A pro-cathedral is a parish church, temporarily serving as the cathedral or co-cathedral of a diocese or has the same function in a Catholic missionary jurisdiction, not yet entitled to a proper cathedral, such as an apostolic prefecture or apostolic administration. It is distinct from a proto-cathedral, the term in the Roman Catholic Church for a former cathedral, which results from moving an episcopal see to another cathedral, in the same or another city. In Ireland, the term is used to refer to St Mary's Pro-Cathedral in Dublin, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin since the Anglican Reformation in Ireland, when Christ Church Cathedral and St Patrick's Cathedral were occupied by the Church of Ireland. In Scotland, the term is used to refer to St Mary’s Pro-Cathedral in Edinburgh, the seat of the Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, as the original St Andrews Cathedral was abandoned after the Scottish Reformation in 1560 and is in a ruinous state. St Andrew's Pro-Cathedral in Glasgow has been the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Glasgow since 1889.
The original Glasgow Cathedral however had been re-established as the Church of Scotland’s High Kirk of Glasgow after the Scottish Reformation. The Cathedral of the Holy Apostles, in Bristol, was the pro-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Clifton. In Spain, the Colegiata de San Isidro, Madrid served as the provisional cathedral for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madrid from its creation in 1885 until 1993, when Pope John Paul II consecrated the newly completed Almudena Cathedral; the Parish Church of St Helier in Jersey serves as the island's pro-cathedral. In Valletta, there is an Anglican St Paul's Pro-Cathedral. In Poland, Carmelite Church, Warsaw served as a pro-cathedral until the reconstruction of St John's Cathedral. In Albania, the Albanese Apostolic Administration of Southern Albania had the Kisha e Shën Maria dhe Shën Luigji, in Vlore, as only episcopal see of its Eastern Catholic particular sui jurus Albanian Catholic Byzantine Church. In Baku, the Church of the Immaculate Conception is the pro-cathedral episcopal see of the Apostolic Prefecture of Baku.
The Church of San Antonio de Motael was the pro-cathedral of Dili, East Timor before the Immaculate Conception Cathedral was constructed in 1989. In the Philippines, the Episcopal Diocese of the Central Philippines had the St. Stephen's Parish in Tondo, Manila as its pro-cathedral before the see was transferred to the Cathedral of Saint Mary and Saint John in Quezon City. In February 2012, the Pro-Cathedral Church of San Fernando de Dilao became the Pro-Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Manila, until the structural renovations of Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception on March 25,2014; the cathedral was reopened to the general public on April 9,2014. The Cathedral of the Holy Name, was the pro-cathedral of the Holy Name. In San Luis Obispo CA, the parish church of Old Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and in Salinas, CA, the parish of Madonna Del Sasso, were both elevated to pro-cathedral status by the late Bishop Richard Garcia. In Qu'Appelle, the parish church of Saint Peter's was the pro-cathedral for the Anglican southern Saskatchewan diocese until 1944.
From 1944 to 1979, St. Paul's Cathedral served as the pro-cathedral before it was elevated to cathedral status. In the United States, the church of St. Paul the Apostle in Savannah, Georgia, is the pro-cathedral for the Episcopal Diocese of Georgia; the Cathedral of the Incarnation was a pro-cathedral for 35 years before the Episcopal Diocese of Maryland passed a resolution in 1955 for it to become the diocesan cathedral. St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in Wilkes-Barre, was designated the pro-Cathedral in the Episcopal Diocese of Bethlehem in 1999 and as the Pro-Cathedral by the Presiding Bishop and the President of the House of Deputies of The Episcopal Church in 2001. St. Bartholomew's Anglican Church in Tonawanda, NY became a Pro-Cathedral on August 12, 2011 as part of the North American Anglican Conference, is the seat for Bishop Bill Atwood. Furthermore, St. John Chrysostom Malankara Syrian Catholic Pro-Cathedral in Hempstead, New York for the Syro-Malankara Catholic Exarchate in the United States St. Joseph Pro-Cathedral is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden.
Holy Name of Mary Pro-Cathedral in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Marquette. St. Luke's Ministries in Copley, Ohio, is the Pro-Cathedral for the Anglican Diocese of the Great Lakes under Bishop Ronald W. Jackson. In Christchurch, New Zealand, St Mary's has become the pro-cathedral of the Christchurch Catholic Diocese, in place of the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, closed because of severe damage cause by the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. St John's Pro-Cathedral served as the pro-cathedral in Western Australia. Holy Cross Pro-Cathedral in Vanimo, West Sepik, Papua New Guinea, the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Vanimo Co-cathedral List of cathedrals
Rimbunan Hijau is a Malaysian multinational logging corporation controlled by Malaysian businessman Tiong Hiew King. The company has operations in many countries, including Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Vanuatu, New Zealand and Russia. In Papua New Guinea Rimbunan Hijau is the single biggest logging operator, runs the country's biggest sawmill, it owns one of the two major newspapers in the country. The company was established in 1975 and has an estimated annual turnover of more than 1 billion US dollars, according to Malaysia-China Business Council; the group's core business activities are: Forestry Upstream and Downstream Timber Operations Reforestation Oil Palm Plantations Plantation & Processing Operations Media Newspaper & Magazine Publication Malaysian Newsprint Industries ICT Information Communication Technologies Hardware & Software Hospitality Hotel Operations Tourism and Leisure Ventures Others Property Development Stingless Bee Farming Trading & Retail Services Plastic Manufacturing Aquaculture Biotech Oil & Gas Mining Toll Road Collection Tyres Retreading Insurance Services Education -- "Zhong Hua Han Yu" Human Capital Development -- Rimbunan Hijau Academy According to Greenpeace Rimbunan Hijau is the dominant player in the logging sector in Equatorial Guinea by the subsidiary Shimmer International.
Rimbunan Hijau was in 1999 logging contractor for Teodorin Obiang, the agriculture and forests minister of Equatorial Guinea and the son of president. Rimbunan Hijau has been criticized by environmental and humanitarian organizations for alleged human rights abuses, ignoring indigenous peoples Human rights, political corruption and negligence of the environment. A recent World Bank report estimates that up to 70 percent of logging in Papua New Guinea is illegal, further adding to the criticism. Two groups that have made investigations and held protests against the company are Greenpeace and Rainforest Action Network. Rimbunan Hijau in turn has threatened to sue Greenpeace for defamation because of its report "The Untouchables - Rimbunan Hijau’s World of Forest Crime and Political Patronage" demanding that the group withdraw the paper. Greenpeace has declined to comply. Citibank, following a review of its own environmental policies in 2005, declared that it would require the client Rimbunan Hijau to obtain credible, third party certification for its Papua New Guinea operations in the future.
MacDonald, Hamish. "Loggers remain a law unto themselves". The Sydney Morning Herald. Greenpeace Forest Crime file: Rimbunan Hijau Rimbunan Hijau at SourceWatch Official website
Lorengau is the major town in Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. The town is located on the edge of Seeadler Harbour on Manus Island, in the Admiralty Islands, in 2000 Lorengau was recorded to have a population of 5,829. During World War II Manus Island was the site of an observation post manned by No. 4 Section,'B' Platoon, 1st Independent Company, Australian Imperial Force. Who provided medical treatment to the inhabitants. Manus was first bombed by the Japanese on 25 January 1942, the radio mast being the main target. On 8 April 1942 an Imperial Japanese force consisting of the light cruiser Tatsuta, destroyer Mutsuki and a troop transport ship Mishima Maru entered Lorengau harbour, several hundreds of Japanese soldiers of the 8th Special Base Force, swarmed ashore onto Australia's mandated responsibility. With little and limited resources the Australian 4th section withdrew to the jungle; the Japanese established an administrative airstrip. In February 1944 the United States and Australian forces launched a six-week campaign to recapture the facility, achieved on 18 March 1944.
The Americans constructed a huge naval base at nearby Lombrum. An airstrip capable of handling heavy bombers was constructed at Momote and it was here that the invasion to capture the Philippines was staged. After the war the base was scrapped and all equipment was bulldozed into pits or the harbour
Kerema is the capital of Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. It is located on the coast of Gulf of Papua; the Gulf region is aptly named for its concave coastline with large deltas. The Gulf area is a riparian region where many rivers from the southern slopes of the highlands drain into. There are more than twenty languages spoken in Gulf Province. Languages spoken in the Kerema area include Toaripi, Opae, Moivo Hivi and Tairuma; the villages towards the east of Kerema from Hamuhamu, Miaru to Iokea and inland to Moveave all speak Toaripi. The Gulf's traditional culture and knowledge was one of the first to be exposed to the outside world, thus it was one of the first cultures to change, as outsiders Christian missionaries have visited many of the coastal people and encouraged them to abandon much of their native culture. James Chalmers, or'Tamate' as the locals of Toaripi called him, was the first white man to land in the province, he first landed in Iokea in 1885. The Gulf area is blessed with many natural resources such as abundant marine life, rich jungle, sago and many others.
Rubber plantations were established in the 1930s by Australians. Oil and gas explorations are showing positive results and it will be major income earner to the province; the Interoil Gas Field has proven huge reserves. Fishing and oil are the main industries, although betelnut and sago are the major cash crop for the local people. Gulf people supply 15% of the betelnut and sago to Port Moresby markets for cash
Madang is a province of Papua New Guinea. The province is on the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea and has many of the country's highest peaks, active volcanoes and its biggest mix of languages; the capital is the town of Madang. Human contact with the New Guinea mainland has extended through the past 50,000 years, scientists have found evidence of human settlement 12,000 to 15,000 years ago near Simbai. In the past 6,000 years sailors originating from around Taiwan or the Malay Archipelago have traversed this area, leaving their mark in the Austronesian languages which are unevenly distributed along the coastline amongst the Papuan language villages; the Yabob and Bilibil people used big sailing canoes to trade their pots from Karkar Island to western Morobe. They were part of the Vitiaz Strait trade network. Bundi was the centre of trade between Astrolabe Bay and the Highlands. Trade involved shells, clay pots and wooden bowls from the lowlands and stone axes and women from the Asaro and Jimi valleys.
Madang Province is a large region 300 kilometres long and 160 kilometres wide with four large and many small offshore islands. The province totals 29,000 square kilometres and has a population of 365,106; the province shares land borders with East Sepik to the west, Western Highlands, Jiwaka to the southwest and Eastern Highlands to the south, Morobe to the southeast. To the south lies the Bismarck Range with heights ranging over 4,000 metres. Mount Wilhelm, PNG's tallest mountain at 4509m, being found in those ranges. In the south, the Ramu Valley separates the Bismarck Range from the Finisterre Range to the south east of the province; the mountains are timber rich with large stands of trees and rainforest, whilst the coastal plain of the vallery is open and studded with palm trees. The Bismarck Sea laps the northern coast of the region is fed by the larger Ramu, Sogeram and Malas Rivers. Offshore islands in the sea are, in some cases, with Karkar and Manam being notable. In 2004/2005 the population of Manam Island was evacuated due to an eruption of the volcano.
Bagabag and Karkar have had no major volcanic activities in recent years. This active volcanic region is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire and has created crater lakes, smoking volcanic cones and black sand beaches; the Madang province receives ample rainfall with the months of November to June being the wettest. Due to changes caused by outside contact over the years, the cultural loss has been great, but isolation of many groups has caused that rate of change to be diversely uneven; because of the environmental diversity, this province has a diverse culture as well. Tall, lithe coastal people from Karkar Island, short nuggety highlands men from Simbai and river people from the Ramu. Many Madang area costumes include bamboo frames decorated with the common cockatoo and parrot feathers as birds of paradise are uncommon; the Ramu people are prolific carvers, the lower Ramu has cultural links with the villages of the artistically diverse Sepik River region. The resurgence of cultural festivals has seen many people donning the dress and paints of their ancestors.
Foods eaten include those grown in fertile coastal gardens and fish, green vegetables, taro, sweet potato and yams which relish dry soils. Sago is a staple of the Ramu river people in its lower reaches; the mountain people have good gardens with excellent produce. There are 173 regional languages spoken in Madang Province, some of them being different from the others. There is a large number of small language groups, many with fewer than 1,000 people. Austronesian sailors settled on this coast some 5 to 6,000 years ago and the languages of these intrepid but unknown sailors are found along the coast of the province, such as Lukep, Gedaged and Bilbil. Inland, non-Austronesian Papuan languages like Katiati and Saki predominate; the Ramu river languages include Gamei, Tangu and Igana, the Rai Coast languages include Somau Garia and Usino. Karkar Island is unusual in that it has speakers of the Papuan language Waskia and the Austronesian language Takia. Madang Province is second producer of cattle.
Ramu Sugar, Coconut Oil Production Manang Ltd and Jant/Gogol woodchip mill are amongst PNG's biggest employers. Most areas are still far from transport and undeveloped. In Madang Province, 173 regional languages are spoken, some of them being different from the others. There are widespread coconut palm plantations on the cardamum is grown in Madang; the Kulili plantation is the second largest of Karkar Island's twelve plantations and has more than a thousand coconut palms and cocoa trees. These trees can grow in the same soil due to vast height differences. 70% of the cocoa and 50% of the copra produced in Madang Province comes from Karkar. Each province in Papua New Guinea has one or more districts, each district has one or more Local Level Government areas. For census purposes, the LLG areas are subdivided into those into census units. Gama Rural Madang Technical College Madang Marine Time College Madang Teachers College Divine Word University is a National University and a leading tertiary institution in Papua New Guinea.
Divine Word Institute, it was established by an Act of Parliament in 1980 and was established as a University in 1996. DWU It is ecumenical and governed with government support; the province was governed by a decentralised provincial administration, headed by a Premier, from 1978 to 1995. Following ref
Western Province (Papua New Guinea)
Western Province is a coastal province in southwestern Papua New Guinea, bordering the Indonesian province of Papua. The provincial capital is Daru; the largest town in the province is Tabubil. Other major settlements are Kiunga, Ningerum and Balimo; the provincial government has, as with the governments of North Solomons and Northern provinces, sought to change the name of the province. The government uses the name Fly River Provincial Government. Western Province is the largest province in Papua New Guinea by area. There are several large rivers that run through the province, including the Fly River and its tributaries the Strickland and Ok Tedi rivers; the largest lake in Papua New Guinea, Lake Murray, is in Western Province. This province is the only part of Papua New Guinea to hold land west of the 141°E line, which divides it from Indonesian Western New Guinea; this is a small section of territory bordered by the Fly River. The Tonda Wildlife Management Area in the south-western corner of the province is a wetland of international importance.
It is the largest protected area in Papua New Guinea. There were 201,351 inhabitants in Western Province in the 2011 census, residing in 31,322 households. Of these, 79,349 people were recorded in Middle Fly District, 62,850 in North Fly District and 59,152 in South Fly District; the average household size across the province was 6.4. The major economic activity in the province is constituted by the Ok Tedi Mine established by BHP and the subject of considerable litigation by traditional landowners both in respect of environmental degradation and disputes over royalties, it is operated by Ok Tedi Mining Limited. There are three districts in the province; each district has one or more Local Level Government areas. For census purposes, the LLG areas are subdivided into those into census units; the province was governed by a decentralised provincial administration, headed by a Premier, from 1977 to 1995. Following reforms taking effect that year, the national government reassumed some powers, the role of Premier was replaced by a position of Governor, to be held by the winner of the province-wide seat in the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea.
The province and each district is represented by a Member of the National Parliament. There is one provincial electorate and each district is an open electorate. Hindenburg Range Hindenburg Wall Star Mountains Kiunga-Tabubil Highway