The vaquero is a horse-mounted livestock herder of a tradition that originated on the Iberian Peninsula and extensively developed in Mexico from a methodology brought to Latin America from Spain. The vaquero became the foundation for the North American cowboy; the vaqueros of the Americas were the horsemen and cattle herders of New Spain, who first came to California with the Jesuit priest Eusebio Kino in 1687, with expeditions in 1769 and the Juan Bautista de Anza expedition in 1774. They were the first cowboys in the region. In the modern United States and Canada, remnants of two major and distinct vaquero traditions remain, known today as the "Texas" tradition and the "Mexican", "Vaquero", or "California" tradition; the popular "horse whisperer" style of natural horsemanship was developed by practitioners who were predominantly from California and the Northwestern United States combining the attitudes and philosophy of the California vaquero with the equipment and outward look of the Texas cowboy.
The natural horsemanship movement acknowledges much influence of the vaquero tradition. The cowboys of the Great Basin still use the term "buckaroo", which may be a corruption of vaquero, to describe themselves and their tradition. Vaquero is a Spanish word for a herder of cattle, it derives from vaca, meaning "cow". A related term, still is used to refer to a certain style of cowboys and horsemanship most seen in the Great Basin region of the United States that retains characteristics of the traditional vaquero; the word buckaroo is believed to be an anglicized version of vaquero and shows phonological characteristics compatible with that origin. Buckaroo first appeared in American English in 1827 The word may have developed with influences from the English word "buck" or bucking, the behavior of young, untrained horses. In 1960, one etymologist suggested that buckaroo derives, through Gullah: buckra, from the Ibibio and Efik: mbakara, meaning "white man, boss". Although that derivation was rejected, another possibility advanced was that "buckaroo" was a pun on vaquero, blending both Spanish and African sources.
The origins of the vaquero tradition come from Spain, beginning with the hacienda system of medieval Spain. This style of cattle ranching spread throughout much of the Iberian peninsula, it was imported to the Americas. Both regions possessed a dry climate with sparse grass, thus large herds of cattle required vast amounts of land in order to obtain sufficient forage; the need to cover distances greater than a person on foot could manage gave rise to the development of the horseback-mounted vaquero. Various aspects of the Spanish equestrian tradition can be traced back to Arabic rule in Spain, including Moorish elements such as the use of Oriental-type horses, the jineta riding style characterized by a shorter stirrup, solid-treed saddle and use of spurs, the heavy noseband or hackamore, other horse-related equipment and techniques. Certain aspects of the Arabic tradition, such as the hackamore, can in turn be traced to roots in ancient Persia. During the 16th century, the Conquistadors and other Spanish settlers brought their cattle-raising traditions as well as both horses and domesticated cattle to the Americas, starting with their arrival in what today is Mexico and Florida.
The traditions of Spain were transformed by the geographic and cultural circumstances of New Spain, which became Mexico and the Southwestern United States. They developed this culture in all of western Latin America, developing the Gaucho cowboys in Argentina and Peru the land and people of the Americas saw dramatic changes due to Spanish influence; the arrival of horses in the Americas was significant, as equines had been extinct there since the end of the prehistoric ice age. However, horses multiplied in America and became crucial to the success of the Spanish and settlers from other nations; the earliest horses were of Andalusian and Arabian ancestry, but a number of uniquely American horse breeds developed in North and South America through selective breeding and by natural selection of animals that escaped to the wild and became feral. The Mustang and other colonial horse breeds are now called "wild", but in reality are feral horses—descendants of domesticated animals; the Spanish tradition evolved further in what today is Mexico and the Southwestern United States into the vaquero of northern Mexico and the charro of the Jalisco and Michoacán regions.
Most vaqueros were men of mestizo origin. Mexican traditions spread both South and North, influencing equestrian traditions from Argentina to Canada; as English-speaking traders and settlers expanded westward and Spanish traditions and culture merged to some degree. Before the Mexican–American War in 1848, New England merchants who traveled by ship to California encountered both hacendados and vaqueros, trading manufactured goods for the hides and tallow produced from vast cattle ranches. American traders along what became known as the Santa Fe Trail had similar contacts with vaquero life. Starting with these early encounters, the lifestyle and language of the vaquero began a transformation which merged with English cultural traditions and produced what became known in American culture as the "cowboy". Mesteñeros were vaqueros that caught and drove Mustangs to market in the Spanish and Mexican, still American territories of what is now Northern Mexico, New Mexico and California, they caught the
The Pyrodictiaceae are a family of disc-shaped anaerobic microorganisms belonging to the order Desulfurococcales, in the domain Archaea. Members of this family are distinguished from the other family in the order Desulfurococcales by having an optimal growth temperature above 100 °C, rather than below 100 °C; the accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature and National Center for Biotechnology Information and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by The All-Species Living Tree Project. Notes: ♠ Strain found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature Burggraf S. "Reclassification of the crenarchael orders and families in accordance with 16S rRNA sequence data". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47: 657–660. Doi:10.1099/00207713-47-3-657. PMID 9226896. Huber H. "Order II. Desulfurococcales ord. nov.". In DR Boone. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the branching and phototrophic Bacteria.
New York: Springer Verlag. Pp. 169. ISBN 978-0-387-98771-2. PubMed references for Pyrodictiaceae PubMed Central references for Pyrodictiaceae Google Scholar references for Pyrodictiaceae NCBI taxonomy page for Pyrodictiaceae Search Tree of Life taxonomy pages for Pyrodictiaceae Search Species2000 page for Pyrodictiaceae MicrobeWiki page for Pyrodictiaceae LPSN page for Pyrodictiaceae
The Microenterprise Education Initiative, headed by Dr. Jeremi Brewer, is an initiative, announced for adoption by the Ballard Center for Economic Self-Reliance, Marriott School of Management, Brigham Young University in December 2011. MEI was created with the purpose of becoming an international thought leader in educating NGOs about micro-enterprise education. Born in Bremerton, Gibson has extensive experience with business, he has started more than a dozen companies and taught entrepreneurship at both BYU–Hawaii and BYU Provo in the Marriott School of Management. One of his most well known philanthropic ventures is his creation of the Academy for Creating Enterprise known as the Academy. Gibson and his wife started the Academy for Creating Enterprise in 1999, he relates that while traveling in the Philippines, he was shocked to see many returned missionaries from his church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, living below the poverty level. The Academy was an effort to give these returned missionaries a future.
Jeremi Brewer received his PhD from Texas A&M University. His doctoral research on "Culture and Necessity Entrepreneurship." Brewer conducted the majority of his research in Brazil. He is a Peery Fellow at the Ballard Center for Economic Self-Reliance. In December 2011, Brewer was voted to be the Executive Director of the Academy for Creating Enterprise and will begin his tenure there on August 1, 2012; the mission of MEI is to become the international thought leader in educating micro-enterprise- focused NGOs globally. The basic means for accomplishing this include the preparation and utilization of an action lab which will facilitate the discussion of best practices and challenges that are faced; the findings to these issues will be used to become the foundational research in creating a microenterprise toolkit. With the research concerning best practices, input from knowledgeable NGO directors, a collaborative action lab to be held in March, MEI is planning on creating an action toolkit that will aid in NGOs training microenterprise operators worldwide.
Microenterprises are defined as small businesses with five or fewer employees. They are prevalent throughout the developing world as large companies that employ hundreds, like those seen in developed countries, are scarce. Forced out of necessity into starting a microenterprise, operators are unskilled and living above poverty. Microenterprise education courses teach best practices and proven business skills, which help develop and improve business into successful ventures that provide significant income; as quoted by a student of the Academy: “My dream is not to die in poverty, but to have poverty die in me.” Some organizations that work with Micro-enterprise organization include
The Islamic University of Gaza known as IUG, IU Gaza and The University of Gaza, is an independent Palestinian university established in 1978 in Gaza City. The university has ten faculties capable of awarding B. A. B. Sc. M. A. and M. Sc. diplomas and higher diplomas. The Islamic University of Gaza is a member of four regional and international associations of higher education, which are the International Association of Universities, the Community of Mediterranean Universities, the Association of Arab Universities and the Association of Islamic Universities. A large part of the Islamic University of Gaza was damaged by air strikes during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict; the university has accepted donations from institutions such as the Arab Student Aid International, United Palestinian Appeal, Islamic Relief, the British Council, the World Bank, the Islamic Development Bank and Human Appeal International. The university has accepted donations from the Middle East Children's Alliance for its rebuilding efforts.
The Faculty of Commerce majors are in accounting, business administration with emphasis on economics and political science or banking and finance, economics & applied statistics and business administration ). Faculty of Education majors are in science education, psychological science, primary education, psychological counselling & educational guideline, applied science & education technology, Islamic studies, Arabic language, English language, social studies, computer education, mathematics, biology Faculty of Art: Arabic language, English language, journalism & information, journalism/editing, journalism & information./public relations & administration, social services, history & archaeology, Arabic & journalism Faculty of Shariah & Law: Islamic Shariah, Shariah & law Faculty of Ussol Eldeen.: Usul AL-Din / General The Islamic University of Gaza awards Master of Science and Master of Arts degree in the following areas and majors: Faculty of Engineering awards masters in the following majors: saw the destruction caused at the Islamic University and in other university buildings that were destroyed or damaged.
These were civilian, educational buildings and the Mission did not find any information about their use as a military facility or their contribution to a military effort that might have made them a legitimate target in the eyes of the Israeli armed forces."Palestinian academics claim that the attack destroyed 74 labs, Microbiology, Genetics, Medical Technology and Medical Chemistry Labs, Physics Labs and Earth Sciences Labs, Biology Labs, Biotechnology Labs, Optics Labs, Chemistry Labs, Engineering Labs, Engineering and IT buildings. In its response to the strike, the university announced in a press release on January 21, 2009 that the university is an independent institution of higher education in Gaza and the largest among the Palestinian institutions that serve 20,000 students as an accredited member of s
Anne Waldman is an American poet. Since the 1960s, Waldman has been an active member of the Outrider experimental poetry community as a writer, collaborator, editor and cultural/political activist, she has been connected to the Beat poets. Born in Millville, New Jersey, Waldman was raised on MacDougal Street in New York City's Greenwich Village, received her B. A. from Bennington College in 1966. During the 1960s, Waldman became part of the East Coast poetry scene, in part through her engagement with the poets and artists loosely termed the Second Generation of the New York School. During this time, Waldman made many connections with earlier generations of poets, including figures such as Allen Ginsberg, who once called Waldman his "spiritual wife." From 1966-1968, she served as Assistant Director of the Poetry Project at St. Mark's. In the early 1960s, Waldman became a student of Buddhism. In the 1970s, along with Allen Ginsberg, she began to study with the Tibetan Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. While attending the Berkeley Poetry Conference in 1965, with poet Lewis Warsh, was inspired to found Angel Hair, a small press that produced a magazine of the same name and a number of smaller books.
It was while she was attending this conference that she first committed to poetry after hearing the Outrider poets. In 1974, with Trungpa and others, Waldman founded the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at the Naropa Institute in Boulder, where she remains a Distinguished Professor of Poetics and the Director of Naropa's celebrated Summer Writing Program. In 1976, Waldman and Ginsberg were featured in Bob Dylan's film and Clara, they worked on the film while traveling through New England and Canada with the Rolling Thunder Revue, a concert tour that made impromptu stops, entertaining enthusiastic crowds with poetry and music. Waldman and Dylan were joined on these caravans by musicians such as Joan Baez, Joni Mitchell, Eric Anderson, Joe Cocker. Waldman reveled in the experience, she thought of recreating the poetry caravan. Waldman married Reed Bye in 1980, their son, Edwin Ambrose Bye was born on October 21, 1980; the birth of her son proved to be an "inspiring turning point" for Waldman, she became interested in and committed to the survival of the planet.
Her child, became her teacher. Waldman and Ambrose Bye perform and the two have created Fast Speaking Music and have produced multiple albums together. Waldman has been a fervent activist for social change. In the 1970s, she was involved with the Rocky Flats Truth Force, an organization opposed to the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility ten miles to the south of Boulder, Colorado. With Daniel Ellsberg and Allen Ginsberg, she was arrested for protesting outside of the site, she has been a vocal proponent for feminist and human rights causes. C. Waldman says that her life's work is to "keep the world safe for poetry." Although her work is sometimes connected to the Beat Generation, Waldman has never been speaking, a "Beat" poet. Her work, like the work of her contemporaries in the 1970s New York milieu of which she was a vital part—writers like Alice Notley and Bernadette Mayer, to name only two—is more diverse in its influences and ambitions. Waldman is interested in the performance of her poetry: she considers performance a "ritualized event in time," and she expresses the energy of her poetry through exuberant breathing, chanting and movement.
Waldman credits her poem, Fast Speaking Woman, as the seminal work that galvanized her idea of poetry as performance. Ginsberg, Kenneth Koch, Lawrence Ferlinghetti - all encouraged her to continue to perform her poetry. Waldman has been quoted, describing growing up in Greenwich Village in the early sixties, “we benefited from the trials of young women who had struggled to be creative and assertive before us, we were aware of the exciting artistic and liberal heritage of our New York environs and yet many of us fell into the same retrograde traps. Being dominated by relationships with men— letting our own talents lag, following their lead — which could result in drug dependencies, painful abortions, alienation from family and friends… I knew interesting and creative women who became junkies for their boyfriends, who stole for their boyfriends, who concealed their poetry and artistic aspirations, who slept around to be popular, who had serious eating disorders, who concealed their unwanted pregnancies raising money for abortions on their own, who put the child up for adoption, who never felt like they owned and appreciated their bodies.
I knew women who lived secret or double lives because love and sexual attraction to another woman was an anathema. I knew women in daily therapy because their fathers had abused them, or women who got sent away to mental hospitals or special schools because they'd taken a black lover; some ran away from home. Some committed suicide.” Waldman has published more than forty books of poetry. Her work has been anthologized, featuring work in Breaking the Cool, All Poets Welcome, Women of the Beat Generation, Postmodern American Poetry and Up Late among others, her poems have been translated into French, German, Turkish and Chinese. Waldman is the editor of several volumes relating to modern and conte
The Band is a jukebox musical with music and lyrics by Take That and a book by Tim Firth. It received its world premiere at the Manchester Opera House, in September 2017, before embarking on a UK and Ireland tour and opened at the Theatre Royal Haymarket at London's West End in December 2018; the band was cast through the 2017 BBC reality television show Let It Shine. The musical tells the story of five women who were best friends as teenagers and all big fans of The Band. 25 years after losing contact the four of them reunite to fulfill their dream of seeing the band perform. The Band is the second jukebox musical based on the songs of Take That, after the 2008 musical Never Forget; the musical premiered at the Manchester Opera House on 26 September 2017 before touring the rest of the UK and Ireland until March 2019. The musical made its West End premiere at the Theatre Royal Haymarket for a limited run from 1 December 2018 to 12 January 2019, including a charity gala opening night on 4 December 2018.
The musical will make its premiere at the Theater des Westens in Berlin for a limited run from 11 April 2019 to September 2019 followed by a run in Munich from 11 October 2019 to 3 November 2019. Official website Instagram Channel for German programme