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Vedanta

Vedanta or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is the most prominent of the six schools of Hindu philosophy. Meaning "end of the Vedas", Vedanta reflects ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads knowledge and liberation. Vedanta contains many sub-traditions, ranging from dualism to non-dualism, all of which developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi: the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. All Vedanta schools, in their deliberations, concern themselves but differ in their views regarding ontology and epistemology; some of the better known sub-traditions of Vedanta include: Advaita Darshan - established by Shankaracharya Vishishtadvaita Darshan - established by Ramanujacharya Dvaita Darshan - established by Madhvacharya Bhedabhed Darshan - established by Nimbarkacharya Shuddhadvait Darshan - established by Vallabhacharya Achintyabhedabhed Darshan - established by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Akshar-Purushottam Darshan - established by Swaminarayan The word Vedanta means the end of the Vedas and referred to the Upanishads.

Vedanta was concerned with the jñānakāṇḍa or Vedic knowledge part called the Upanishads. The denotation of Vedanta subsequently widened to include the various philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi; the Upanishads may be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses: These were the last literary products of the Vedic period. These mark; these were debated last, in the Brahmacharya stage. Vedanta is one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy, it is called Uttara Mīmāṃsā, the'latter enquiry' or'higher enquiry'. Pūrva Mīmāṃsā deals with the karmakāṇḍa or rituals part in the Vedas; the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras constitute the basis of Vedanta. All schools of Vedanta propound their philosophy by interpreting these texts, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi three sources; the Upanishads, or Śruti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras, or Nyaya prasthana / Yukti prasthana; the Bhagavad Gita, or Smriti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras attempted to synthesize the teachings of the Upanishads.

The diversity in the teaching of the Upanishads necessitated the systematization of these teachings. This was done in many ways in ancient India, but the only surviving version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana. All major Vedantic teachers, including Shankara, Ramanuja, Vallabha and Swami Bhadreshdas have composed commentaries not only on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras, but on the Bhagavad Gita; the Bhagavad Gita, due to its syncretism of Samkhya and Upanishadic thought, has played a major role in Vedantic thought. The Upanishads present an associative philosophical inquiry in the form of identifying various doctrines and presenting arguments for or against them, they form Vedanta interprets them through rigorous philosophical exegesis. Varying interpretations of the Upanishads and their synthesis, the Brahma Sutras, led to the development of different schools of Vedanta over time of which three, five or six are prominent. Bhedabheda, as early as the 7th century CE, or the 4th century CE.

Some scholars are inclined to consider it as a "tradition" rather than a school of Vedanta. Upadhika, founded by Bhaskara in the 9th Century CE Svabhavikabhedabheda or Dvaitādvaita, founded by Nimbarka in the 7th century CE Achintya Bheda Abheda, founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Advaita, many scholars of which most prominent are Gaudapada and Adi Shankaracharya Vishishtadvaita, prominent scholars are Nathamuni, Yāmuna and Ramanuja Dvaita, founded by Madhvacharya Suddhadvaita, founded by Vallabha Akshar-Pushottam Darshan founded by Swaminarayan and propounded by Shastriji MaharajThe history of Vedanta is divided into two periods: one prior to the composition of the Brahma Sutras and the other encompassing the schools that developed after the Brahma Sutras were written. Little is known of schools of Vedanta existing before the composition of the Brahma Sutras, it is clear that Badarayana, the writer of Brahma Sutras, was not the first person to systematize the teachings of the Upanishads, as he quotes six Vedantic teachers before him – Ashmarathya, Audulomi, Kashakrtsna and Atreya.

References to other early Vedanta teachers – Brahmadatta, Pandaya and Dravidacharya – are found in secondary literature of periods. The works of these ancient teachers have not survived, but based on the quotes attributed to them in literature, Sharma postulates that Ashmarathya and Audulomi were Bhedabheda scholars and Brahmadatta were Advaita scholars, while Tanka and Dravidacharya were either Advaita or Vishistadvaita scholars. Badarayana summarized and interpreted teachings of the Upanishads in the Brahma Sutras called the Vedanta Sutra "written from a Bhedābheda Vedāntic viewpoint." Badarayana summarized the teachings of the classical Upanishads and refuted the rival philosophical schools in ancient India. The Brahma Sutras laid the basis for the development of Vedanta philosophy. Though attributed to Badarayana, the Brahma Sutras were c

Thomas Danby (artist)

Thomas Danby was an English landscape painter. Danby was born, it is thought, in Bristol in south-west England, the younger son of Francis Danby, he had an elder brother, James Francis Danby who became a landscape painter. Thomas went with his father to Europe in 1829, living for a time in Paris where he was able to earn a living by copying pictures at the Louvre in Paris, he thus became an earnest admirer and "student" of Claude Lorrain, whose aerial effects he sought to imitate. Returning to England about the same time as his father, he first exhibited at the British Institution in 1841, afterwards at the Royal Academy from 1843, he was a friend of Paul Falconer Poole, with whom he shared a house in Hampstead in 1843, imbibed not a little of his romantic feeling for nature. From 1855 to his death, Danby resided in or near Hampstead in north London.. The subjects of his landscapes were taken from Welsh scenery the old county of Merioneth. "He was always trying" says the writer of his obituary in The Times newspaper, "to render his inner heart's feeling of a beautiful view rather than the local facts received on the retina."

He came, it is said, within one vote of election as an Associate of the Royal Academy but, failing to attain Academy honours, he devoted himself in his latter years chiefly to watercolour painting. He became a member of the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1860, an associate of the Society of Painters in Watercolours in 1867, a full member of the latter in 1870. Danby died of a chest complaint, terminating in dropsy on 25 March 1886, he had been twice married, had 2 daughters and a son from the second marriage. His remaining works, some 200 watercolours and an equal number of oil paintings, were sold at Christie's in London on the 17–18 June 1886. Thomas Danby on ArtNet Cattle watering at a river

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Ygdrassil, a Dutch folk band, covered "The Garden of Jane Delawney" on their album Easy Sunrise