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Vanguard 1

Vanguard 1 is an American satellite, the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be launched. Vanguard 1 was the first satellite to have solar electric power. Although communication with the satellite was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest man-made object still in orbit, together with the upper stage of its launch vehicle. Vanguard 1 was designed to test the launch capabilities of a three-stage launch vehicle as a part of Project Vanguard, the effects of the space environment on a satellite and its systems in Earth orbit, it was used to obtain geodetic measurements through orbit analysis. Vanguard 1 was described by the Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, as "the grapefruit satellite"; the spacecraft is a 1.47 kg aluminum sphere 16 cm in diameter. It contains a 10 mW, 108 MHz transmitter powered by a mercury battery and a 5 mW, 108.03 MHz transmitter, powered by six solar cells mounted on the body of the satellite. Six short antennas protrude from the sphere; the transmitters were used for engineering and tracking data, but were used to determine the total electron content between the satellite and the ground stations.

A backup version of Vanguard 1 is on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. On 17 March 1958, the three-stage launch vehicle placed Vanguard into a 654 x 3969 kilometers, 134.2 minute elliptical orbit inclined at 34.25°. Original estimates had the orbit lasting for 2,000 years, but it was discovered that solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag during high levels of solar activity produced significant perturbations in the perigee height of the satellite, which caused a significant decrease in its expected lifetime to about 240 years. Vanguard 1 transmitted its signals for nearly seven years. A 10 mW transmitter, powered by a mercury battery, on the 108 MHz band used for International Geophysical Year scientific satellites, a 5 mW, 108.03 MHz transmitter powered by six solar cells were used as part of a radio phase-comparison angle-tracking system. The tracking data were used to show that the shape of the Earth has a slight north-south asymmetry described as "pear-shaped," with the stem at the North Pole.

These radio signals were used to determine the total electron content between the satellite and selected ground-receiving stations. The battery-powered transmitter provided internal package temperature for about sixteen days and sent tracking signals for twenty days; the transmitter powered by solar cells transmitted for more than six years. Its signal weakened and was last received at Quito, Ecuador, in May 1964. Since the spacecraft has been tracked optically from Earth, via telescope; because of its symmetrical shape, Vanguard 1 was used by experimenters for determining upper atmospheric densities as a function of altitude, latitude and solar activity. As the satellite continuously orbited, it would deviate from its predicted positions accumulating greater and greater shift due to drag of the residual atmosphere. By measuring the rate and timing of orbital shifts, together with the body's drag properties, the relevant atmosphere's parameters could be back-calculated, it was determined that atmospheric pressures, thus drag and orbital decay, were higher than anticipated, since Earth's upper atmosphere does taper off into space gradually.

This experiment was planned extensively prior to launch. Initial Naval Research Laboratory proposals for the project included conical satellite bodies. Radio-tracking would establish a position. Early in the program, optical tracking was added. A panel of scientists proposed changing the design to spheres, at least twenty inches in diameter and thirty. A sphere would have a constant optical reflection, constant coefficient of drag, based on size alone, while a cone would have properties that varied with its orientation. James Van Allen of the University of Iowa proposed a cylindrical satellite based on his work with rockoons, which became Explorer 1, the first American satellite; the Naval Research Laboratory accepted a sphere with a 16 cm diameter as a "test vehicle", with a diameter of twenty inches set for the follow-on satellites. The weight savings, from reduced size as well as decreased instrumentation in the early satellites, was considered to be acceptable. Since three of the Vanguard satellites are still orbiting with their drag properties unchanged, they form a baseline data set on the atmosphere of Earth, over 60 years old and continuing.

After its scientific mission ended in 1964, Vanguard 1 became a derelict object—just like the upper stage of the rocket used to launch the satellite had after it finished the delta-v maneuver to place Vanguard 1 in orbit in 1958. Until otherwise noted, both objects remain in orbit; the Vanguard 1 satellite and upper launch stage hold the record for being in space longer than any other man-made object, as such have traveled farther over the Earth's surface than any other man-made object. A small group of former NRL and NASA workers had been in communication with one another, a number of government agencies were asked to commemorate the event; the Naval Research Laboratory commemorated the event with a day-long meeting at NRL on 17 March 2008. The meeting concluded with a simulation of the satellite's track as it passed into the orbital area visible from Washington, D. C.. The Nationa

Match of the Day 2

Match of the Day 2 is a Premier League football highlights programme. It is broadcast on BBC One on Sunday evenings from 22:30 and is hosted by Mark Chapman. Match of the Day 2 follows the same format as Match of the Day, with highlights of the day's Premier League football, followed by post-match interviews and tactical analysis; the show featured a "Top 5" countdown based around a current event or a guest analyst on the show, such as "Worst Haircuts", "Shocking Refereeing Decisions", or "Golden Oldies." This was replaced by "2 Good, 2 Bad", which offered a humorous look at the goings on of the football weekend in England, such as embarrassing gaffes, unusual celebrations, intimacy between players and managers, or supporters falling asleep. Ahead of the 2019–20 Premier League season BBC Sport upgraded the studio that Match of the Day, Match of the Day 2, Football Focus, Final Score broadcasts from; the facility uses a "4K UHD ready virtual reality studio." It uses Epic Games' Unreal Engine 4 rendering technology.

The studio is located at dock10 studios, MediaCityUK. From the beginning of the 2012–13 season, Match of the Day 2 moved from BBC Two to BBC One; the BBC stated this was because "of the increased number of Premier League games played on a Sunday."Occasionally, Match of the Day 2, either switches back to BBC Two or moves its broadcast time, to make way for other sporting events. These have included the Super Bowl, the Augusta Masters Golf Tournament, the World Snooker Championships. On occasion, some players are invited to appear as guest analysts, they have either played on Saturday or are out injured. Featured guest analysts have included Shay Given, Vincent Kompany, Ashley Williams; some Premier League and national team managers have appeared, including Sam Allardyce, Slaven Bilić, Chris Coleman, Tony Pulis. Furthermore, celebrity supporters have appeared as guest analysts. Musician and Manchester City supporter Noel Gallagher, appeared in February 2015. In January 2015, the BBC retained its rights to the highlights until the end of the 2018-19 Premier League season.

The rights cost £204 million. In January 2018, the Premier League announced; the rights package cost £211.5 million and covers three seasons from 2019-20. The January 2018 agreement includes Match of the Day, Match of the Day 2 Extra, Match of the Day Kickabout, Football Focus, Final Score, The Premier League Show. Match of the Day 2 at BBC Programmes Match of the Day 2 on IMDb Match of the Day 2 at TV.com Match of the Day 2 Extra Match of the Day 3

Johann Gotthelf Lindner

Johann Gotthelf Lindner was a German university teacher and writer at the time of the eighteenth century Enlightenment. Lindner was born in the village of Schmolsin a short distance inland from the north coast of East Pomerania, his father, Georg Friedrich Lindner, was the local protestant minister. He attended the Albertus University of Königsberg, where he studied protestant theology and philosophy, becoming a Master of Philosophy "Magister der Philosophie" in 1749 or 1750, he was soon giving lessons himself: subjects included the French language, history and mathematics. He took to exercising his skills as a preacher, he obtained a position as a teacher at the Cathedral School in Riga in 1753, becoming Rector and Inspector at the school in 1755. In 1965 he became a full professor of Poetry at Königsberg, in 1766 he became director of the newly re-established German Society. Lindner received a doctorate of theology in 1773 for a 47-page dissertation concerned with poetry in Holy Scripture. In 1775 he became a church and school inspector as well as a protestant minister in the Löbenicht parish of Königsberg.

As director of the German Society Lindner became an important member of Königsberg's close circle of Enlightenment philosophers. Other members included Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel and Immanuel Kant. Lindner was a member of the "Three Crowns Lodge" of the city's Freemansons. Lindner published his poetic writings in various journals including the weekly Rigische Anzeiger and Königsberg's Gelehrte und Politische Zeitung, he produced school dramas. Johann Gotthelf Lindner was the elder brother to de:Ehregott Friedrich LindnerEhregott Friedrich Lindner born in Schmolsin, to Gottlob Immanuel Lindner, born in the city of Königsberg, he was therefore an uncle to the journalist-doctor Friedrich Ludwig Lindner. Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie. 2nd edition (Rudolf Vierhaus, Munich 2006, p. 466–467