Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York was queen consort of England from 1486 until her death. As the wife of Henry VII, she was the first Tudor queen and she was the daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III, and she married the king following Henrys victory at the Battle of Bosworth which started the last phase of the Wars of the Roses. She was the mother of King Henry VIII, she was the daughter, niece, wife and grandmother of successive Kings of England. Her two brothers disappeared, the Princes in the Tower, their fate unknown and she was welcomed back to court by her Uncle Richard III, along with all of her sisters. Her marriage seems to have successful, though her eldest son Arthur, Prince of Wales, died at age 15 in 1502. She seems to have played part in politics. Her surviving children became a King of England and queens of France and Scotland, Elizabeth of York was born at the Palace of Westminster as the eldest child of King Edward IV and his wife, Elizabeth Woodville. Her christening was celebrated at Westminster Abbey, sponsored by her grandmothers Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford and her third sponsor was her cousin, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.
At three, she had been betrothed to George Neville in 1469. His father John supported Georges uncle the Earl of Warwick in rebellion against King Edward IV, in 1475, Louis XI agreed to the marriage of 9 year old Elizabeth of York and his son Charles, the Dauphin of France. In 1482, Louis XI reneged on his promise, as an 11 year old, she was named a Lady of the Garter in 1477, along with her mother and her paternal aunt Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk. On 9 April 1483, Elizabeths father unexpectedly died and her brother, Edward V. Her uncle, Duke of Gloucester, was appointed regent and her mother, Elizabeth Woodville, tried to deny Gloucester his right to be Lord Protector and keep power within her family. Gloucester opted to take steps to isolate his nephews from their Woodville relations and he intercepted Edward V while he was travelling from Ludlow, where he had been living as Prince of Wales, to London to be crowned king. Edward V was placed in the residence of the Tower of London.
Elizabeth Woodville fled with her younger son Richard and her daughters into sanctuary in Westminster Abbey, Gloucester asked to take Richard with him, so the boy could reside in the Tower and keep his brother Edward company. Two months later, on 22 June 1483, Edward IVs marriage was declared invalid and it was claimed that Edward IV had at the time of his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville already been betrothed to Lady Eleanor Butler. Parliament issued a bill, Titulus Regius, in support of this position, Gloucester ascended the throne as Richard III on 6 July 1483, and Edward V and his brother are believed to have disappeared shortly afterwards
Finding in the Temple
The Finding in the Temple, called Christ among the Doctors or the Disputation, was an episode in the early life of Jesus depicted in the Gospel of Luke. It is the event of the childhood of Jesus mentioned in a Gospel. The episode is described in Luke 2, 41-52, Jesus at the age of twelve accompanies Mary, Joseph and a large group of their relatives and friends to Jerusalem on pilgrimage, following the custom of the feast - that is, Passover. On the day of their return, Jesus lingered in the Temple and Joseph headed back home and after a day of travel realised Jesus was missing, so they returned to Jerusalem, finding Jesus three days later. He was found in The Temple in discussion with the elders and they were amazed at his learning, especially given his young age. When admonished by Mary, Jesus replied, Why did you seek Me, did you not know that I must be about My Father’s business. The story was elaborated in literature, such as the apocryphal 2nd-century Infancy Gospel of Thomas. The losing of Jesus is the third of the Seven Sorrows of Mary, and this event is frequently shown in art, and was a common component in cycles of the Life of the Virgin as well as the Life of Christ.
In early Christian depictions, Jesus is usually shown in the center, seated on a dais surrounded by the elders. The gesture usually made by Jesus, pointing to his upraised thumb and these depictions derive from classical compositions of professors of philosophy or rhetoric with their students, and are similar to medieval depictions of contemporary university lectures. This composition can appear until as late as Ingres and beyond, from the Early Medieval period the moment shown is usually assimilated to the finding itself, by the inclusion of, initially and Joseph as well, usually at the left of the scene. Typically and the doctors, intent on their discussions, have not noticed them yet, from the 12th century Jesus is often seated in a large throne-like chair, sometimes holding a book or scroll. From the High Renaissance onwards, many painters showed a close-up of the scene, with Jesus closely surrounded by gesticulating scholars, as in Dürers version of the subject. Seven Sorrows of Mary G.
Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I,1971, Lund Humphries, London, pp. 124–5 & figs, ISBN 0-85331-270-2
Mary Tudor, Queen of France
Mary Tudor, the third daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, was an English princess. Mary became the wife of Louis XII of France, more than 30 years her senior. Following his death, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, the marriage, which was performed secretly in France, took place during her brothers reign and without his consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey and although the couple were eventually pardoned by Henry VIII, Mary was the fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the youngest to survive infancy. She was born at Sheen Palace, most probably in March 1496, a privy seal bill dated from midsummer 1496 authorizes a payment of fifty shillings to her nurse, Anne Skeron. Also, Erasmus stated that she was four years old when he visited the Royal nursery in 1499–1500, at age six, she was given her own household, complete with a staff of gentlewomen assigned to wait upon her, a schoolmaster, and a physician. She was given instruction in French, music, dancing, as children and her brother, the future King Henry VIII, shared a close friendship.
He would name his first surviving child, the future Queen Mary I and they lost their mother when Mary was just seven, and given the number of bills paid to her apothecary between 1504 and 1509, it would appear that Marys own health was fragile. Known in her youth as one of the most beautiful princesses in Europe, in 1506, during a visit from Philip I of Castile, Mary was called upon to entertain the guests and playing the lute and clavicord. The following year, King Philip died, and on 21 December 1507, Mary was betrothed to his son Charles, the betrothal was called off in 1513. Instead, Cardinal Wolsey negotiated a treaty with France, and on 9 October 1514, at the age of 18. One of the Maids of Honour who attended her in France was Anne Boleyn, following Louis death, the new King Francis I made attempts to arrange a second marriage for the beautiful widow. Mary had been unhappy with her marriage of state to Louis, as at this time she was almost certainly already in love with Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
Henry was aware of his sisters feelings, letters from 1515 indicate that Mary agreed to wed Louis only on condition that if she survived him, Henry wanted any future marriage to be to his advantage. The Kings council, not wishing to see Brandon gain further power at Court, were opposed to the match. Meanwhile, rumours swirled in France that she would wed either the Duke of Lorraine or the Duke of Savoy, a pair of French friars actually went so far as to warn Mary that she must not wed Brandon, because he had traffickings with the devil. When Henry sent Brandon to bring Mary back to England in late January 1515, once in France, Mary persuaded Brandon to abandon this pledge. The couple wed in secret at the Hotel de Clugny on 3 March 1515, in the presence of just ten people, technically this was treason, as Brandon had married a Royal Princess without Henrys consent
Henry VII of England
Henry VII was King of England from seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, and the first monarch of the House of Tudor. He ruled the Principality of Wales until 29 November 1489 and was Lord of Ireland, Henry won the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle and he cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war and his supportive stance of the islands wool industry and stand off with the Low Countries had long lasting benefits to all the British Isles economy. However, the capriciousness and lack of due process that many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VIIs death. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple greed underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henrys final years, Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457 to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond.
His father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, died three months before his birth, Henrys paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, originally from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V. He rose to one of the Squires to the Body to the King after military service at the Battle of Agincourt. Owen is said to have married the widow of Henry V. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII, Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, and formally declared legitimate by Parliament. Henrys main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort, Henrys mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III, and his third wife Katherine Swynford. Katherine was Gaunts mistress for about 25 years, when married in 1396, they already had four children. Thus Henrys claim was somewhat tenuous, it was from a woman, in theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile.
Gaunts nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunts children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397, in 1407, Henry IV, who was Gaunts son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings, but declaring them ineligible for the throne. Henry IVs action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were previously legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henrys claim. Henry made political capital out of his Welsh ancestry, for example in attracting military support. He came from an old, established Anglesey family that claimed descent from Cadwaladr and he took it, as well as the standard of St George, on his procession through London after the victory at Bosworth. A contemporary writer and Henrys biographer, Bernard André, much of Henrys Welsh descent
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII, Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and he achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich and his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king, and he has been described as one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne.
He was an author and composer, as he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his life as a lustful, harsh. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI, born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henrys six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales and Mary – survived infancy and he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York, in May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. Henry was given an education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French.
Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king, as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, Arthurs death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public, as a result, the young Henry would ascend the throne untrained in the exacting art of kingship
Raising of Lazarus
The Raising of Lazarus or the Resurrection of Lazarus, recounted only in the Gospel of John, is a miracle of Jesus in which Jesus brings Lazarus of Bethany back to life four days after his burial. In John, this is the last of the miracles that Jesus performs before the Passion, according to John 11, 1-44, Jesus receives a message that Lazarus is ill, and his two sisters are seeking his help. Jesus tells his followers, This sickness will not end in death, no, it is for Gods glory so that Gods Son may be glorified through it. Jesus delays his departure two days, the disciples are afraid of returning to Judea, but Jesus says, Our friend Lazarus is asleep, but I am going to awaken him. When the apostles misunderstand, he clarifies, Lazarus is dead, when they arrive in Bethany, Lazarus has been dead and buried for four days. Before they enter the town, Lazarus sister, comes to meet Jesus and tells him, if you had been here, Jesus assures Martha that her brother will rise again and states, I am the resurrection and the life.
He who believes in me will live, even though he dies, marthas affirmation that she does indeed believe, Lord. The only other time this happens in the gospel is in the explanation the author of the Gospel gives for writing his Gospel as the very end. Upon entering the village, Jesus is met by Mary and the Jewish people who have come to console her, upon seeing their grief and weeping, Jesus is deeply moved. Then, after asking where he was buried, the shortest verse in the four Gospels is found - Jesus wept, after that, Jesus asks for the stone of the grave to be removed, but Mary interjects that there will be a smell. To which Jesus responds, Did I not tell you if you believed. So they took away the stone, Jesus looked up and said, Father, I thank you that you have heard me. I knew that you hear me, but I said this for the benefit of the people standing here. When he had said this, Jesus called in a voice, Lazarus. The dead man came out, his hands and feet wrapped with strips of linen, Jesus said to them, Take off the grave clothes and let him go.
The miracle of the raising of Lazarus is the climax of Johns signs and it explains the crowds seeking Jesus on Palm Sunday, and leads directly to the decision of Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin to plan to kill Jesus. Theologians Moloney and Harrington view the raising of Lazarus as a miracle which starts the chain of events that leads to the Crucifixion of Jesus. They consider it as a resurrection that will lead to death, in that the raising of Lazarus will lead to the death of Jesus, life of Jesus in the New Testament Ministry of Jesus Seven signs in the Gospel of John
National Library of Wales
The National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, is the national legal deposit library of Wales and is one of the Welsh Government sponsored bodies. It is the biggest library in Wales, holding over 6.5 million books and periodicals, Welsh is the Librarys main medium of communication but it does, aim to deliver all public services in Welsh and English. In 1873, a committee was set up to collect Welsh material and house it at University College, Sir John Williams and book collector, had said he would present his collection to the library if it were established in Aberystwyth. He eventually gave £20,000 to build and establish the library, cardiff was eventually selected as the location of the National Museum of Wales. Funds for both the National Library and the National Museum were contributed by the subscriptions of the working classes, in a Prefatory Note to A List of Subscribers to the Building Fund, the first librarian, John Ballinger, estimates that there were almost 110,000 contributors. The Library and Museum were established by Royal Charter on 19 March 1907, the Charter stipulated that if the National Library of Wales should be removed from Aberystwyth the manuscripts donated by Sir John Williams will become the property of the University College.
A new Royal Charter was granted in 2006, the National Library of Wales was granted the privilege of legal deposit under the 1911 Copyright Act. Initially, the Library could only claim material deemed to be of Welsh, the first use of the Library of Congress Classification by a library in Britain was at the National Library of Wales in 1913. On 15 July 1911 King George V and Queen Mary laid the stone of the National Library of Wales. The central block, or corps de logis, was added by Charles Holden to a version of Greenslades design. It was completed in 1937 and is a Grade II* listed building, the Library is faced with Portland stone on the upper storeys which contrasts with the Cornish granite below it. Restoration work was necessary in 1969 and 1983 due to the effects of weathering on the Portland stone, in recent years many changes have been made to the front part of the building. The large North Reading Room, where printed books are consulted, has the proportions of a Gothic Cathedral, there are galleries at three levels above the floor.
The feasibility of installing a mezzanine floor to better use of the space has been considered on two occasions. The South Reading Room is used for consulting archives, maps, carved above the entrance is the rooms original name the Print and Maps Room. Above it on the floor of the south wing is the Gregynog Gallery where temporary. A six-storey bookstack, which was completed in 1931, was built to increase space for the rapidly expanding book collection. A second bookstack was officially opened in March 1982, in 1996, the Third Library Building was opened, doubling the storage capacity of the Library
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Jesus triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place in the days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion. Christians celebrate Jesus entry into Jerusalem as Palm Sunday, a week before Easter Sunday, according to the Gospels, Jesus was staying at Bethany and Bethphage before entering Jerusalem. John 12,1 states that he was in Bethany six days before the passover, Jesus rode the donkey into Jerusalem, with the three Synoptic gospels stating that the disciples had first put their cloaks on it. Matthew 21,7 maintains that the disciples laid their cloaks on both animals, they brought the donkey and the colt, laid their clothes on them, heinrich Meyer suggests that they spread their outer garments upon both animals, being uncertain which of them Jesus intended to mount. In Luke 19,41 as Jesus approaches Jerusalem, he looks at the city and weeps over it, foretelling the suffering that awaits the city. The Gospels go on to recount how Jesus rode into Jerusalem, the people sang part of Psalm 118, 25-26, Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord.
We bless you from the house of the Lord, and the multitudes answered, This is Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth of Galilee”. The word moved in the Greek text is ἐσείσθη, derived from σεισμός, the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges suggests the word in the original is forcible, “convulsed” or “stirred” as by an earthquake, or by a violent wind. Matthew uses the word in 27,15 when he suggests that the earth quaked at the time of Jesus death. Traditionally, entering the city on a donkey symbolizes arrival in peace, and his feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east. The triumphal entry and the branches, resemble the celebration of Jewish liberation in 1 Maccabees which states. With thanksgiving, and branches of trees, and with harps, and cymbals, and with viols, and hymns. Jesus entry on a donkey has a parallel in Zechariah 9,9 which states that, thy king cometh unto thee, he is just, and having salvation and riding upon an ass. The symbolism of the donkey may refer to the Eastern tradition that it is an animal of peace, versus the horse.
Therefore, a king came riding upon a horse when he was bent on war, Jesus entry to Jerusalem symbolized his entry as the Prince of Peace, not as a warmongering king. Life of Jesus in the New Testament