The Vedda or Wanniyalaeto are a minority indigenous group of people in Sri Lanka who, among other sub-communities such as Coast Veddas, Anuradhapura Veddas and Bintenne Veddas, are accorded indigenous status. The Vedda minority in Sri Lanka is in threat of becoming assimilated. Most speak Sinhala instead of their indigenous languages, it has been hypothesized that the Vedda were the earliest inhabitants of Sri Lanka and have lived on the island since before the arrival of other ethnic groups in India. Veddas are mentioned in Robert Knox's history of his captivity by the King of Kandy in the 17th century. Knox described them as "wild men", but said there was a "tamer sort", that the latter sometimes served in the king's army; the Ratnapura District, part of the Sabaragamuwa Province, is known to have been inhabited by the Veddas in the distant past. This has been shown by scholars like Nandadeva Wijesekera; the name Sabaragamuwa is believed to have meant the village of the Sabaras or "forest barbarians".
Place-names such as Vedda-gala, Vedda-ela and Vedi-Kanda in the Ratnapura District bear testimony to this. As Wijesekera observes, a strong Vedda element is discernible in the population of Vedda-gala and its environs. Ethnonyms of Vedda include Vadda, Veddah and Vaddo. "Vedda" is either a Dravidian word and stems from Tamil word Vēdu meaning hunting, or from Sanskrit vyādha or veddhṛ. The original language of the Veddas is the Vedda language, which today is used by the interior Veddas of Dambana. Communities such as Coast Veddas and Anuradhapura Veddas, who do not identify themselves as Veddas use Vedda language for communication during hunting and or for religious chants; when a systematic field study was conducted in 1959 it was determined that the language was confined to the older generation of Veddas from Dambana. In the 1990s, self-identifying Veddas knew few words and phrases in the Vedda language, but there were individuals who knew the language comprehensively. There was considerable debate among linguists as to whether Vedda is a dialect of Sinhala or an independent language.
Studies indicate that it diverged from its parent stock in the 10th century and became a Creole and a stable independent language by the 13th century, under the influence of Sinhala. The parent Vedda language is of unknown genetic origins, while Sinhala is of the Indo-Aryan branch of Indo-European languages. Phonologically it is distinguished from Sinhala by the higher frequency of palatal sounds C and J; the effect is heightened by the addition of inanimate suffixes. Vedda language word class is morphologically divided into nouns and variables with unique gender distinctions inanimate nouns. Per its Creole tradition, it has reduced and simplified many forms of Sinhala such as second person pronouns and denotations of negative meanings. Instead of borrowing new words from Sinhala, Vedda created combinations of words from a limited lexical stock. Vedda maintains many archaic Sinhala terms prior to the 10th to 12th centuries, as a relict of its close contact with Sinhala. Vedda retains a number of unique words that cannot be derived from Sinhala.
Sinhala has borrowed from the original Vedda language and grammatical structures, differentiating it from its related Indo-Aryan languages. Vedda has exerted a substratum influence in the formation of Sinhala. Veddas that have adopted Sinhala are found in the southeastern part of the country in the vicinity of Bintenne in Uva Province. There are Veddas that have adopted Sinhala who live in Anuradhapura District in the North Central Province. Another group termed East Coast Veddas, is found in coastal areas of the Eastern Province, between Batticaloa and Trincomalee; these Veddas have adopted Tamil as their mother tongue. The parent of Vedda language is considered a language isolate. Early linguists and observers of the language considered it to be either a separate language or a dialect of Sinhala; the chief proponent of the dialect theory was Wilhelm Geiger, but he contradicted himself by claiming that Vedda was a relexified aboriginal language. Veddas consider the Vedda language to be distinct from Sinhala and use it as an ethnic marker to differentiate them from Sinhalese people.
The original religion of Veddas is animism. The Sinhalized interior Veddahs follow a mix of animism and nominal Buddhism. One of the most distinctive features of Vedda religion is the worship of dead ancestors, who are called "nae yaku" among the Sinhala-speaking Veddas and are invoked for the game and yams. There are peculiar deities unique to Veddas, such as "Kande Yakka". Veddas, along with the Island's Buddhist and Muslim communities, venerate the temple complex situated at Kataragama, showing the syncretism that has evolved over 2,000 years of coexistence and assimilation. Kataragama is supposed to be the site where the Hindu god Skanda or Murugan in Tamil met and married a local tribal girl, who in Sri Lanka is believed to have been a Vedda. There are a number of less famous shrines across the island which are sacred to the Veddas as well as to other communities. Vedda marriage is a simple ceremony, it consists of the bride tying a bark rope. This symbolizes the bride's acceptance of the man as her life partner.
Although endogamous marriage betwee
The Council for New England was a 17th-century English joint stock company, granted a royal charter to found colonial settlements along the coast of North America. The Council was established in November of 1620, was disbanded in 1635, it provided for the establishment of the Plymouth Colony, the State of New Hampshire, the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the New Haven Colony, the eventual State of Maine. It was the creation of Sir Ferdinand Gorges; some of the persons involved had received a charter in 1606 as the Plymouth Company and had founded the short-lived Popham Colony within the territory of northern Virginia. The company had fallen into disuse following the abandonment of the 1607 colony; the Council was re-established after, with support from Gorges, Captain John Smith had completed a thorough survey of the Atlantic side of New England, Richard Vines over-wintered in 1616, off the Maine coast and discovered that a plague was decimating Native Americans and a friendly English speaking local Native American had been placed in the most colonization spot.
In the new 1620 charter granted by James I, the company was given rights of settlement in the area now designated as New England, the land part of the Virginia Colony north of the 40th parallel, extending to the 48th parallel. In 1622 the Plymouth Council issued a land grant to John Mason which evolved into the Province of New Hampshire. 1620 Charter of New England from the Avalon Project 1635 Surrender of the New England Charter from the Avalon Project
Major Sir Cyril Berkeley Ormerod was an English soldier and sportsman. Berkeley Ormerod was born in Edmonton and educated at St Paul's School, London, he served in World War I, fighting at Ypres. He ended the war with the rank of major, he became a financial columnist. An opening bowler, he played cricket for Oxfordshire, representing them in a two-day match against the touring Indians in 1932, taking four wickets, he played one first-class cricket match, for Marylebone Cricket Club against Wales at Lord's in 1927. He played golf. In World War II he was financial adviser for British Information Services in New York, he set up the office of Director of Public Relations in New York and occupied the position from 1945. He accompanied Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip on their visit to the United States in 1957, he married Beatrice Sigrist, widow of the aircraft designer Frederick Sigrist, in 1952. She died in 1981. Berkeley Ormerod at ESPNcricinfo Berkeley Ormerod at CricketArchive
Guillaume de Lamoignon was a French jurist. He is known for work, he became in 1644 master of requests in the Parlement. He took an active part in the Fronde of the Parlement against Mazarin, he became first president of the Parlement in 1658. A distinguished member of the Society of the Holy Sacrament, he was devoted to the Catholic cause, he induced Colbert to give up the idea of putting back to twenty-seven the age for ordination to priesthood, the years required for monastic vows to twenty for the women and twenty-seven for the men. He had Gallican tendencies, in 1663 he spoke before the Parlement in favor of the "liberties of the Gallican church" against a thesis suspected of ultramontanism. A nephew of Bishop Potier of Beauvais, a close friend of the Jansenist Hermant, Lamoignon was supposed to sympathize with Port Royal, but he chose René Rapin, a Jesuit, as tutor for his sons, whom he brought into close acquaintance with Bourdaloue; when in 1664 the Jansenists deferred to the Parlement a confutation of Pascal's Provinciales written by the Jesuits, the decree which condemned this book spared the Jesuits.
On this occasion Lamoignon said to the king that he had been "a witness of the unfair outbursts of the Jansenists in all the differences they had with the Society of Jesus. It was Lamoignon who, having as first president to settle the dispute that had arisen at the Sainte-Chapelle between the precentor and the treasurer regarding a desk, furnished Boileau with the account of this incident from which the latter evolved the celebrated poem of the "Lutrin". Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "/Family of Lamoignon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "/Family of Lamoignon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
The Culture of Sarajevo is represented in various ways. Numerous cultural festivals occur every year, such as the Bašćaršija Nights, Sarajevo Winter Festival, the Sarajevo Jazz Festival. Numerous theatres are present in Sarajevo as well, such as the National Theatre of Sarajevo; the first Bosnian opera was held in Sarajevo in 2003. Theatres are an important part of Sarajevo culture; the first great Sarajevo theatre was the national theatre of Bosnia and Herzegovina, built in 1919 and surviving to this day. Prior to that, plays were held in parks or at the large houses of wealthy families. Sarajevo houses the Sarajevo Youth Theatre. Sarajevo holds many of the most famous historical texts in Bosnia and Herzegovina, they were held in the Sarajevo City Library, built in 1896. Serbian ultranationalists purposely fired upon the building with incendiary shells, they succeeded in setting the building on fire, along with it thousands of irreplaceable texts. Today an international effort is underway to replace.
In Ottoman times, the Gazi Husrev-beg library was one of the greatest in the Balkans. Destroyed since, it is being rebuilt in a stunning modern form that will house many of the oldest texts found in the city. Sarajevo was home to several famous Bosnian poets and thinkers during the times of the Ottoman Empire. Nobel Prize winners Ivo Andrić and Vladimir Prelog are from the city, as was Academy Award-winning director Danis Tanović. Sarajevo is home to the Sarajevo Haggadah, one of the oldest surviving such texts, originating from the 14th century and brought by Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition; as of late, modern art has flourished in the city as well. Contemporary poet Semezdin Mehmedinović wrote Sarajevo Blues from inside the city during the siege of Sarajevo in 1992. Sarajevo is home to a number of cultural institutions dedicated to upkeeping the city's culture; the notable Bosniak institute is housed in an impressive building in central Sarajevo, features various interesting exhibits dealing with the city's and country's culture and history.
Notable are the International Center for Kids and Youth in New Sarajevo and the Center for Sarajevo Culture. The most famous in all of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, is located in central Sarajevo, it was established from an idea dating back to the first half of the 19th century. The Sarajevo Haggadah is held there. While in Sarajevo one can visit the Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art, the Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Museum of the City of Sarajevo, the War Childhood Museum and the Bosnian and Herzegovinian Museum of Literature. There existed an impressive Olympic museum dedicated to the 84 games, but it was destroyed in warfare. Part of the exhibition has been relocated to a small exhibition hall on the site of the Zetra Stadium. An interesting aspect of the city's culture is its rich musical history. Many regard it as the most musically influential city in the Balkans during the 20th century. "Kad ja pođoh na Benbašu" is a great example of traditional Bosnian music, it is one of the city's unofficial anthems.
The city is home to the Sarajevo Philharmonic Orchestra. During the second half of the 20th century, Sarajevo was a center of Yugoslav rock music; some of the bands from the Sarajevo school of pop rock, such as Bijelo Dugme and Indeksi, are arguably the greatest Yugoslav rock bands of all time. After them come a wide array of other bands and performers considered "greats" and "legends", such as Crvena Jabuka, Plavi Orkestar, Zabranjeno Pušenje, others. Solo artists such as Kemal Monteno and Dino Merlin gained much prominence. Monteno's song, "Sarajevo Ljubavi Moja", is another unofficial anthem of Sarajevo. Sarajevo is the hometown of one of the most significant ex-Yugoslavian alternative industrial-noise bands, SCH; the Sarajevo Film Festival has been held since 1995 and has become the premier film festival in the Balkans. Due to its size and the success and popularity of cinema in Bosnia, the event has gained considerable importance and attracts foreign celebrities; the Sarajevo Winter Festival is well-known, as are the Bašćaršija Nights, a month-long showcase of local culture and dance.
The city is present internationally in various forms of pop culture. The film "Welcome to Sarajevo" was released in 1997; the Irish rock band U2 had a hit song with Miss Sarajevo, progressive metal group Savatage's 1995 Concept Album "Dead Winter Dead" deals with the story of Sarajevo's Romeo and Juliet. Sarajevo is the name of a jam band from East Windsor, New Jersey
Justin Gabriel Hurwitz is an American film composer and a television writer. He is best known for his longtime collaboration with director Damien Chazelle, scoring each of his films: Guy and Madeline on a Park Bench, Whiplash, La La Land, First Man. For La La Land, he won two Academy Awards: Best Original Score and Best Original Song as well as the Golden Globe Awards for Best Original Score and Best Original Song, the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music. For First Man, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score. Hurwitz was born in California, the son of Gail, a professional ballet dancer turned registered nurse, Ken Hurwitz, a writer, he is of Jewish descent. His family moved to Wisconsin in 1998. Hurwitz attended Harvard University, they collaborated on a student film that would become Guy and Madeline on a Park Bench, released in 2009. While in school, Hurwitz was a member of the Harvard Lampoon and was an original member of the indie-pop band Chester French with Chazelle. After college and Chazelle moved to Los Angeles where Hurwitz wrote comedy for the sitcom The League and one episode of The Simpsons.
Thanks to the success of Guy and Madeline, they were able to obtain financing for their next collaboration, the 2014 film Whiplash – with Hurwitz scoring the film and Chazelle writing and directing. Hurwitz scored Chazelle's 2016 film La La Land, for which Chazelle won the Oscar for Best Director and Hurwitz won two Oscars for Best Original Score and Best Original Song. Justin Hurwitz on IMDb