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Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush was an American engineer and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U. S. Office of Scientific Research and Development, through which all wartime military R&D was carried out, including important developments in radar and the initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project, he emphasized the importance of scientific research to national security and economic well-being, was chiefly responsible for the movement that led to the creation of the National Science Foundation. Bush joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1919, founded the company now known as Raytheon in 1922. Bush became vice president of MIT and dean of the MIT School of Engineering in 1932, president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1938. During his career, Bush patented a string of his own inventions, he is known for his engineering work on analog computers, for the memex. Starting in 1927, Bush constructed a differential analyzer, an analog computer with some digital components that could solve differential equations with as many as 18 independent variables.

An offshoot of the work at MIT by Bush and others was the beginning of digital circuit design theory. The memex, which he began developing in the 1930s, was a hypothetical adjustable microfilm viewer with a structure analogous to that of hypertext; the memex and Bush's 1945 essay "As We May Think" influenced generations of computer scientists, who drew inspiration from his vision of the future. Bush was appointed to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1938, soon became its chairman; as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee, director of OSRD, Bush coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare. Bush was a well-known policymaker and public intellectual during World War II, when he was in effect the first presidential science advisor; as head of NDRC and OSRD, he initiated the Manhattan Project, ensured that it received top priority from the highest levels of government. In Science, The Endless Frontier, his 1945 report to the President of the United States, Bush called for an expansion of government support for science, he pressed for the creation of the National Science Foundation.

Vannevar Bush was born in Everett, Massachusetts, on March 11, 1890, the third child and only son of Perry Bush, the local Universalist pastor, his wife Emma Linwood. He had two older sisters and Reba, he was named after John Vannevar, an old friend of the family who had attended Tufts College with Perry. The family moved to Chelsea, Massachusetts, in 1892, Bush graduated from Chelsea High School in 1909, he attended Tufts, like his father before him. A popular student, he was vice president of his sophomore class, president of his junior class. During his senior year, he managed the football team, he became a member of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, dated Phoebe Clara Davis, who came from Chelsea. Tufts allowed students to gain a master's degree in four years with a bachelor's degree. For his master's thesis, Bush invented and patented a "profile tracer"; this was a mapping device for assisting surveyors. It had two bicycle wheels, a pen that plotted the terrain over which it traveled, it was the first of a string of inventions.

On graduation in 1913 he received both bachelor of master of science degrees. After graduation, Bush worked at General Electric in New York, for $14 a week; as a "test man", his job was to assess equipment to ensure. He transferred to GE's plant in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, to work on high voltage transformers, but after a fire broke out at the plant and the other test men were suspended, he returned to Tufts in October 1914 to teach mathematics, spent the 1915 summer break working at the Brooklyn Navy Yard as an electrical inspector. Bush was awarded a $1,500 scholarship to study at Clark University as a doctoral student of Arthur Gordon Webster, but Webster wanted Bush to study acoustics, a popular field at the time that led many to computer science. Bush preferred to quit rather than study a subject. Bush subsequently enrolled in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology electrical engineering program. Spurred by the need for enough financial security to marry, he submitted his thesis, entitled Oscillating-Current Circuits: An Extension of the Theory of Generalized Angular Velocities, with Applications to the Coupled Circuit and the Artificial Transmission Line, in April 1916.

His adviser, Arthur Edwin Kennelly, tried to demand more work from him, but Bush refused, Kennelly was overruled by the department chairman. He married Phoebe in August 1916, they had two sons: John Hathaway Bush. Bush accepted a job with Tufts, where he became involved with the American Radio and Research Corporation, which began broadcasting music from the campus on March 8, 1916; the station owner, Harold Power, hired him to run the company's laboratory, at a salary greater than that which Bush drew from Tufts. In 1917, following the United States' entry into World War I, he went to work with the National Research Council, he attempted to develop a means of detecting submarines by measuring the disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field. His device worked. Bush left Tufts in 1919, although he remained employed by AMRAD, joined the Dep

Information processor

An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system which takes information in one form and processes it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process. An information processing system is made up of four basic parts, or sub-systems: input processor storage outputAn object may be considered an information processor if it receives information from another object and in some manner changes the information before transmitting it; this broadly defined. As an example, a falling rock could be considered an information processor due to the following observable facts: First, information in the form of gravitational force from the earth serves as input to the system we call a rock. At a particular instant the rock is a specific distance from the surface of the earth traveling at a specific speed. Both the current distance and speed properties are forms of information which for that instant only may be considered "stored" in the rock. In the next instant, the distance of the rock from the earth has changed due to its motion under the influence of the Earth's gravity.

Any time the properties of an object change a process has occurred meaning that a processor of some kind is at work. In addition, the rock's new position and increased speed is observed by us; these changing properties of the rock are its "output." In this example, both the rock and the earth are information processing systems, because both objects change the properties of the other over time. If change occurs, information is processed. From the stance of information theory, information is taken as a sequence of symbols from an alphabet, say an input alphabet χ, an output alphabet ϒ. Information processing consists of an input-output function that maps any input sequence from χ into an output sequence from ϒ; the mapping may be determinate. It may be memoryless. Data, data processing, information system Physical symbol system Holographic principle — an information processing conjecture about physics Black box Channel Web service

1864 in Scotland

Events from the year 1864 in Scotland. Monarch – Victoria Lord Advocate – James Moncreiff Solicitor General for ScotlandGeorge Young Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice GeneralLord Colonsay Lord Justice ClerkLord Glenalmond 21 June – last public execution in EdinburghGeorge Bryce, the Ratho murderer. 19 July – Chalmers Hospital opened in Banff, Aberdeenshire. 2 September – the first Ottoman ironclad Osmaniye is launched by Robert Napier and Sons on the River Clyde. 8 December – James Clerk Maxwell presents his paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field to the Royal Society, treating light as an electromagnetic wave. Hall, Russell & Company established as marine engineers in Aberdeen; the National Bank of Scotland becomes the first Scottish bank to open an office in London. Historian John Hill Burton publishes The Scot Abroad. 2 January – James Caird, shipowner 17 January – David Torrence, film actor 5 February – Marion Gilchrist, medical doctor 6 February – John Henry Mackay, anarchist writer 14 February – James Burns, shipowner 8 March – James Craig Annan, photographer 28 May – Jessie Newbery, née Rowat, embroiderer 10 June – Ninian Comper, Gothic Revival architect 7 October – Harrington Mann, painter 31 October – Cosmo Gordon Lang, Archbishop of Canterbury 4 November – Robert Lorimer, architect 13 December – John Quinton Pringle, painter 6 January – John Clements Wickham, naval officer and administrator 1 June – Sir John Watson Gordon, portrait painter 6 August – Catherine Sinclair and children's writer Timeline of Scottish history 1864 in the United Kingdom

Eli Apple

Eli Apple known as Eli Woodard, is an American football cornerback for the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League. He played college football at Ohio State, was selected by the New York Giants with the 10th overall pick in the first round of the 2016 NFL Draft. Apple attended Eastern Regional High School in Voorhees, New Jersey and was teammates with Tennessee Titans nickelback Logan Ryan. Apple was rated the top prospect in New Jersey in Rival's 2013 class and was ranked the 28th best prospect nationally, he received about twenty scholarship offers from Alabama, Virginia Tech, Boston College, Tennessee, Miami, Georgia Tech, Michigan, Ole Miss, North Carolina, NC State, Clemson and ranked his top three schools as Rutgers, Ohio State, Notre Dame. On February 12, 2012, he announced his verbal commitment to Ohio State after Rutgers head coach Greg Schiano left for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Apple enrolled at Ohio State in January 2013 as a five-star prospect and rated as high as the No. 11 prospect nationally on the ESPN 150.

He was rated as the No. 1 overall prospect in New Jersey and No. 6 cornerback prospect nationally by 247sports. He went on to play in 2014 as a redshirt freshman, he played in the 2015 College Football Playoff National Championship. In his second season with the Buckeyes, he was the Defensive MVP. On January 4, 2016, Apple announced his decision to forgo his remaining eligibility and enter the 2016 NFL Draft. Apple attended the NFL Scouting Combine and completed the majority of combine drills before suffering cramps, he finished with the tenth fastest time in the 40-yard dash among all participating players at the NFL Combine. On March 11, 2016, Apple attended Ohio State’s pro day, but opted to stand on his combine numbers and only performed the short shuttle, three-cone drill, positional drills. Apple had pre-draft visits with multiple teams, including the Buffalo Bills, San Francisco 49ers, Tennessee Titans. At the conclusion of the pre-draft process, Apple was projected to be an early to mid first round pick by NFL draft experts and scouts.

He was ranked the third best cornerback prospect in the draft by, was ranked the fourth best cornerback by NFL analyst Mike Mayock, was ranked the sixth best defensive back by Sports Illustrated. The New York Giants selected Apple in the first round of the 2016 NFL Draft. Apple was the second cornerback drafted after Jalen Ramsey, it was reported that the New York Giants has planned to draft linebacker Leonard Floyd or offensive tackle Jack Conklin. However, circumstances changed; the Tennessee Titans traded ahead of the Giants to draft Jack Conklin and the Chicago Bears traded ahead of the Giants to select Leonard Floyd. New York Giants’ General Manager Jerry Reese opted to keep the tenth overall pick and selected Apple, their highest graded player available on their draft board without any issues or injuries. Draft analysts and fans criticized the selection of Apple. On May 6, 2016, the New York Giants signed Apple to a guaranteed four year, $15.15 million that includes a signing bonus of $9.21 million.

Apple entered training camp slated as the third cornerback on the depth chart behind veterans Janoris Jenkins and Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie. Head coach Ben McAdoo named Apple the third cornerback on the depth chart to begin the regular season and first-team nickelback, he made his professional regular season debut in the New York Giants’ season-opener at the Dallas Cowboys and recorded four solo tackles during their 20–19 victory. On September 25, 2016, Apple earned his first career start and recorded one solo tackle in a 29–27 loss to the Washington Redskins, but left the game in the second quarter after suffering hamstring injury. Apple was inactive for the Giants’ Week 4 loss at the Minnesota Vikings with a hamstring injury, he was sidelined for their Week 6 win against the Baltimore Ravens due to a groin injury. On November 7, 2016, he started his second game in a row and made four solo tackles against the Philadelphia Eagles but was benched in favor of Trevin Wade as the Giants won 28–23.

On November 14, 2016, Apple started his first game at outside corner, with Rodgers-Cromartie covering the slot and made one solo tackle in a 21–20 victory over the Cincinnati Bengals. In Week 11, Apple collected a season-high nine combined tackles in a 22–16 victory over the Chicago Bears. On December 4, 2016, Apple recorded five combined tackles, broke up two passes, recovered a fumble, made his first career interception in the Giants’ 24–14 loss at the Pittsburgh Steelers in Week 13. Apple intercepted a pass attempt by Steelers’ quarterback Ben Roethlisberger, intended for wide receiver Eli Rogers, during the third quarter. Apple started the last ten games of the season and finished his rookie season in 2016 with 51 combined tackles, seven pass deflections, one interception, a forced fumble in 14 games and 11 starts. Apple entered training camp slated as a starting outside cornerback. Head coach Ben McAdoo named Apple and Janoris Jenkins the starting outside cornerbacks to begin the regular season with Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie as the starting slot cornerback.

He started the Giant's season-opening 19–3 loss to the Dallas Cowboys and made seven combined tackles and a pass deflection. Apple was benched for the majority of the Giants’ Week 5 loss to the Los Angeles Chargers due to disciplinary reasons. On October 15, 2017, Apple recorded five solo tackles and a career-high three pass deflections, helping the Gia


JerryC known by his English name Jerry Chang, is a Taiwanese guitarist and composer. He is known for arranging and playing "Canon Rock", a rock arrangement of Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D, he began playing the guitar at the age of 17, the piano before age 15. His style is influenced by classical music, neoclassical guitarists, as well as metal bands such as Helloween and Metallica and Japanese rock bands such as B'z and L'Arc-en-Ciel, his most famous work, "Canon Rock", was made popular only after South Korean guitarist Lim Jeong-hyun known as funtwo, performed a cover version in 2005. The song has garnered much media attention. Chang was featured in the profiles section of the January 2007 issue of Guitar World magazine, along with a tab transcription of "Canon Rock" in the featured songs sections. At the height of its popularity, "Canon Rock" was one of the top 10 downloaded guitar tabs on the Ultimate Guitar Archive, was once one of the most viewed videos on YouTube. There are thousands of Canon Rock covers on YouTube.

Chang has signed a recording contract with Taiwanese label HIM International Music. Although no official announcement was made by HIM, the company began creating a website for Chang in 2007. In a letter to his listeners several months he publicly announced that he has indeed signed a contract and has been working with fellow musician Tank; the Canon Rock single includes "Canon Rock", the "Canon Rock backing track", "Dear Mozart", the "Dear Mozart backing track". The single is only available in Taiwan, since JerryC has yet to obtain a distribution contract

Seamus Mallon

Seamus Frederick Mallon was an Irish politician who served as deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland from 1998 to 2001 and Deputy Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party from 1979 to 2001. Seamus Mallon was born in the Protestant village of Markethill and was educated at the Abbey Christian Brothers Grammar School in Newry and St Patrick's Grammar School, Armagh; as a career he chose teaching, became headmaster of St James's Primary School in Markethill. Mallon was involved in the Gaelic Athletic Association, playing Gaelic football for Armagh, he first played club football for Middletown during the 1950s with Keady Dwyers, Queen's University and Crossmaglen Rangers. He was involved in amateur drama and wrote a play which won an All-Ireland amateur drama play award. During the 1960s, he was involved in the civil rights movement in his native Armagh. In 1979, when John Hume went from being deputy leader of the SDLP to leader, Mallon became deputy leader, he was elected to the first power-sharing Assembly in 1973, to the Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention in 1975 representing Armagh.

Between May and December 1982 Mallon was appointed by the Taoiseach Charles Haughey to the Republic's upper house, Seanad Éireann. In 1982, Mallon was elected to the new Northern Ireland Assembly, set up as part of then-Secretary of State for Northern Ireland James Prior's rolling devolution. However, due to his membership of the Seanad he was, following a challenge by Unionist politicians, disqualified. Under legislation of the time, no elected member of a British parliament or regional assembly could serve in a parliament outside the United Kingdom or Commonwealth without losing their British seat; that restriction was removed with regard to the Oireachtas by the Disqualifications Act 2000. In 1986, he was elected to Westminster as an MP for Newry and Armagh, a seat he held until 2005, he won the seat in a by-election to replace Jim Nicholson, who had resigned his seat in protest at the Anglo-Irish Agreement, along with all the other Northern Irish unionist MPs. Nicholson was the only MP to fail to be re-elected.

Mallon was elected to the Forum for Peace and Reconciliation in 1994. He was a member of the SDLP team at the all-party negotiations that opened in Belfast in June 1996, he has been quoted as saying that the Good Friday Agreement, which resulted from the talks in 1998, was "Sunningdale for slow learners". The Good Friday Agreement led to the setting up of the Northern Ireland Assembly, elected in June 1998, with a power-sharing Executive. Mallon was elected as member for Newry and Armagh, in December 1999 became Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland, serving alongside Ulster Unionist Party leader David Trimble. Mallon remained a strong opponent of IRA violence, was in favour of police reform in Northern Ireland, he retired in 2001, along with John Hume, from the leadership of the SDLP. Mark Durkan replaced both, Hume as leader and Mallon as Deputy First Minister, when the Northern Ireland Executive was re-established following a suspension. Mallon did not contest his seat in the Stormont Assembly in the 2003 elections, stood down at the 2005 Westminster election.

His seat was taken, by Conor Murphy of Sinn Féin. Mallon was conferred with the freedom of Drogheda in 2018, his autobiography, A Shared Home Place, written with Andy Pollak, was published in 2019. Mallon's wife Gertrude died in October 2016, their daughter Órla is married with one child. Mallon continued to live in Markethill in retirement. Mallon died at his home in Markethill on 24 January 2020, aged 83, he had been treated for cancer before his death. Seamus Mallon on IMDb