The French Resistance was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women, who, in addition to their guerrilla warfare activities, were publishers of underground newspapers, providers of first-hand intelligence information, maintainers of escape networks that helped Allied soldiers and airmen trapped behind enemy lines; the men and women of the Resistance came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society, including émigrés, students, conservative Roman Catholics, citizens from the ranks of liberals and communists. The French Resistance played a significant role in facilitating the Allies' rapid advance through France following the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, the lesser-known invasion of Provence on 15 August, by providing military intelligence on the German defences known as the Atlantic Wall and on Wehrmacht deployments and orders of battle.
The Resistance planned and executed acts of sabotage on the electrical power grid, transport facilities, telecommunications networks. It was politically and morally important to France, both during the German occupation and for decades afterward, because it provided the country with an inspiring example of the patriotic fulfillment of a national imperative, countering an existential threat to French nationhood; the actions of the Resistance stood in marked contrast to the collaboration of the French regime based at Vichy, the French people who joined the pro-Nazi Milice française and the French men who joined the Waffen SS. After the landings in Normandy and Provence, the paramilitary components of the Resistance were organised more formally, into a hierarchy of operational units known, collectively, as the French Forces of the Interior. Estimated to have a strength of 100,000 in June 1944, the FFI grew and reached 400,000 by October of that year. Although the amalgamation of the FFI was, in some cases, fraught with political difficulties, it was successful, it allowed France to rebuild the fourth-largest army in the European theatre by VE Day in May 1945.
Following the Battle of France and the second French-German armistice, signed near Compiègne on 22 June 1940, life for many in France continued more or less at first, but soon the German occupation authorities and the collaborationist Vichy régime began to employ brutal and intimidating tactics to ensure the submission of the French population. Although the majority of civilians neither collaborated nor overtly resisted, the occupation of French territory and the Germans' draconian policies inspired a discontented minority to form paramilitary groups dedicated to both active and passive resistance. One of the conditions of the armistice was; this burden amounted to about 20 million German Reichsmarks per day, a sum that, in May 1940, was equivalent to four hundred million French francs. Because of this overvaluation of German currency, the occupiers were able to make fair and honest requisitions and purchases while, in effect, operating a system of organized plunder. Prices soared, leading to widespread food shortages and malnutrition among children, the elderly, members of the working class engaged in physical labour.
Labour shortages plagued the French economy because hundreds of thousands of French workers were requisitioned and transferred to Germany for compulsory labour under the Service du Travail Obligatoire. The labour shortage was worsened by the fact that a large number of the French were held as prisoners of war in Germany. Beyond these hardships and dislocations, the occupation became unbearable. Onerous regulations, strict censorship, incessant propaganda and nightly curfews all played a role in establishing an atmosphere of fear and repression; the sight of French women consorting with German soldiers infuriated many French men, but sometimes it was the only way they could get adequate food for their families. As reprisals for Resistance activities, the authorities established harsh forms of collective punishment. For example, the increasing militancy of communist resistance in August 1941 led to the taking of thousands of hostages from the general population. A typical policy statement read, "After each further incident, a number, reflecting the seriousness of the crime, shall be shot."
During the occupation, an estimated 30,000 French civilian hostages were shot to intimidate others who were involved in acts of resistance. German troops engaged in massacres such as the Oradour-sur-Glane massacre, in which an entire village was razed and every resident murdered because of persistent resistance in the vicinity. In early 1943, the Vichy authorities created a paramilitary group, the Milice, to combat the Resistance, they worked alongside German forces. The group collaborated with the Nazis, was the Vichy equivalent of the Gestapo security forces in Germany, their actions were brutal and included torture and execution of Resistance suspects. After the liberation of France in the summer of 1944, the French executed many of the estimated 25,000 to 35,000 miliciens for their collaboration. Many of
Paris metropolitan area
The Paris metropolitan area is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris and its surrounding suburbs. Created and used from 1996 by France's national INSEE statistical bureau to match international demographic standards, the aire urbaine is a statistical unit that describes the suburban development around centres of urban growth: it is composed of a couronne périurbaine ) surrounding a more densely built and densely populated pôle urbain, a single or group of densely-built unité urbaine communes. From 2011, the INSEE classified its largest aires urbaines into aires métropolitaines and grandes aires urbaines. From Paris became France's largest metropolitan area. In France, the'Paris metropolitan area' term's use is limited to demographic and statistical studies, and, to date, it is unused in economical statistics, but in recent years the media has begun using it to describe the electoral tendencies of France's largest cities. In 2010 the government passed a law that invited France's largest city'metropoles' to work together as an intercommunitary entities, but the lack of response by the following year moved the government to make the cooperation for many of France's largest cities obligatory, Paris became a case study all on its own.
This latter initiative created the "Métropole du Grand Paris", a Paris-centred intercommunal cooperation effort enacted from January 1, 2016. The territory it covers is much smaller than the INSEE'Paris metropolitan area' statistical area: it includes Paris, its neighbouring three départements, a few bordering communes in the departments beyond; as of 2010, the INSEE statistical Paris metropolitan area, with its 17,174 km², extends beyond Paris' administrative Île-de-France region, a region commonly referred to as the région parisienne. The area had a population of 12,405,426 as of the January 2013 census, making it the largest urban region in the European Union. Nearly 19% of France's population resides in the region; the Paris metropolitan area expands at each population census due to the rapid population growth in the Paris area. New communes surrounding. At the 1968 census, the earliest date for which population figures were retrospectively computed for French aire urbaines, the Paris metropolitan area had 8,368,459 inhabitants in an area that only encompassed central Île-de-France.
By the 1999 census the Paris metropolitan area was larger than Île-de-France and had 11,174,743 inhabitants in 14,518 km². By the 2012 census it had reached 12,341,418 inhabitants in 17,174 km², an area larger than Île-de-France; the table below shows the population growth of the Paris metropolitan area, i.e. the urban area and the commuter belt surrounding it.: Grand Paris Metropolitan Areas of France Île-de-France Document about the functioning of Paris Metropolitan Area Document about the extension of Paris Metropolitan Area
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis. Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint-Denis and was the location of the associated abbey, it is home to France's national football and rugby stadium, the Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Saint-Denis is a industrial suburb changing its economic base. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens; until the 3rd century, Saint-Denis was a small settlement called Catolacus or Catulliacum meaning "estate of Catullius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. About 250 AD, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartre hill and buried in Catolacus. Shortly after 250 his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage centre, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis. In 1793, during the French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed Franciade in a gesture of rejection of religion.
In 1803, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city reverted to its former name of Saint-Denis. During its history, Saint-Denis has been associated with the French royal house. Starting from Dagobert I every French king was buried in the Basilica. However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a Gallo-Roman village named Catolacus on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb became a place of worship. Around 475, Sainte Geneviève had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, which by had become a popular destination for pilgrims, it was this chapel that Dagobert I had turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, most he was buried in Saint-Denis. During the Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew to become important.
Merchants from all over Europe came to visit its market. In 1140, Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis, he started the work of enlarging the Basilica of Saint Denis that still exists today cited as the first example of high early Gothic Architecture. The new church was consecrated in 1144. Saint-Denis suffered in the Hundred Years' War. During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on 10 November 1567; the Protestants were defeated. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593 in the abbey of Saint-Denis. King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses, his successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and renovated the buildings of the royal abbey. During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from 1793 to 1803, but the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed.
The remains were thrown together. The last king to be interred in Saint-Denis was Louis XVIII. After France became a republic and an empire, Saint-Denis lost its association with royalty. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the north-western part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis. During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became industrialised. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the Canal Saint-Denis was constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcq in the northeast of Paris to the River Seine at the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, in 1843 the first railway reached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis; the presence of so many industries gave rise to an important socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialist administration, by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of la ville rouge, the red city.
Until Jacques Doriot in 1934, all mayors of Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party. During the Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on 13 June 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on 14 April 1942 at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgency which started on 18 August 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclerc on 27 August 1944. After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, dependent on its heavy industry. During the 1990s, the city started to grow again; the 1998 FIFA World Cup provided an enormous impulse. The stadium is used by rugby teams for friendly matches; the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Top 14 final match
Hauts-de-Seine is a department of France. It is part of the Métropole du Grand Paris and of the Île-de-France region, covers the western inner suburbs of Paris, it is small and densely populated and contains the modern office and shopping complex known as La Défense. Hauts-de-Seine and two other small départements, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne and are together with the City of Paris included in the Greater Paris since 1 January 2016. Hauts-de-Seine is made up of three departmental arrondissements and 36 communes: Hauts-de-Seine has a general council of which members are called general councillors; the general council is the deliberative organ of the department. The general councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the departement for a 6-years term; the general council is ruled by a president. See Hauts-de-Seine General Council; the Hauts-de-Seine department was created in 1968, from parts of the former départements of Seine and Seine-et-Oise.
Its creation reflected the implementation of a law passed in 1964, Nanterre had been selected as the prefecture for the new department early in 1965. In the 1990s and early 2000s, Hauts-de-Seine received national attention as the result of a corruption scandal concerning the misuse of public funds provided for the department's housing projects. Implicated were former minister and former president of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council, Charles Pasqua, other personalities of the RPR party. Hauts-de-Seine is one of Europe's richest areas, its GDP per capita was US$119,778 in 2015, according to INSEE official figures. Hauts-de-Seine was the political base of Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic from 2007 to 2012, he was the mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine in the department. Charles Pasqua was based in Hauts-de-Seine. Website of the General council Prefecture website
Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva was a Russian and Soviet poet. Her work is considered among some of the greatest in twentieth century Russian literature, she lived through and wrote of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Moscow famine that followed it. In an attempt to save her daughter Irina from starvation, she placed her in a state orphanage in 1919, where she died of hunger. Tsvetaeva left Russia in 1922 and lived with her family in increasing poverty in Paris and Prague before returning to Moscow in 1939, her husband Sergei Efron and her daughter Ariadna Efron were arrested on espionage charges in 1941. Tsvetaeva committed suicide in 1941; as a lyrical poet, her passion and daring linguistic experimentation mark her as a striking chronicler of her times and the depths of the human condition. Marina Tsvetaeva was born in Moscow, the daughter of Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev, a professor of Fine Art at the University of Moscow, who founded the Alexander III Museum. Tsvetaeva's mother, Maria Alexandrovna Meyn, Ivan's second wife, was a concert pianist literate, with German and Polish ancestry.
Growing up in considerable material comfort, Tsvetaeva would come to identify herself with the Polish aristocracy. Tsvetaeva's two half-siblings and Andrei, were the children of Ivan's deceased first wife, Varvara Dmitrievna Ilovaiskaya, daughter of the historian Dmitry Ilovaisky. Tsvetaeva's only full sister, was born in 1894; the children quarrelled and violently. There was considerable tension between Tsvetaeva's mother and Varvara's children, Tsvetaeva's father maintained close contact with Varvara's family. Tsvetaeva's father was kind, but wrapped up in his studies and distant from his family, he was still in love with his first wife. Maria Tsvetaeva had had a love affair before her marriage. Maria Tsvetaeva disapproved of Marina's poetic inclination. In 1902 Tsvetaeva's mother contracted tuberculosis. A change in climate was believed to help cure the disease, so the family travelled abroad until shortly before her death in 1906, when Tsvetaeva was 14, they lived for a while near Genoa. There, away from the rigid constraints of a bourgeois Muscovite life, Tsvetaeva was able for the first time to run free, climb cliffs, vent her imagination in childhood games.
There were many Russian émigré revolutionaries residing at that time in Nervi, who may have had some influence on the young Tsvetaeva. In June 1904 Tsvetaeva was sent to school in Lausanne. Changes in the Tsvetaev residence led to several changes in school, during the course of her travels she acquired the Italian and German languages, she gave up the strict musical studies that her mother had turned to poetry. She wrote "With a mother like her, I had only one choice: to become a poet". In 1908, aged 16, Tsvetaeva studied literary history at the Sorbonne. During this time, a major revolutionary change was occurring within Russian poetry: the flowering of the Russian Symbolist movement, this movement was to colour most of her work, it was not the theory, to attract her, but the poetry and the gravity which writers such as Andrey Bely and Aleksandr Blok were capable of generating. Her own first collection of poems, Vecherny Albom, self-published in 1910, promoted her considerable reputation as a poet.
It was well received, although her early poetry was held to be insipid compared to her work. It attracted the attention of the poet and critic Maximilian Voloshin, whom Tsvetaeva described after his death in A Living Word About a Living Man. Voloshin soon became her friend and mentor, she began spending time at Voloshin's home in the Black Sea resort of Koktebel, a well-known haven for writers and artists. She became enamoured of the work of Aleksandr Blok and Anna Akhmatova, although she never met Blok and did not meet Akhmatova until the 1940s. Describing the Koktebel community, the émigré Viktoria Schweitzer wrote: "Here inspiration was born." At Koktebel, Tsvetaeva met a 17-year-old cadet in the Officers' Academy. She was 19, he 18: they fell in love and were married in 1912, the same year as her father's project, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, was ceremonially opened, an event attended by Tsar Nicholas II. Tsvetaeva's love for Efron was intense. At around the same time, she became involved in an affair with the poet Sofia Parnok, 7 years older than Tsvetaeva, an affair that caused her husband great grief.
The two women fell in love, the relationship profoundly affected both women's writings. She deals with the ambiguous and tempestuous nature of this relationship in a cycle of poems which at times she called The Girlfriend, at other times The Mistake. Tsvetaeva and her husband spent summers in the Crimea until the revolution, had two daughters: Ariadna, or Alya and Irina. In 1914, Efron volunteered for the front and by 1917 he was an officer stationed in Moscow with the 56th Reserve. Tsvetaeva was a close witness of the Russian Revolution. On trains, she
Gérard Jouannest was a French pianist and composer. Jouannest was born on 2 May 1933 in Vanves near Paris, his father was a piano manufacturer. Jouannest graduated from the Conservatoire de Paris in 1954. During the Algerian War, he served in the French Army, although he was based in Morocco. Jouannest began his career as a pianist in music halls, he worked as a pianist for François Rauber. In 1959, he was introduced to Jacques Brel by music producer Jacques Canetti, he worked for him for nearly a decade, it was Brel who introduced Jouannest to his future wife Juliette Gréco in 1968, Jouannest played the piano for her during the rest of his career. Jouannest composed more than 250 songs over the course of his life. For example, he composed songs for Jacques Brel like Ne Me Quitte Pas, Ces Gens-Là, Bruxelles and Les Vieux, he composed songs for younger artists like Miossec, Benjamin Biolay and Abd al Malik. Jouannest married Juliette Gréco, they were introduced by Jacques Brel in the 1960s. Jouannest supported Jean-Luc Melenchon in the 2012 presidential election.
Jouannest died on 16 May 2018 in the South of France. He was 85
Issy-les-Moulineaux is a commune in the southwestern suburban area of Paris, lying on the left bank of the river Seine. It is one of Paris entrances and is located 6.6 km from Notre-Dame Church, considered Kilometre Zero of France. On 1 January 2010, Issy-les-Moulineaux became part of the Communauté d'agglomération Grand Paris Seine Ouest, which merged into the Métropole du Grand Paris in January 2016. Issy-les-Moulineaux has moved its economy from an old manufacturing base to high value-added service sectors and is at the heart of the Val de Seine business district, the largest cluster of telecommunication and media businesses in France hosting the headquarters of most major French TV networks. Issy-les-Moulineaux was called Issy; the name Issy comes from Medieval Latin Issiacum or Isciacum meaning "estate of Isicius", a Gallo-Roman landowner, although some think the name comes from a Celtic radical meaning "under the wood". Local legend recounted on the city's official website mentions alternative origin of the name arising from a temple of the Egyptian goddess Isis said to be under the site of the Church of Saint Stephen.
In 1893 Issy became Issy-les-Moulineaux. Les Moulineaux was the name of a hamlet on the territory of the commune named Les Moulineaux due to the windmills that stood there; the town was once the location of the Château d'Issy, destroyed in 1871, former home of the Princes of Conti. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, about a third of the commune of Issy-les-Moulineaux was annexed to Paris, forms now the neighborhood of Javel, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. Issy-les-Moulineaux is home to a community of 5,000 Armenians that have established themselves in the area since the 1930s; the community has two Armenian churches, an athletic club, a school, a monument dedicated to the Armenian Genocide, a street named after Armenia called Rue d'Armenie, Rue d'Erevan named after Armenia's capital Yerevan. Issy-les-Moulineaux became twin cities with Echmiadzin, Armenia in December 1989. In the late 19th century, an expansive field in Issy had been dedicated to military exercises.
This land, owned by the French Army, was made into an airfield in the 1900s during the pioneering era of aviation. Issy-les-Moulineaux soon became a hot spot for aviation in France, the most active airfield in Paris, the site of many flight experiments. Photographers, newspaper reporters and intelligence agents from other countries gathered there to report on developments; the airfield of Issy-les-Moulineaux was the starting point of the 1911 Paris to Madrid air race. One of the competing planes crashed into the audience during take-off, killing the French Minister of War Henri Maurice Berteaux, it hosted the trap shooting events for the 1924 Summer Olympics. The firm of Appareils d'Aviation Les Frères Voisin, the world's first commercial airplane factory, located in Boulogne-Billancourt, transformed itself into a luxury automobile manufacturing company named Avions Voisin in 1920. Most of Voisin's manufacturing facilities were relocated in neighboring Issy-les-Moulineaux. Avions Voisin closed its doors in 1940.
The last fixed wing flight occurred in 1953. It is operated by Aeroports de Paris. Since the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015, Issy forms one canton: Canton of Issy-les-Moulineaux. Mayors of Issy-les-Moulineaux: 1903–1908: Auguste Gervais 1908–1911: Henri Mayer 1911–1919: Léon-Victor Clément 1919–1922: Justin Oudin February – May 1923: Saint-Martin May – October 1923: Eugène Demarne 1923–1935: Justin Oudin 1935–1939: Victor Cresson 1945–1949: Fernand Maillet 1949–1953: Jacques Madaule May – July 1953: Fernand Maillet 1953–1973: Bonaventure Leca 1973–1980: Raymond Menand 1980 – present: André Santini Eurosport, the Canal+ Group, Coca-Cola France, France 24, Microsoft France and Europe and Technicolor SA are based in Issy-les-Moulineaux. Issy-les-Moulineaux is served by two stations on Paris Métro line 12: Corentin Celton and Mairie d'Issy, two stations on Paris RER line C: Issy – Val de Seine and Issy and three stations on Île-de-France tramway Line 2: Les Moulineaux, Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Issy – Val de Seine.
Multiple RATP bus lines have their arrival/departure station in the city. Multiple Vélib' and Autolib' stations allow subscribers of those services to share bicycles or electric cars. There was a cable car project, abandoned in February 2008; the commune has 16 public elementary schools. Four public junior high schools, one public senior high school, three private schools. Junior high schools: Collège de la Paix Collège Henri Matisse Collège Georges Mandel Collège Victor HugoLycée Eugène-Ionesco is the community's public senior high school. Private schools: Groupe scolaire La Salle Saint Nicolas École Arménienne « TARKMANTCHATZ » - An Armenian school École Sainte-Clotilde Mickael Brisset, footballer Peter Leo Gerety, Roman Catholic Arh Bishop Christelle Diallo, basketball player Rahavi Kifoueti, footballer Jean Jansem, painter Leïla Bekhti, actress Ali, rapper Robert Charpentier, cyclist Manu Larcenet, comics writer Gilles Vincent, writer Weiden in der Oberpfalz, Germany, since 1954 Frameries, since 1979 Macerata, Italy, since 1982 Hounslow, United Kingdom, since 1982 Dapaong, since 1989 Echmiadzin, sinc