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Vegetable

Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, stems, leaves and seeds; the alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits, flowers and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes, flowers such as broccoli, seeds such as pulses. Vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations.

China is the largest producer of vegetables, global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day being recommended; the word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French, was applied to all plants, it derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis "growing, flourishing", a semantic change from a Late Latin meaning "to be enlivening, quickening". The meaning of "vegetable" as a "plant grown for food" was not established until the 18th century.

In 1767, the word was used to mean a "plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root". The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term "veggie"; as an adjective, the word vegetable is used in scientific and technical contexts with a different and much broader meaning, namely of "related to plants" in general, edible or not—as in vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom, vegetable origin, etc. The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, leaves, flowers and seeds; the broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of, used for food", a secondary meaning being "the edible part of such a plant". A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food, not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal". Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are treated as vegetables.

In the latter-mentioned definition of "vegetable", used in everyday language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive. "Fruit" has a precise botanical meaning, being a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant. This is different from the word's culinary meaning. While peaches and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items called "vegetables", such as eggplants, bell peppers, tomatoes, are botanically fruits; the question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is identified as, thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the Tariff of 1883 on imported produce; the court did acknowledge, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit. Before the advent of agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers, they foraged for edible fruit, stems, leaves and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted living ones for food. Forest gardening in a tropical jungle clearing is thought to be the first example of agriculture.

Plant breeding through the selection of strains with desirable traits such as large fruit and vigorous growth soon followed. While the first evidence for the domestication of grasses such as wheat and barley has been found in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, it is that various peoples around the world started growing crops in the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC. Subsistence agriculture continues to this day, with many rural farmers in Africa, South America, elsewhere using their plots of land to produce enough food for their families, while any surplus produce is used for exchange for other goods. Throughout recorded history, the rich have been able to afford a varied diet including meat and fruit, but for poor people, meat was a luxury and the food they ate was dull comprising some staple product made from rice, barley, millet or maize; the addition of vegetable matter provided some variety to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes, beans, pumpkins, squashes and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge.

In Peru, the Inca

Pavel Postyshev

Pavel Petrovich Postyshev was a Soviet politician. Postyshev was born in Ivanovo-Voznesensk in Vladimir Governorate, he was a member of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1904 a member of the Communist Party in Siberia. In 1923 he was reassigned from his position in the Far Eastern Republic to supervise organization of the Communist Party committee in Kiev Governorate in central Ukraine. In 1925 Postyshev became secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, or CPU. In 1926–30 he became a member of the Politburo and Organizational Bureau of Ukraine's Bolshevik Party; as secretary of the Kharkiv Oblast and city Party committees, Postyshev organized the purge of Trotskyists and Ukrainian national-communists as well as industrialization and collectivization campaigns in the region. In July 1930 he was promoted to the office of secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party in Moscow and put in charge of propaganda and organization. In January 1933 Postyshev was once again sent to Ukraine as Stalin's personal representative, along with thousands of political appointees from Russia.

Upon Postyshev's arrival in Ukraine he was elected second secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and first secretary of the Kharkiv city and Kharkiv Oblast Party organizations. From July 1934 to January 1937 he was in charge of the Kiev Oblast Party organization; as second secretary he was nominally subordinate to First Secretary Stanislav Kosior, but his appointment by Stalin gave him supreme power. Postyshev's mission in Ukraine was to eliminate any remaining opposition to Stalin by purging all traces of "nationalist deviation" from the Party, to end the cultural policy of Ukrainization, to bring collectivization to completion at any cost. A prominent scapegoat was Mykola Skrypnyk, the director of Ukrainization, removed from his post within a month; the end of Ukrainization was accompanied by an attack on cultural institutions in Ukraine and the new Soviet intelligentsia. Under Postyshev, thousands of authors, philosophers, artists and editors were exiled to labour camps, executed or disappeared.

Many others avoided being denounced by working according to Moscow dictates. "Nests of nationalist counter-revolutionaries" like the commissariats of education and justice, journals and film studios were purged. Over 15,000 officials were eliminated on charges of "nationalism." The Ukrainian Communist Party was targeted. In a prelude to the Great Purge 100,000 members were expelled during Postyshev's first year in Ukraine, a further 168,000 through 1938. Postyshev wrote in his report that the majority were shot; the highest ranking were paraded through elaborate show trials. As the purges progressed after 1933, affecting millions throughout the Soviet Union, Postyshev's crackdown spread beyond perceived "Ukrainianizers," "nationalists," and opponents of collectivization, it came to include the liquidation of entire classes such as kulaks, people, members of anti-Bolshevik armies, ethnic Ukrainians who had travelled abroad or immigrated from Galicia. Postyshev criticized the Ukrainian Communists for their "lack of Bolshevik vigilance" in Stalin's systematic enforcement of increased grain quotas.

His party activists conducted a brutal campaign through farms and homes, searching for suspected hiding places and confiscating every bit of grain, with disregard for the starvation they encountered. Millions died in the famine of 1932–33. After the famine, Postyshev was removed from Ukraine and appointed first secretary of the Kuibyshev Oblast Party Committee. There during the Great Purge, he launched an extensive hunt for "enemies of the people", he was noteworthy for promoting the practice of the New Year tree after publishing a famous letter in Pravda on 28 December 1935, in which he asked for trees to be installed in schools, children's homes, Young Pioneer Palaces, children's clubs, children's theaters and cinemas. Despite being a fanatical fighter against Trotskyists through his career, soon he was accused of being Trotskyist himself and was arrested on February 26, 1938, his arrest came after he was denounced by Lev Mekhlis who feared that Postyshev's repression might affect him. He was shot at Kuibyshev on February 26, 1939.

Nikita Khrushchev, along with Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Yezhov, were sent to take over Postyshev's post in Ukraine. Khrushchev had to be appointed by Moscow, his wife and son were executed, after Molotov added his wife's name to a death list. A railway station which became the city of Pokrovsk was named Postyshevo after him. Postyshev is known for reviving the New Year tree tradition in the Soviet Union. A letter from Postyshev published in Pravda on December 28, 1935 calls for the installation of New Year trees in schools, children's homes, Young Pioneer Palaces, children's clubs, children's theaters and cinemas. Postyshev was rehabilitated in 1956 by Nikita Khrushchev. In January 2010 a Ukrainian Court of Appeal accused Postyshev, Josef Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Stanislav Kosior and other Soviet officials of organizing a man-made famine in Ukraine in 1932–33 but quashed criminal proceedings against them due to their deaths. Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of

Another Merzbow Records

Another Merzbow Records is a compilation album by the noise artist Merzbow, released in 2010. It compiled tracks from various other compilations and splits from 1991–2001, most of which are out of print, it came as 3 CDs in pack in a bronze coloured slipcase. The set was limited to 1000 copies. Merzbow - Music CD1 #1, #5 from Extreme Music from Japan CD1 #2 from Conception: The Dark Evolution of Electronics Vol.1 CD1 #3 from X-X Section CD1 #4 from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy CD1 #6 from Music Should Hurt CD1 #7, CD2 #3 from Scumtron CD2 #1 from Wohlstand German-Japanese Noise Compilation CD2 #2 from Indiscreet Stereo Test Record CD2 #4 from Non Stop Noise Party CD2 #5 from Come Again II CD2 #6 from World Record CD2 #7 from The Rebirth of Fool Volume One CD3 #1, #2, #4 from Switching Rethorics CD3 #3 from Split Series 1-8 CD3 #5 from Avanto-00