The Zuari River is the largest river in the state of Goa, India. It is a tidal river; the Zuari originates at Hemad-Barshem in the Western Ghats. The Zuari is referred to as the Aghanashani in the interior regions, it flows in the southern-western direction through the talukas of Tiswadi, Mormugao, Salcete and Quepem. Zuari is 92 km long, but is connected to other rivers and canals such as Mandovi river and Cumbarjua Canal; the other rivers in Goa are shorter such as Terekhol, Baga, Sal and Galgibag. Their lengths and widths vary with other seasonal flooding; the Zuari and Mandovi Rivers form an estuarine system. They are the backbone of Goa's agricultural industry; the Cumbarjuem Canal linking the two rivers has enabled ships navigate to the interior regions to the iron ore mines. The waters of the Mandovi and Zuari both flush out into the Arabian Sea at Cabo Aguada, a common point forming the Mormugao harbour; the port city of lies on the mouth of the Zuari River
The Mahadayi/Mandovi River known as Mahadayi or Mhadei river, is described as the lifeline of the Indian state of Goa. The Mandovi and the Zuari are the two primary rivers in the state of Goa. Mandovi joins with the Zuari at a common creek at Cabo Aguada. Panaji, the state capital and Old Goa, the former capital of Goa, are both situated on the left bank of the Mandovi; the river has 29 kilometres in Karnataka and 52 kilometres in Goa. It originates from a cluster of 30 springs at Bhimgad in the Western Ghats in the Belagavi district of Karnataka; the river has total 2,032 km2 catchment area of which 1,580 km2, 375 km2 and 77 km2 catchment area are in Goa and Maharashtra respectively. With its cerulean waters, Dudhsagar Falls and Varapoha Falls, it is known as the Gomati in a few places; the Mandovi enters Goa from the north via the Sattari Taluka and from Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka near the Castle Rock Rly. Stn; the Mandovi flows through Belagavi, Uttara Kannada in Karnataka and Cumbarjua and Chorão in Goa pouring into the Arabian Sea.
The river Mapusa is a tributary of the Mandovi. The Cumbarjuem Canal, which links both rivers, has made the interiors of the Mandovi accessible to ships carrying iron ore. Iron ore is Goa's prime mineral and it is mined in the eastern hills. Three large freshwater isles — Divar, Chorão and Vanxim are present in the Mandovi near the town of Old Goa; the island of Chorão is home to the Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, named after the renowned ornithologist Salim Ali. A regular ferry transports the inhabitants between the mainland. Spanning across the Mandovi River near Panjim are three parallel Mandovi Bridges; the older bridge collapsed in the 1980s before a new bridge was constructed to accommodate heavy transport vehicles. The Mandovi Bridge links the towns of Panjim to Porvorim. On 14 June 2014, the foundation stone for the third bridge, the largest bridge in Goa, was laid by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, it will span 5 kilometres and will be 15 metres higher than the existing bridges and will be spaced in between the two.
The 3rd Mandovi bridge is name Atal Setu after former Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The bridge was inaugurated on 27 January 2019 at the hands of Union Roads Minister Nitin Gadkari, Goa CM Manohar Parrikar. During the winter months, the peak tourist season, special dusk cruises on the Mandovi - complete with serenading bands - add to the charm of the river; the sharing of the waters of this river is a cause of dispute between the governments of Karnataka and Goa. The Karnataka government proposes to divert some water from the Mahadayi river to the Malaprabha River basin as part of the Kalasa-Banduri Nala project, as 188 tmcft of water at 75% dependability is available in the river. Mahadayi Water Tribunal under Interstate River Water Disputes Act has been constituted to decide the sharing of the river waters by the riparian states. In August 2018, Mahadayi Water Tribunal verdict permitted Goa to use 24 tmcft, Karnataka to use 5.4 tmcft and Maharashtra to use 1.33 tmcft for consumptive purposes.
The tribunal assessed the water generated in the river catchment area of Karnataka and Maharashtra as 32.11 tmcft and 7.21 tmcft at 75% dependability. The tribunal has apportioned only 40.125 tmcft of Mandovi river water for consumptive uses among the three riparian states. Karnataka approached the Supreme Court alleging injustice is done in allocation of water to the state. Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and therefore, the West and the Orient. Da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India was significant and opened the way for an age of global imperialism and for the Portuguese to establish a long-lasting colonial empire in Asia. Traveling the ocean route allowed the Portuguese to avoid sailing across the disputed Mediterranean and traversing the dangerous Arabian Peninsula; the sum of the distances covered in the outward and return voyages made this expedition the longest ocean voyage made until far longer than a full voyage around the world by way of the Equator. After decades of sailors trying to reach the Indies, with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, da Gama landed in Calicut on 20 May 1498. Unopposed access to the Indian spice routes boosted the economy of the Portuguese Empire, based along northern and coastal West Africa.
The main spices at first obtained from Southeast Asia were pepper and cinnamon, but soon included other products, all new to Europe. Portugal maintained a commercial monopoly of these commodities for several decades, it was not until a century that other European powers, namely the Dutch Republic and England, followed by France and Denmark, were able to challenge Portugal's monopoly and naval supremacy in the Cape Route. Da Gama led two of the first and the fourth; the latter departed for India four years after his return from the first one. For his contributions, in 1524 da Gama was appointed Governor of India, with the title of Viceroy, was ennobled as Count of Vidigueira in 1519. Vasco da Gama remains a leading figure in the history of exploration. Numerous homages have been made worldwide to celebrate his accomplishments; the Portuguese national epic poem, Os Lusíadas, was written in his honour by Camões. His first trip to India is considered a milestone in world history, as it marked the beginning of a sea-based phase of global multiculturalism.
In March 2016 thousands of artifacts and nautical remains were recovered from the wreck of the ship Esmeralda, one of da Gama's armada, found off the coast of Oman. Vasco da Gama was born in 1460 or 1469 in the town of Sines, one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, southwest Portugal in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas. Vasco da Gama's father was Estêvão da Gama, who had served in the 1460s as a knight of the household of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, he rose in the ranks of the military Order of Santiago. Estêvão da Gama was appointed alcaide-mór of Sines in the 1460s, a post he held until 1478. Estêvão da Gama married Isabel Sodré, a daughter of João Sodré, scion of a well-connected family of English origin, her father and her brothers, Vicente Sodré and Brás Sodré, had links to the household of Infante Diogo, Duke of Viseu, were prominent figures in the military Order of Christ. Vasco da Gama was the third of five sons of Estêvão da Gama and Isabel Sodré – in order of age: Paulo da Gama, João Sodré, Vasco da Gama, Pedro da Gama and Aires da Gama.
Vasco had one known sister, Teresa da Gama. Little is known of da Gama's early life; the Portuguese historian Teixeira de Aragão suggests that he studied at the inland town of Évora, where he may have learned mathematics and navigation. It has been claimed that he studied under Abraham Zacuto, an astrologer and astronomer, but da Gama's biographer Subrahmanyam thinks this dubious. Around 1480, da Gama joined the Order of Santiago; the master of Santiago was Prince John, who ascended to the throne in 1481 as King John II of Portugal. John II doted on the Order, the da Gamas' prospects rose accordingly. In 1492, John II dispatched da Gama on a mission to the port of Setúbal and to the Algarve to seize French ships in retaliation for peacetime depredations against Portuguese shipping – a task that da Gama and performed. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Portuguese expeditions organized by Prince Henry the Navigator had been reaching down the African coastline, principally in search of west African riches.
They had extended Portuguese maritime knowledge, but had little profit to show for the effort. After Henry's death in 1460, the Portuguese Crown showed little interest in continuing this effort and, in 1469, licensed the neglected African enterprise to a private Lisbon merchant consortium led by Fernão Gomes. Within a few years, Gomes' captains expanded Portuguese knowledge across the Gulf of Guinea, doing business in gold dust, melegueta pepper and sub-Saharan slaves; when Gomes' charter came up for renewal in 1474, Prince John, asked his father Afonso V of Portugal to pass the African charter to him. Upon becoming king in 1481, John II of Portugal set out on many long reforms. To break the monarch's dependence on the feudal nobility, John II needed to build up the royal treasury. Under John II's watch, the gold and slave trade in west Africa was expanded, he was eager to break into the profitable spice trade between Europe and Asia, conducted chiefly by land. At the time, this was monopolized by the Republic
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Navy; the Chief of Naval Staff, a four-star admiral, commands the navy. The Indian Navy traces its origins back to the East India Company's Marine, founded in 1612 to protect British merchant shipping in the region. In 1793, the East India Company established its rule over eastern part of the Indian subcontinent i.e. Bengal, but it was not until 1830 that the colonial navy was titled as His Majesty's Indian Navy; when India became a republic in 1950, the Royal Indian Navy as it had been named since 1934 was renamed to Indian Navy. The primary objective of the navy is to safeguard the nation's maritime borders, in conjunction with other Armed Forces of the union, act to deter or defeat any threats or aggression against the territory, people or maritime interests of India, both in war and peace. Through joint exercises, goodwill visits and humanitarian missions, including disaster relief, Indian Navy promotes bilateral relations between nations.
As of 1 July 2017, 67,228 personnel are in service with the Navy. As of March 2018, the operational fleet consists of one aircraft carrier, one amphibious transport dock, eight landing ship tanks, 11 destroyers, 13 frigates, one nuclear-powered attack submarine, one ballistic missile submarine, 14 conventionally-powered attack submarines, 22 corvettes, one mine countermeasure vessel, four fleet tankers and various other auxiliary vessels; the maritime history of India dates back to 6,000 years with the birth of art of the navigation and navigating during the Indus Valley Civilisation. A Kutch mariner's log book from 19th century recorded that the first tidal dock India has been built at Lothal around 2300 BC during the Indus Valley Civilisation, near the present day harbour of Mangrol on the Gujarat coast; the Rig Veda, credits Varuna, the Hindu god of water and the celestial ocean, with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes the use of ships having hundred oars in the naval expeditions by Indians.
There are references to the side wings of a ship called Plava, which stabilizes the vessel during storms. Plava is considered to be the precursor of modern-day stabilizers; the first use of mariner's compass, called as Matsya Yantra, was recorded in 4 and 5 AD. Alexander the Great during his conquest over India, built a harbour at Patala, his army retreated to Mesopotamia on the ships built at Sindh. In the of his conquest, records show that the Emperor of Maurya Empire, Chandragupta Maurya, as a part of war office, established an Admiralty Division under the Superintendent of Ships. Many historians from ancient India recorded the Indian trade relations with many countries, with countries as far as Java and Sumatra. There were references to the trade routes of countries in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. India had trade relations with the Greeks and the Romans. At one instance Roman historian Gaius Plinius Secundus mentioned of Indian traders carrying away large masses of gold and silver from Rome, in payment for skins, precious stones, indigo, herbs and spices.
During 5–10 AD, the Kalinga and the Vijayanagara Empires conquered Western Java and Malaya. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands served as an important halt point for trade ships en route to these nations and as well as China. During 844 -- 848 AD. During 984–1042 AD, under the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I and Kulothunga Chola I, the naval expedition by Chola dynasty captured lands of Burma, Sri Lanka, Malaya, repressing pirate activities by Sumatran warlords. During 14th and 15th centuries, Indian shipbuilding skills and their maritime ability was sophisticated enough to produce ships with a capacity to carry over hundred men. Ships had compartments included in their design, so that if one compartment was damaged, the ship would remain afloat; these features of were developed by Indians before Europeans were aware of the idea. However, by the end of thirteenth century Indian naval power had started to decline, had reached its low by the time the Portuguese entered India. Soon after they set foot in India, the Portuguese started to hunt down all Asian vessels not permitting their trade.
Amidst this, in 1529, a naval war at Bombay Harbour resulted in the surrender of Thane and Bandora. By 1534, the Portuguese took complete control over the Bombay Harbour; the Zamorin of Calicut challenged the Portuguese trade when Vasco da Gama refused to pay the customs levy as per the trade agreement. This resulted in two major naval wars, the first one—Battle of Cochin, was fought in 1504, the second engagement happened four years off Diu. Both these wars, exposed the weakness of Indian maritime power and helped the Portuguese to gain mastery over the Indian waters. In the seventeenth century Indian naval power observed remarkable revival; the alliance of the Moghuls and the Sidis of Janjira was marked as a major power on the west coast. On the southern front, the 1st Sovereign of the Maratha Empire, Shivaji Bhosale, started creating his own fleet, his fleet was commanded by notable admirals like Kanhoji Angre. The Maratha Navy under the leadership of Angre kept the English and Portuguese away from the Konkan coast.
However, the Marathas witnessed remarkable decline in their naval capabilities following the death of Angre in 1729. The origins of the Indian Navy date to 1612, when an English vessel under the command of Captain Best encountered the Portuguese. Although the Portuguese were defeated, this incident along with the trouble caused by the pirates to th
Chhatrapati is a royal title from the Indian subcontinent. It is taken to be the equivalent of emperor, was used by the Marathas; the word ` Chhatrapati' is a tatpurusha Sanskrit compound of pati. The parasol was considered a symbol of absolute, or universal and consecrated kingship, has been used by monarchies outside of India, as well; the title indicates a person, a sovereign ruler over other princes, not a vassal. In contrast, the Indian titles of Maharaja or Raja, Rajkumar or Kumar, Senapati, reflect a range of European equivalent meanings, from King, Crown Prince, Prince, to Duke, Count, or Lord. Shivaji adopted'Chhatrapati' it since other titles were bestowed by other lieges and paramount rulers, like the Adilshahi or Mughals; the following list details the Chhatrapatis of the House of Bhosle. The title was held by his successors who were themselves powerful like Sambhaji,Tarabai, Shahu. Although after the death of Chhatrapati Shahu, the increasing power of the Peshwas and Maratha generals reduced it to a nominal position.
The Grand Princes of Satara were considered the inheritors of the title, although the Rajas of Kohlapur did have a claim by descent, as their position began as a subsidiary title of Shivaji II due to location of his court. His mother, the Regent Tarabai, established a rival regime in Kohlapur, challenging both the power of Shahu; the following is the list of the Chhatrapatis of Satara. After 1848 they became pensioners of the East India Company. Shahu Ramraja - Grandson of Rajaram and his senior wife, Tarabai. Shahu II of Satara Pratapsingh Shahaji II of Satara Pratapsinh Raje Rajaram Maharaj-III Pratapsinh Raje-II Shahu III of Satara Pratapsinhraje Udayanraje The following is the list of the claimants from Kolhapur: Tarabai as a regent of Shivaji II Shivaji II - son of Rajaram and his senior wife, Tarabai. Sambhaji II - son of Rajaram and his junior wife, Rajasbai. Shivaji III Sambhaji III Shivaji IV Shahaji I Shivaji V Rajaram II Shivaji VI Shahu I known as Rajarshi Shahu Rajaram III Shivaji VII Shahaji II Shahu II as titular Maharaja Maratha Maratha titles ^ V.
S. Kadam, 1993. Maratha Confederacy: A Study in its Origin and Development. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi. D. B. Kasar, Rigveda to Rajgarh – Making of Shivaji the Great. Manudevi Prakashan, Mumbai
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianity Roman Catholicism, though vast segments of the population the younger generations, have no religious affiliation; the Portuguese people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. A number of Portuguese descend from converted Jewish and North Africans as a result of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula; the Romans, Scandinavians, migratory Germanic tribes like the Suebi, Vandals and Buri who settled in what is today's Portugal The Roman Republic conquered the Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and 1st centuries B. C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, a large Portuguese diaspora exists.
Portuguese people began and led the Age of Exploration which started in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta and culminated in an empire with territories that are now part of over 50 countries. The Portuguese Empire lasted nearly 600 years, seeing its end when Macau was returned to China in 1999; the discovery of several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helped pave the way for modern globalization and domination of Western civilization. The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe; the earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese trace a significant amount of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.
Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have emphasized the large Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe. Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype; this haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the British Isles. In Portugal it reckons 65% in the South summing 87% northwards, in some regions 96%; the Neolithic colonization of Europe from Western Asia and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.
Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were followed by others that can be identified as Celts. Urban cultures developed in southeastern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean Iberia, which shifted to Greek colonization. There is little or no evidence of settlements in Portugal by either Greeks or Phoenicians despite some statements to the contrary; these two processes defined Iberia's, Portugal's, cultural landscape—Continental in the northwest and Mediterranean towards the southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it. Given the origins from Paleolithic and Neolithic settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is a mixture of pre-Roman, pre-Indo-Europeans, pre-Celtics or para-Celts such as the Lusitanians of Lusitania, Celtic peoples such as Calaicians or Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the Celtici and the Cynetes of the Alentejo and the Algarve.
The Romans were an important influence on Portuguese culture. Other minor influences included the Phoenicians/Carthaginians, the Vandals and the Sarmatian Alans, the Visigoths and Suebi; the ruled from 711 until the Reconquista of the Algarve in 1249. In the 9th and 10th centuries small Viking settlements were established in the North coastal regions of Douro and Minho. For the Y-chromosome and MtDNA lineages of the Portuguese and other peoples see this map and this one. Portuguese have maintained a certain degree of ethnic and cultural specific characteristics-ratio with the Basques, since ancient times; the results of the present HLA stu