter Gustave Courbet as destruction of monuments symbolizing "war and conquest". Therefore, it is done as an expression of contempt, creativity, or both. Gustave Courbet's attempt, during the 1871 Paris Commune, to dismantle the Vendôme column, a symbol of the past Napoleon III authoritarian Empire, was one of the most celebrated events of vandalism. Nietzsche himself would meditate after the Commune on the "fight against culture", taking as example the intentional burning of the Tuileries Palace on 23 May 1871.

"The criminal fight against culture is only the reverse side of a criminal culture" wrote Klossowski after quoting Nietzsche. In a proposal to the International Conference for Unification of Criminal Law held in Madrid in 1933, Raphael Lemkin envisaged the creation of two new international crimes: the crime of barbarity, consisting in the extermination of racial, religious, or social collectivities, the crime of vandalism, consisting in the destruction of cultural and artistic works of these groups; the proposal was not accepted. Private citizens commit vandalism when they willfully damage or deface the property of others or the commons; some vandalism may qualify as culture jamming or sniggling: it is thought by some to be artistic in nature though carried out illegally or without the property owner's permission. Examples include at least some graffiti art, billboard "liberation", crop circles. Criminal vandalism takes many forms. Graffiti on public property is common in many inner cities as part of a gang culture, where they might be used as territorial markers.

More serious forms of vandalism that may take place during public unrest such as rioting can involve the willful destruction of public and private property. Vandalism per se is sometimes considered one of the less serious common crimes, but it can become quite serious and distressing when committed extensively, violently, or as an expression of hatred and intimidation. In response, local governments have adopted various legal measures to prevent vandalism, but research has shown that the conventional strategies employed by the government in response to at least unapproved graffiti are not the most effective. Examples of vandalism include salting lawns, cutting trees without permission, egg throwing, breaking windows, spraying paint on others' properties, placing glue into locks, tire slashing, keying paint, throwing shoes on power lines or similar structures, ransacking a property, flooding a house by clogging a sink and leaving the water running, pulling up plants from the roots without permission.

In elections, opposing candidates' supporters may engage in "political vandalism"⁠ ⁠— the act of defacing opponents' political posters, bumper stickers and other street marketing material. Although the nature of this material is temporary, its effect can be long-lasting as it may reflect both negatively and positively on the candidate whose material is being vandalized as well as on the presumed candidate whose supporters are engaging in the vandalism. In addition, activists may use the tactic of property destruction as means of protest, e.g. by smashing the windows of banks and government institutions and setting fire to cars. This takes place during riots but can happen as a stand-alone event, e.g. by animal rights activists destroying property owned by farmers, biotech companies, research facilities and setting free animals. Vandalism is a common tactic of black blocs. Actions of this kind can be ascribed to anger or envy, or to spontaneous, opportunistic behaviour for peer acceptance or bravado in gang cultures, or disgruntlement with the target person or society.

Opportunistic vandalism of this nature may be filmed, the mentality of which can be akin to happy slapping. The large-scale prevalence of gang graffiti in some inner cities has made it acceptable to the societies based there, so much so that it may go unnoticed, or


Bei'an is a county-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province in the People's Republic of China. It is under the jurisdiction of Heihe. Bei'an was the provincial capital of Bei'an province of Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan during the Second World War. There are six subdistricts, five towns and four townships under the city's administration: Heping Subdistrict Zhaolin Subdistrict Qinghua Subdistrict Tiexi Subdistrict Tienan Subdistrict Beigang Subdistrict Tongbei Zhaoguang Shiquan Haixing Erjing Chengjiao Township Dongsheng Township Yangjia Township Zhuxing Korean Ethnic Township

Abdullah Khan (author)

Abdullah Khan is an Indian author and scriptwriter. He is best known for his novel Patna Blues Abdullah Khan was born in a village near Motihari, India. An M. Sc in Chemistry from Anugrah Narayan College, Bihar, Abdullah Khan started his career as a banker with Bank of Baroda in 1998, he is working with Axis Bank since 2007. He discovered his urge of being a writer at the age of 21 when he came across George Orwell’s Animal Farm while helping his brother with an English assignment, his journey as a freelance writer began in 1993 with a local edition of The Hindustan Times while studying B. Sc and wrote first five chapters of his novel Patna Blues in 1997 but left writing after he started career as a banker. According to an interview he revealed how his wife blackmailed him into taking up his passion again and pursue writing. “I used to write long-hand with pen and paper and she would type it out”- he told in an interview to The Hindu. After writing and rewriting his novel more than 200 times he finished the first draft of it in 2009 but the devastating feedback he got took another 9 years to get Patna Blues published.

He signed a contract with Juggernaut Books in 2016 and Patna Blues was published in September, 2018. The tale of Arif Khan, a young Bihari Muslim boy who dares to desire a Hindu woman received huge positive review and got translated into nine languages including Urdu, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu and Marathi within a year, his second novel Aslam and Porn Star is about a man, born in the same room as George Orwell in Motihari. The book is under trouble for its title before its release. A chapter from Patna Blues has been included in English Language and Foundation Courses B. A/B. Sc/B. Com of University of Kerala. Abdullah Khan writes articles and short stories for Indian and international magazines and newspapers; some of his writings have been published in The Hindu, Friday Times, Brooklyn Rail and The Daily Star. Abdullah Khan tried his luck in it while in college, his first experience as screenplay writer came with a Channel V project based on adaptation of Indian Classics. His story Rehaan Meets Jamila based on Romeo And Juliet was selected but it was shelved.

He has written the story and dialogue of the film Viraam directed by his brother Ziaullah Khan. Abdullah Khan is married to Tarannum Perween, a homemaker since 2002, he has always mentioned in his interviews. "Abdullah Khan - Movies, News, Age & Photos". BookMyShow. Retrieved 15 January 2020. "Abdullah Khan:The News on Sunday » Weekly Magazine - The News International". Retrieved 15 January 2020. Syllabus of English Language and Foundation Courses B. A/B. Sc/B. Com of University of Kerala