Vauxhall Motors Limited is a British car company, subsidiary of French car manufacturer Groupe PSA and based in Chalton, England. Vauxhall's vehicle lineup is identical to that of Opel, but the Vauxhall brand is used in the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. Vauxhall is one of the oldest established vehicle manufacturers and distribution companies in the United Kingdom. Vauxhall sells passenger cars and light commercial vehicles under the Vauxhall marque, sold vans and trucks under the Bedford Vehicles brand. Vauxhall has been the second-largest selling car brand in the UK for more than two decades. Vauxhall was founded by Alexander Wilson in 1857 as marine engine manufacturer, it was bought in 1863 by Andrew Betts Brown. It began manufacturing cars in 1903, it was acquired by American automaker General Motors in 1925. Bedford Vehicles was established as a subsidiary of Vauxhall in 1930 to manufacture commercial vehicles, it was a luxury car brand until it was bought by General Motors who thereafter built mid-market offerings.
From the time of the Great Depression Vauxhall became mass-market. Since 1980, Vauxhall products have been identical to those of Opel, most models are principally engineered in Rüsselsheim am Main, Germany. During the 1980s, the Vauxhall brand was withdrawn from sale in all countries apart from the UK, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man. At various times during its history, Vauxhall has been active in motorsports, including rallying and the British Touring Car Championship. After 92 years under GM's ownership, Vauxhall was sold to Groupe PSA in 2017. Vauxhall has major manufacturing facilities in Luton and Ellesmere Port, UK; the Luton plant has a capacity around 100,000 units. The Ellesmere Port plant employs around 1,880 staff and has a theoretical capacity around 187,000 units. Vehicles manufactured in Opel factories in Germany and Poland and sold in the UK are branded as Vauxhall. Significant former Vauxhall production cars include the Victor, Viva and Cavalier; the current car range, manufactured by Opel and rebranded as Vauxhall in the UK, includes the Astra, Insignia, Crossland X, Grandland X. Vauxhall sells high-performance versions of some of its models under the GSi sub-brand.
Scottish marine engineer Alexander Wilson founded the company at 90–92 Wandsworth Road, London, in 1857. Named Alex Wilson and Company Vauxhall Iron Works from 1897, the company built pumps and marine engines. In 1903 the company built its first car, a five-horsepower single-cylinder model steered using a tiller, with two forward gears and no reverse gear. About 70 were made in the first year, before the car was improved with wheel steering and a reverse gear in 1904. A single survivor could still be seen at the London Science Museum in 1968. A 1903 model was entered in the London to Brighton car run in 2018. To expand, the company moved the majority of its production to Luton in 1905; the company continued to trade under the name Vauxhall Iron Works until 1907, when the modern name of Vauxhall Motors was adopted. The company was characterised by its sporting models, but after World War I, the company's designs were more austere. Much of Vauxhall's success during the early years of Vauxhall Motors was attributable to Laurence Pomeroy.
He joined Vauxhall in 1906 as an assistant draughtsman. In the winter of 1907/8, the chief designer F. W. Hodges took a long holiday, in his absence, the managing director Percy Kidner asked Pomeroy to design an engine for cars to be entered in the 1908 RAC and Scottish Reliability Trial, held in June that year; the cars were so successful. Pomeroy's first design, the Y-Type Y1, had outstanding success at the 1908 RAC and Scottish 2000 Mile Reliability Trials – showing excellent hill-climbing ability with an aggregate of 37 seconds less time in the hill climbs than any other car in its class. With unparalleled speeds around the Brooklands circuit, the Vauxhall was so far ahead of all other cars of any class that the driver could relax, accomplishing the 200 miles at an average speed of 46 mph, when the car was capable of 55 mph; the Y-Type went on to win class E of the trial. The Y-Type was so successful; this spawned the Vauxhall A-Type. Four distinct types of this were produced between 27 October 1908 and when mass production halted in 1914.
One last A-Type was put together in 1920. Capable of up to 100 mph, the A-Type Vauxhall was one of the most acclaimed three-litre cars of its day. Two cars were entered in the 1910 Prince Henry Trials, although not outright winners, performed well, replicas were made for sale as the C-type, but now known as the Prince Henry. During the First World War, Vauxhall made large numbers of the D-type, a Prince Henry chassis with derated engine, for use as staff cars for the British forces. After the 1918 armistice, the D-type remained in production, along with the sporting E-type. Pomeroy left in 1919, moving to the United States, was replaced by C. E. King. In spite of making good cars, expensive pedigree cars of the kind that had served the company well in the prosperous prewar years were no longer in demand. On 16 November 1925, Vauxhall was acquired by General Motors
The Greatest Hits Collection II is the second greatest hits compilation album by country music duo Brooks & Dunn. It is the sequel to the duo's 1997 compilation The Greatest Hits Collection, it is the second collection of the duo's most popular releases, chronicling their greatest hits from 1998's If You See Her to 2003's Red Dirt Road, omitting songs from 1999's Tight Rope. It features one song from 1994's Waitin' on Sundown and one song from 1996's Borderline, both of which did not make it to the first compilation. Three new recorded tracks — "That's What It's All About", "It's Getting Better All The Time", "Independent Trucker" — are included on this compilation; these first two songs were released as singles, peaking at #2 and #1 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart. The CD version is out of print. "That's What It's All About" – 4:00 A "How Long Gone" – 3:40 "Ain't Nothing'bout You" – 3:37 "The Long Goodbye" – 4:25 "My Heart Is Lost to You" – 2:58 "I Can't Get Over You" – 4:06 "Red Dirt Road" – 4:20 "Husbands and Wives" – 3:10 "That's What She Gets for Loving Me" – 2:54 "You Can't Take the Honky Tonk Out of the Girl" – 3:28 "It's Getting Better All the Time" - 4:14A "Only in America" – 4:29 "A Man This Lonely" – 3:34 "Independent Trucker" – 3:00 B "I'll Never Forgive My Heart" – 3:20 "If You See Him/If You See Her" – 3:58 featuring Reba McEntire "South of Santa Fe" – 3:51ANew Recorded Tracks.
BPreviously Unreleased Kix Brooks- lead vocals, background vocals Ronnie Dunn- lead vocals, background vocals David Angell- violin Bekka Bramlett- background vocals Mike Brignardello- bass guitar Perry Coleman- background vocals J. T. Corenflos- electric guitar Chad Cromwell- drums Eric Darken- percussion David Davidson- violin Dan Dugmore- steel guitar Kim Fleming- background vocals Larry Franklin- fiddle, mandolin Kenny Greenberg- electric guitar Wes Hightower- background vocals Anthony LaMarchina- cello Steve Nathan- piano Sarighandi D. Reist- cello John Wesley Ryles- background vocals Crystal Taliefero- background vocals Kristin Wilkinson- string arrangements, viola John Willis- acoustic guitar, mandolin Glenn Worf- bass guitar Reese Wynans- Hammond organ, piano
Obinitsa tsässon is situated in Obinitsa village next to Obinitsa museum in Estonia. This small chapel is a Passover tsässon, it was built by Ain Raal. The building is used on Passover day, other times it is open for introducing Seto culture to tourists, as it is situated next to Obinitsa muuseumitarõ and the key is in the museum. Obinitsa tsässon is built from pine beams which are unhewn from the inside as well as from the outside; the building has an entrance-room, supported by poles and the main part of it is made from logs. The outer measurements of the tsässon without corner cross-beams are 347 x 560 centimetres, of which the entrance-room makes up 130 cm; the entrance-room does not have a ceiling or a gate, the fence is about a metre high and made from upright unedged boards and fitted in by a few centimetre gaps. The gables are made from boards with the edges placed on top of each other. Tsässon stands on granite stones; the height of the building is 194 cm and the height up to the ridge is 383 cm.
The roof has a double shingle cover. The ridge has a simple round-timber juniper cross. There is no ceiling on the building and the floor is made from wide boards. There is a door made from wide boards in the front wall; the building is locked with a large padlock. There are no windows, but on the southern side, in the middle of the wall, there is an opening for a cauldron that can be closed with a trapdoor. A simple, narrow icon table is in the rear wall of the tsässon, covered by a dark red knitted icon scarf. Newer printed icons are placed on the rear wall. A painted icon scarf is hung above the icon in the middle of the wall. There is a turned wooden candleholder and an analoi. A few traditional woven rugs are on the floor