click links in text for more info


Varuna is a Vedic deity associated with the sky also with the seas as well as Ṛta and Satya. He is found in the oldest layer of Vedic literature such as hymn 7.86 of the Rigveda. He is mentioned in the Tamil grammar work Tolkāppiyam, as the god of sea and rain, he is said to be the son of Kashyapa. In the Hindu Puranas, Varuna is the god of oceans, his vehicle is a Makara and his weapon is a Pasha, he is the guardian deity of the western direction. In some texts, he is the father of the Vedic sage Vasishtha. Varuna is found in Japanese Buddhist mythology as Suiten, he is found in Jainism. The theonym Varuṇa is a derivation from the verbal vṛ by means of a suffigal -uṇa-, for an interpretation of the name as "he who covers or binds", in reference to the cosmological ocean or river encircling the world, but in reference to the "binding" by universal law or Ṛta. Georges Dumézil made a cautious case for the identity of Varuna and the Greek god Ouranos at the earliest Indo-European cultural level; the etymological identification of the name Ouranos with the Sanskrit Varuṇa is based in the derivation of both names from the PIE root *ŭer with a sense of "binding" – the Indic king-god Varuṇa binds the wicked, the Greek king-god Ouranos binds the Cyclopes.

While the derivation of the name Varuṇa from this root is undisputed, this derivation of the Greek name is now rejected in favour of derivation from the root *wers- "to moisten, drip". In the earliest layer of the Rigveda, Varuna is the guardian of moral law, one who punishes those who sin without remorse, who forgives those who err with remorse, he is mentioned in many Rigvedic hymns, such as 1.25, 2.27 -- 30, 8.8, 9.73 and others. His relationship with waters and oceans is mentioned in the Vedas. Vedic poets describe him as an aspect and one of the plural perspectives of the Agni, one of the Primary deity For example, hymn 5.3 of the Rigveda states: Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath, are twinned Mitra-Varuna. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda, although they are addressed as Devas as well. Varuna, being the king of the Asuras, was adopted or made the change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos, imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra.

According to Doris Srinivasan, a professor of Indology focusing on religion, Varuna-Mitra pair is an ambiguous deity just like Rudra-Shiva pair. Both have wrathful-gracious aspects in Indian mythology. Both Varuna and Rudra are synonymous with "all comprehensive sight, knowledge", both were the guardian deity of the north in the Vedic texts, both can be offered "injured, ill offerings", all of which suggest that Varuna may have been conceptually overlapping with Rudra. Further, the Rigvedic hymn 5.70 calls Mitra-Varuna pair as states Srinivasan. According to Samuel Macey and other scholars, Varuna had been the more ancient Indo-Aryan deity in 2nd millennium BCE, who gave way to Rudra in the Hindu pantheon, Rudra-Shiva became both "timeless and the god of time". In Vajasaneyi Samhita 21.40, Varuna is called the patron deity of physicians, one who has "a hundred, a thousand remedies". His capacity and association with "all comprehensive knowledge" is found in the Atharvaveda. Varuna finds a mention in the early Upanishads, where his role evolves.

In verse 3.9.26 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, for example, he is stated to be the god of the western quarter, but one, founded on "water" and dependent on "the heart" and the fire of soul. In the Katha Upanishad, Aditi is identified to be same as the goddess earth, she is stated in the Vedic texts to be the mother of Varuna and Mitra along with other Vedic gods, in Hindu mythology she as mother earth is stated to be mother of all gods. In Yajurveda it is said: "In fact Varuna is Vishnu and Vishnu is Varuna and hence the auspicious offering is to be made to these deities." || 8.59 || Rama interacts with Varuna in the Hindu epic Ramayana. For example, faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka, where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana, Rama performs a pravpavesha to Varuna, the Lord of Oceans, for three days and three nights, states Ramesh Menon. Varuna does not respond, Rama arises on the fourth morning, enraged, he states to his brother Lakshamana that "even lords of the elements listen only to violence, Varuna does not respect gentleness, peaceful prayers go unheard".

With his bow and arrow, Rama prepares to attack the oceans to burn up the waters and create a bed of sand for his army of monkeys to cross and thus confront Ravana. Lakshmana appeals to Rama, translates Menon, that he should return to "peaceful paths of our fathers, you can win this war without laying waste the sea". Rama shoots his weapon sending the ocean into flames; as Rama increases the ferocity of his weapons, Varuna arises out of the oceans. He bows to Rama, stating that he himself did not know how to help Rama because the sea is deep, vast and he cannot change the nature of sea. Varuna asked Rama to remember that he is "the soul of peace and love, wrath does not suit him". Varuna promised to Rama that he will not disturb him or his army as they build a bridge and cross over to Lanka; the Tolkāppiyam, a Tamil grammar work from 3rd century BCE divides the people of ancient Tamilakam into 5 Sangam landscape divisions: kurinji, paalai, marutham an

V1 Gallery

V1 Gallery is a contemporary art gallery located in the Meatpacking District of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 2002 by photographer Peter Funch. V1 Gallery gained international notability by being the first art gallery in Scandinavia to exhibit international street art pioneers such as Banksy and Eine, the Faile artist collective, Futura 2000, Zevs and OBEY / Shepard Fairey; the gallery has been listed as "Copenhagen's coolest art gallery" by The New York Times, listed in ArtNet's "Best contemporary galleries in Europe". The gallery's best known projects include: The Boredom Project by Faile in 2002 Banksy VS EINE by Banksy and EINE in 2003 The Hunt For Your Family featuring artists such as Devendra Banhart, Adam Green, Chris Johanson curated by Galleri Loyal in 2004 OBEY by Shepard Fairey in 2004 Futura - Year In Pictures by Futura 2000 in 2005 Random Happenings with Dash Snow in 2005 Coup de Theatre by Jakob Boeskov in 2005 MuhameDansk by HuskMitNavn in 2006 Highmath curated by Arkitip in 2006 V-B by Dearraindrop in 2006 Super Fortress by Richard Colman in 2006 Rehearsal For Death by Neck Face in 2007 Trouble by Todd REAS James in 2007 Babel Tales by Peter Funch in 2007 Gallery Website

Schreder Airmate HP-11

The Schreder Airmate HP-11 is an American mid-wing, V-tailed, single seat glider designed by Richard Schreder. Airmate was the name of Schreder's design company; the HP-11 was designed to compete in the FAI Open Class in the 1962 US Nationals and represented the designer's continued pursuit of the perfect competition sailplane. The HP-11 is an all-metal design, with a wing that features a 26:1 aspect ratio, a 52 ft wingspan and a NACA 65 -618 airfoil, the same airfoil, used on the HP-8 and HP-10. A total of 42 HP-11s were built from kits and plans before production was ended in favour of the Schreder HP-14. Flying the HP-11 in the 1962 US Nationals, Schreder came in third in the competition and had the longest flight, 469 mi. Schreder flew it to third place in the Open Class at the 1963 World Gliding Championships held at Junín, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. At that event Schreder flew a 382 mi flight. In April 2011 there were 28 HP-11s registered with the US Federal Aviation Administration and three with Transport Canada.

HP-11 Initial model, with fixed monowheel landing gear. HP-11A Improved model for amateur construction from plans or kits, with a retractable monowheel landing gear. Bowlus BZ-1 Version designed by Michael Bowlus with the front fuselage from a North American F-86 Sabre drop tank, the tail from an HP-18 and the wings from an HP-11; the wingspan was reduced to 15 m. Kohler Alpha Version with a newly designed fuselage and HP-11 wings. National Soaring Museum - HP-11A US Southwest Soaring Museum - HP-11 Chico Air Museum - HP-11A Data from Sailplane Directory and SoaringGeneral characteristics Crew: one Wingspan: 52 ft 0 in Wing area: 104 sq ft Aspect ratio: 26:1 Airfoil: NACA 65 -618 Empty weight: 400 lb Gross weight: 650 lb Performance Maximum glide ratio: 37:1 at 55 mph Rate of sink: 108 ft/min at 50 mph Wing loading: 6.25 lb/sq ft List of gliders Photo of an HP-11A

Five Finger Death Punch discography

American heavy metal band Five Finger Death Punch has released eight studio albums, one live album, one compilation album, one extended play, 30 singles and 21 music videos. Formed in Las Vegas, Nevada in 2005, the group features vocalist Ivan Moody, rhythm guitarist Zoltan Bathory, lead guitarist Jason Hook, bassist Chris Kael. In 2007, the band released its debut album The Way of the Fist, which reached number 107 on the Billboard 200 and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. All three singles from the album reached the top 20 of the Billboard Mainstream Rock Songs chart. After Hook replaced previous guitarist Darrell Roberts, 5FDP released War Is the Answer in 2009 which reached the top ten of the Billboard 200 and was certified platinum by the RIAA. Four singles from the album reached the Mainstream Rock top ten, while the band's cover of "Bad Company" was certified platinum. In 2010, 5FDP's original bassist Matt Snell was replaced by Kael, the following year saw the release of the band's third album American Capitalist.

It peaked at number 3 on the Billboard 200, reached the top ten of the Canadian Albums Chart, was certified gold in both regions. Lead single "Under and Over It" was the band's first to register on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching number 77, while three singles from the album reached the top ten of the Mainstream Rock chart. In 2013 the band released two studio albums – The Wrong Side of Heaven and the Righteous Side of Hell, Volume 1 and Volume 2 – both of which debuted at number 2 on the Billboard 200. Volume 1 was the first release by the band to reach the top five of the Canadian Albums Chart, peaking at number 3, the top 40 of the UK Albums Chart, peaking at number 21; the first single from each album – "Lift Me Up" and "Battle Born" – topped the Mainstream Rock chart in the US. Five Finger Death Punch's sixth studio album Got Your Six was released in 2015, becoming the third consecutive release by the band to debut at number 2 on the Billboard 200; the album was their first to reach the top ten of both the Australian Albums Chart and the UK Albums Chart, as well as a number of other regions.

All four singles from Got Your Six reached the top five of the Mainstream Rock chart, with "Wash It All Away" becoming the band's fourth number one on the chart. Five Finger Death Punch official website Five Finger Death Punch discography at AllMusic Five Finger Death Punch discography at Discogs Five Finger Death Punch discography at MusicBrainz

Wei Hsueh-kang

Wei Hsueh-kang known as Prasit Cheewinnitipanya or Charnchai Cheevinnitipanya and Suchat Phanloetkun, is a military commander of the United Wa State Army. He has been accused of illegally trafficking drugs in Wa State, in the US, through Myanmar's border with China. Following the 2015 jade mine disaster in Hpakant, Kachin State, Wei Hsueh-kang was accused of exploiting locals and illegally funding mining operations in the area; this could not be verified or denied by Wei himself, as he was still in hiding. Hsueh-kang was following his father, supported by CIA, selling opium to found Taiwanese insurgency into mainland China until his graduation from high school when he joined Khun Sa's paramilitary. A member of Khun Sa’s Mong Tai Army, Wei Hsueh-kang was one of the original founders of the UWSA in 1989, following the collapse of the armed wing of the Communist Party of Burma in 1988. Wei Hsueh-kang was believed to have remained associated with Khun Sa after he left the MTA during the height of opium production in the Golden Triangle, remains wanted by the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs for drug offences committed within the United States.

He is believed to be in Myanmar within UWSA controlled territory of Wa State. Although Wei Hsueh-kang was granted Thai citizenship in 1985, three years in 1988, he was facing a sentence of life imprisonment by the Thai Government, he jumped bail however, his Thai nationality was revoked in 2001. Wei Hsueh-kang has since downsized his involvement in drug trafficking in response to his wanted status by the US. However, his affiliation with the UWSA reinforced doubts about the extent of his involvement in drug trafficking. In 1998, Wei Hsueh-kang founded the Hong Pang Group with money from the drug trade, money from taking advantage of the privileges offered in the ceasefire deal by General Khin Nyunt, its position in the country's economy, not just the Wa State, is reflected by a multitude of businesses it owns and controls in construction, agriculture and minerals, petroleum and communications, department stores. Hong Pang Group is based at Panghsang with offices in Yangon, Lashio and Mawlamyine.

A fire in Panghsang on 18 April 2009, destroyed the largest petrol station and over 10,000 tons of teak in a warehouse, both belonging to Wei Hsueh-kang. WEI Hsueh Kang, United Wa State Army, Financial Network US Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control, November 2008 The Wa Nation TIME Asia, December 16, 2002 Burma's Drug Kings TIME Asia, December 16, 2002 How many drug lords are in Myanmar? People's Daily 2005

Extended file attributes

Extended file attributes are file system features that enable users to associate computer files with metadata not interpreted by the filesystem, whereas regular attributes have a purpose defined by the filesystem. Unlike forks, which can be as large as the maximum file size, extended attributes are limited in size to a value smaller than the maximum file size. Typical uses include storing the author of a document, the character encoding of a plain-text document, or a checksum, cryptographic hash or digital certificate, discretionary access control information. In Unix-like systems, extended attributes are abbreviated as xattr. In AIX, the JFS2 v2 filesystem supports extended attributes, which are accessible using the getea command; the getea, listea and removeea APIs support fetching, listing, getting information about, removing extended attributes. Support for extended file attributes was removed from the OpenBSD source code in 2005 due to a lack of interest in Access Control Lists In FreeBSD 5.0 and the UFS1, UFS2, ZFS filesystems support extended attributes, using the extattr_ family of system calls.

Any regular file may have a list of extended attributes. Each attribute consists of the associated data; the name must be a null-terminated string, exists in a namespace identified by a small-integer namespace identifier. Two namespaces exist: user and system; the user namespace has no restrictions with regard to naming or contents. The system namespace is used by the kernel for access control lists and mandatory access control. In Linux, the ext2, ext3, ext4, JFS, Yaffs2, ReiserFS, Reiser4, XFS, OrangeFS, Lustre, OCFS2 1.6, ZFS, F2FS filesystems support extended attributes when enabled in the kernel configuration. Any regular file or directory may have extended attributes consisting of associated data; the name must be a null-terminated string prefixed by a dot character. Four namespaces exist: user, trusted and system; the user namespace has no restrictions with regard to naming or contents. The system namespace is used by the kernel for access control lists; the security namespace is used for example.

Support for the extended attribute concept from a POSIX.1e draft, withdrawn in 1997 was added to Linux around 2002. As of 2016, they are not yet in widespread use by user-space Linux programs, but are used by Beagle, OpenStack Swift, Dropbox, KDE's semantic metadata framework, Wget and cURL. A set of recommendations for using them is available at The Linux kernel allows extended attribute to have names of up to 255 bytes and values of up to 64KiB, as do XFS and ReiserFS, but ext2/3/4 and btrfs impose much smaller limits, requiring all the attributes of one file to fit in one "filesystem block". Extended attributes can be accessed and modified using the attr and setfattr commands from the attr package on most distributions. Mac OS X 10.4 and support extended attributes by making use of the HFS+ filesystem Attributes file B*-tree feature which allows for named forks. Although the named forks in HFS+ support arbitrarily large amounts of data through extents, the OS support for extended attributes only supports inline attributes, limiting their size to that which can fit within a single B*-tree node.

Any regular file may have a list of extended attributes. HFS+ supports an arbitrary number of named forks, it is unknown if macOS imposes any limit on the number of extended attributes; each attribute consists of the associated data. The name is a null-terminated Unicode string; the macOS APIs support listing, getting and removing extended attributes from files or directories. From the command line, these abilities are exposed through the xattr utility. Since macOS 10.5, files originating from the web are marked with via extended file attributes. In some older versions of macOS, user space extended attributes were not preserved on save in common Cocoa applications. In OS/2 version 1.2 and the High Performance File System was designed with extended attributes in mind, but support for them was retro-fitted on the FAT filesystem of DOS. For compatibility with other operating systems using a FAT partition, OS/2 attributes are stored inside a single file "EA DATA. SF" located in the root directory.

This file is inaccessible when an operating system supporting extended attributes manages the disk, but can be manipulated under, for example, DOS. Files and directories having extended attributes use one or more clusters inside this file; the logical cluster number of the first used cluster is stored inside the owning file's or directory's directory entry. These two bytes are used for other purposes on the FAT32 filesystem, hence OS/2 extended attributes cannot be stored on this filesystem. Parts of OS/2 version 2.0 and such as the Workplace Shell uses several standardized extended attributes for purposes like identifying the filetype, computer icons and keywords about the file. Programs written in the interpreted language Rexx store an parsed version of the code as an extended attribute, to allow faster execution. Solaris version 9 and allows files to have "extended attributes", which are forks. Internally, they are stored and accessed like normal files, so their