Friedrich Justin Bertuch
Friedrich Johann Justin Bertuch was a German publisher and patron of the arts. He co-founded the Fürstliche freie Zeichenschule Weimar with the painter Georg Melchior Kraus in 1776, he was the father of journalist Karl Bertuch. Bertuch came from a family attested in the Tennstedt area of Thuringia since the 15th century, his family was strongly connected with the area's scientific and intellectual fields. When Friedrich Johann Justin Bertuch was 5, his father Justinus became garrison doctor in the service of duke Ernst August Konstantin at Blutsturz, he grew up in the house of his uncle Gottfried Matthias Ludwig Schrön. He attended the Weimar Gymnasium, studied from 1765 to 1769 theology law at the Landesuniversität in Jena, his main interest, was for literature and natural history. His acquaintance with Freiherr Ludwig Heinrich Bachoff von Echt allowed the 22-year-old Bertuch to break off his studies without taking his final exams, that same year he began work as tutor to Ludwig's son at the Gut Dobitschen at Altenburg, holding the post until 1773.
From him he learned Spanish, translating Don Quixote into German and self-publishing it in 1774. His translations from English and French literature promised success. In 1773 he returned to Weimar for health reasons, though he maintained contacts with the court kapellmeister Ernst Wilhelm Wolf and his wife, the daughter of the famous Konzertmeister Franz Benda, as well as with the acting couple Friederike and Abel Seyler, the actor Konrad Ekhof and the professor at the gymnasium Johann Karl August Musäus, he funded his living expenses until 1796 as manager of the ducal private finances. Christoph Martin Wieland, tutor at the Weimar court and publisher of the "Teutschen Merkur", cooperated with Bertuch from 1782 to 1786 and provided him with his way into the Weimar court, his translation of the tragedy "Ines de Castro" given before duchess Anna Amalia from the French of Antoine Houdar de la Motte received much attention. In 1774 he submitted the plan for a Zeichenschule in Weimar, set up drawing on his ideas by Johann Heinrich Meyer and from 1788 Goethe.
Bertuch's goal was that any interested persons, whatever their social standing, might have the chance to gain technical crafts skills and training for their talents. In 1775 he became private secretary to the duke and held that role until 1787, during which time he participated in the Weimar Masonic lodge Amalia zu den drei Rosen, he had many business activities. In 1777 he gained a hereditary lease on the großen Baumgarten in Erbpacht, a Grundstück, now known as the Schwansee-Park. In 1782 he founded a factory for artificial flowers, an artistic and commercial fashion item, with which he had success right across Germany. In 1785 he set up the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung. From 1778 he could change the works themselves, into a paper mill and pigment production, in another example of his vision and commercial talent. In 1780 he leased his house to the Weimarer Baumgarten, moved his flower production there, where Goethe's wife Christiane Vulpius was employed; the Journal des Luxus und der Moden, published by Bertuch from 1786, not only praised artificial flowers but the technical innovations and reading matter on maintenance and instruction, is considered as the first pictorial periodical in Europe.
He planned a Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, to promote regional industry, train skilled workers and increase the prosperity of the region, was given a princely dispensation to set it up in 1791. He temporarily employed 400 to 500 people and succeeded in combining printers and cartographers under one roof. Pay there was above average. In 1793 Bertuch himself defined this art business in a magazine as being "an infallible means of encouraging German industry and spreading food and prosperity among us". Here again applied Enlightenment ideas pointed to a kind of free market economy Bertuch was just such a private citizen who attained national and European influence above and beyond "local usefulness and effectiveness". Within the Cartoir and the paper and colour mill he set up a cartographical department. With his instruments of printing for the "literary and artistic industry", Bertuch held himself to be a "literary midwife", he underwrote Goethe's first publication with Göschen, his "Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung" increased in circulation and receipts.
Between 1790 and 1830 Betruch printed. An educational work, it appeared in monthly instalments and aimed to "spread the knowledge of the epochs out before children" with 1185 pages and 6000 illustrations, it is available online: see'External Links', below. Translations, medical works – culture in its widest sense – was made accessible for a wide public via Bertuch's work. Goethe's classical work on the Iphigenia works and textual and visual sketches of a "newly-invented English washing machine" were both published by him, this tension between the ideal and the real the trivial, made clear the breadth and variety of culture in Weimar around 1800; the events of 1806, ripped into Bertuch's business, plunged into crisis by the political and military situation. From 1814 Bertuch functioned as a publisher of political newspapers and pamphlets such as Nemesis and Das Oppositionsblatt, he spent his last years in retirement, dying in Weimar
The Botanic Garden
The Botanic Garden is a set of two poems, The Economy of Vegetation and The Loves of the Plants, by the British poet and naturalist Erasmus Darwin. The Economy of Vegetation celebrates technological innovation, scientific discovery and offers theories concerning contemporary scientific questions, such as the history of the cosmos; the more popular Loves of the Plants promotes and illustrates Linnaeus's classification scheme for plants. One of the first popular science books, the intent of The Botanic Garden is to pique readers' interest in science while educating them at the same time. By embracing Linnaeus's sexualized language, which anthropomorphizes plants, Darwin intended to make botany interesting and relevant to the readers of his time. Darwin emphasizes the connections between humanity and plants, arguing that they are all part of the same natural world and that sexual reproduction is at the heart of evolution; this evolutionary theme continues in The Economy of Vegetation which contends that scientific progress is part of evolution and urges its readers to celebrate inventors and scientific discoveries in a language reserved for heroes or artistic geniuses.
Darwin's attempt to popularize science and to convey the wonders of scientific discovery and technological innovation through poetry helped initiate a tradition of popular science writing that continues to the present day. In the 1760s and 1770s, botany became popular in Britain because of the translation of Linnaeus's works into English. One of the most prominent books about botany was William Withering's Botanical Arrangement of all the Vegetables Naturally Growing in Great Britain, which used Linnaeus's system for classifying plants. Withering's book went through multiple editions and became the standard text on British plants for a generation; the book delighted and intrigued experts and children alike. One of the effects of Withering's book was that it provoked a debate over the translation of Linnaeus's works. Withering aimed for an Anglicized translation of Linnaeus's Latin that stripped the nomenclature of its sexualized language. Although he wanted to make botany available, he believed that women readers should be protected from any mention of sexuality.
In his preface he writes: "from an apprehension that botany in an English dress would become a favourite amusement with the ladies... it was thought proper to drop the sexual distinctions in the titles to the Classes and Orders."Darwin held the opposite position. In 1783 and 1787, A Botanical Society, at Lichfield - always incorrectly called the Botanical Society of Lichfield, founded by Darwin and several of his friends to translate Linnaeus's works, issued their own English translation, A System of Vegetables, that categorized over 1400 plants. Assisted by Samuel Johnson, they coined over fifty new botanical words. By 1796 their translation had prevailed and Withering was forced to adopt their vocabulary in editions of his work; the reliability and usefulness of the Linnaean system was a subject of much debate when Darwin was composing The Loves of the Plants, leading scholars to conclude that one of his intentions in publishing the poem was to defend the Linnaean classification scheme. Linnaeus had reproduce sexually.
Therefore, as scholar Janet Browne writes, “to be a Linnaean taxonomist was to believe in the sex life of flowers.” In his poem, Darwin not only embraced Linnaeus's classification scheme but his metaphors. At the same time that he was defending Linnaeus's system, Darwin was refining it. Linnaeus classified plants on the number of reproductive organs they had, but Darwin's poem emphasized “proportion and arrangement of the organs”. Inspired by his enjoyment of his own botanical garden but by Anna Seward's poem “Verses Written in Dr. Darwin's Botanic Garden”, Darwin decided to compose a poem that would embody Linnaeus's ideas. According to Seward, Darwin said that “the Linnean System is unexplored poetic ground, an happy subject for the muse, it affords fine scope for poetic landscape. Darwin may have thought of The Love of the Plants “as a kind of love song” to Elizabeth Pole, a woman with whom he was in love and would marry. Concerned about his scientific reputation and curious to see if there would be an audience for his more demanding poem The Economy of Vegetation, he published The Loves of the Plants anonymously in 1789.
He was stunned at its success and therefore published both Loves of the Plants and Economy of Vegetation together as The Botanic Garden in 1791. Joseph Johnson, his publisher bought the copyright for The Botanic Garden from him for the staggering sum of ₤800; when Johnson published the combined and illustrated The Botanic Garden in 1791, he charged twenty-one shillings for it, a hefty price at the time. Seward wrote that "the immense price which the bookseller gave
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with supplements, revised editions, translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes, it was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Encyclopédie is most famous for representing the thought of the Enlightenment. According to Denis Diderot in the article "Encyclopédie", the Encyclopédie's aim was "to change the way people think" and for people to be able to inform themselves and to know things, he and the other contributors advocated for the secularization of learning away from the Jesuits. Diderot wanted to incorporate all of the world's knowledge into the Encyclopédie and hoped that the text could disseminate all this information to the public and future generations, it was the first encyclopedia to include contributions from many named contributors, it was the first general encyclopedia to describe the mechanical arts.
In the first publication, seventeen folio volumes were accompanied by detailed engravings. Volumes were published without the engravings, in order to better reach a wide audience within Europe; the Encyclopédie was conceived as a French translation of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia. Ephraim Chambers had first published his Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences in two volumes in London in 1728, following several dictionaries of arts and sciences that had emerged in Europe since the late 17th century; this work became quite renowned, four editions were published between 1738 and 1742. An Italian translation appeared between 1747 and 1754. In France a member of the banking family Lambert had started translating Chambers into French, but in 1745 the expatriate Englishman John Mills and German Gottfried Sellius were the first to prepare a French edition of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia for publication, which they entitled Encyclopédie. Early in 1745 a prospectus for the Encyclopédie was published to attract subscribers to the project.
This four page prospectus was illustrated by Jean-Michel Papillon, accompanied by a plan, stating that the work would be published in five volumes from June 1746 until the end of 1748. The text was translated by Mills and Sellius, it was corrected by an unnamed person, who appears to have been Denis Diderot; the prospectus was cited at some length in several journals. The Mémoires pour l'histoire des sciences et des beaux arts journal was lavish in its praise: "voici deux des plus fortes entreprises de Littérature qu'on ait faites depuis long-temps"; the Mercure Journal in June 1745, printed a 25-page article that praised Mill's role as translator. The Journal reported that Mills had discussed the work with several academics, was zealous about the project, had devoted his fortune to support this enterprise, was the sole owner of the publishing privilege. However, the cooperation fell apart on in 1745. André Le Breton, the publisher commissioned to manage the physical production and sales of the volumes, cheated Mills out of the subscription money, claiming for example that Mills's knowledge of French was inadequate.
In a confrontation Le Breton physically assaulted Mills. Mills took Le Breton to court. Mills returned to England soon after the court's ruling. For his new editor, Le Breton settled on the mathematician Jean Paul de Gua de Malves. Among those hired by Malves were the young Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Denis Diderot. Within thirteen months, in August 1747, Gua de Malves was fired for being an ineffective leader. Le Breton hired Diderot and d'Alembert to be the new editors. Diderot would remain as editor for the next twenty-five years, seeing the Encyclopédie through to its completion; as d'Alembert worked on the Encyclopédie, its title expanded. As of 1750, the full title was Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres, mis en ordre par M. Diderot de l'Académie des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Prusse, et quant à la partie mathématique, par M. d'Alembert de l'Académie royale des Sciences de Paris, de celle de Prusse et de la Société royale de Londres.
The title page was amended. The work consisted with 71,818 articles and 3,129 illustrations; the first seventeen volumes were published between 1751 and 1765. Engraver Robert Bénard provided at least 1,800 plates for the work; because of its occasional radical contents, the Encyclopédie caused much controversy in conservative circles, on the initiative of the Parlement of Paris, the French government suspended the encyclopedia's privilège in 1759. Despite the suspension, work continued "in secret," because the project had placed supporters, such as Malesherbes and Madame de Pompadour; the authorities deliberately ignored the continued
Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the long silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. The byssus is used by the clam to attach itself to the sea bed. Sea silk was produced in the Mediterranean region from the large marine bivalve mollusc Pinna nobilis until early in the 20th century; the shell, sometimes a metre long, adheres itself to rocks with a tuft of strong thin fibres, pointed end down, in the intertidal zone. These byssi or filaments are spun and, when treated with lemon juice, turn a golden colour, which never fades; the cloth produced from these filaments can be woven finer than silk, is light and warm. The cloth attracts clothes moths. In addition, Pinna nobilis is sometimes gathered for its flesh and has pearls of fair quality; the Greek text of the Rosetta Stone records that Ptolemy V reduced taxes on priests, including one paid in byssus cloth. This is thought to be fine linen cloth, not sea silk. In Ancient Egyptian burial customs, byssus was used to wrap mummies.
The sophist author Alciphron first records "sea wool" in his "Galenus to Cryton" letter. The early Christian Tertullian mentions it. Nor was it enough to comb and to sew the materials for a tunic, it was necessary to fish for one's dress. Sea silk has been suggested as an interpretation of the nature of the golden fleece, sought by Jason and the Argonauts but scholars refute this hypothesis. Several sources mention lana pinna "pinna wool". Emperor Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices lists it as a valuable textile; the Byzantine historian Procopius's Persian War, "stated that the five hereditary satraps of Armenia who received their insignia from the Roman Emperor were given chlamys made from lana pinna. Only the ruling classes were allowed to wear these chlamys." The Arabic name for "sea silk" is ṣūf al-baḥr "sea wool". The 9th-century Persian geographer Estakhri notes that a sea-wool robe cost more than 1000 gold pieces and records its mythic source. At a certain period of the year an animal is seen running out of the sea and rubbing itself against certain stones of the littoral, whereupon it deposes a kind of wool of silken hue and golden colour.
This wool is rare and esteemed, nothing of it is allowed to waste. Two 13th-century authors, Ibn al-Baitar and Zakariya al-Qazwini, repeat this inaccurate "sea wool" story. Beginning in the Eastern Han dynasty, Chinese histories document importing sea silk. Chinese language names include "cloth from the west of the sea" and "mermaid silk"; the Weilüe "Brief Account of the Wei", an unofficial history of the Cao Wei empire, records haixi 海西 "West of the Sea" cloth made from shuiyang 水羊 "water sheep". They have fine brocaded cloth, said to be made from the down of "water-sheep", it is called Haixi cloth. This country produces the six domestic animals, it is said that they not only use sheep's wool, but bark from trees, or the silk from wild silkworms, to make brocade, pile rugs, woven cloth and curtains, all of them of good quality, with brighter colours than those made in the countries of Haidong. The Hou Hanshu "Book of the Eastern Han" expresses doubt about "water sheep" in the "Products of Daqin" section.
"They have a fine cloth which some people say is made from the down of'water sheep,' but, made, in fact, from the cocoons of wild silkworms". The historian Fan Ye, author of the Hou Hanshu, notes this section's information comes from the report that General Ban Yong 班勇 presented to the Emperor in 125. Both Bans administered the Western Regions on the Silk Road; the Tang shu "Book of Tang" mentioned Haixi cloth from Folin 佛菻 "Syria", which Emil Bretschneider first identified as sea silk from Greece. "There is a stuff woven from the hair of sea-sheep, called hai si pu". He notes, "This is the Byssus, a clothstuff woven up to the present time by the Mediterranean coast in Southern Italy, from the thread-like excrescences of several sea-shells."The Shuyiji 遹異記 "Records of Strange Things" mentions silk woven by Jiaoren 蛟人 jiao-dragon people", which Edward H. Schafer identifies as sea silk. In the midst of the South Sea are the houses of the kău people who dwell in the water like fish, but have not given up weaving at the loom.
Their eyes have the power to weep. This aquatic type of raw silk was called jiaoxiao 蛟綃, i.e. "mermaid silk" or jiaonujuan 蛟女絹, "mermaid women's silk". The earliest usage of the English name sea silk remains uncertain, but the Oxford English Dictionary defines sea-silkworm as "a bivalve mollusc of the genus Pinna."Alexander Serov's 1863 opera Judith includes an aria "I shall don my robe of byssus". In Jules Verne's 1870 novel 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, the crew of the Nautilus wear clothes made of byssus (alternately translated as "seashell tissue" or "fan-mussel fab
Gustaaf Schlegel was a Dutch sinologist and field naturalist. Gustaaf Schlegel was born on 30 September 1840 in Oegstgeest; the son of Hermann Schlegel—a native of Saxony who had moved to the Netherlands in 1827 to work at the natural history museum of Leiden and became its second director—Gustaaf begun to study Chinese at the age of 9 with Leiden japanologist J. J. Hoffmann it seems, without the knowledge of his parents. Gustaaf made his first trip to China in 1857 in order to collect bird specimens, but his notoriety as naturalist was overshadowed by that of Robert Swinhoe who completed much field work in China ahead of Schlegel. In 1861, after having learned the Fuzhou dialect, he moved to Canton to study Cantonese. In 1862, Schlegel took a job as an interpreter for the supreme court of the colonial government of Batavia. While working on this job, in 1866 he published a monograph on the Tiandihui —the first on the topic in Dutch—, another one on prostitution in Canton. In 1869 he was awarded a doctorate from the University of Jena.
Schlegel fell ill in 1872 and was granted two years' sick leave to Holland. On his return, Hoffmannn met him and asked Schlegel to take his place in educating Dutch-Chinese translators. Schlegel accepted, in 1873 he pursued the matter further writing a pro domo letter to the Colonial Minister, asking for the government to establish a university position, he was successful, in 1875 was appointed as an "extraordinary professor" of Chinese at Leiden University, on the first position of its kind, advanced to full professor in 1877. In 1873 he became correspondent of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, he resigned four years in 1877. In 1888 he became member of the Academy once more. In 1878 he married Catharina Elisabeth Gezina Buddingh, they had no children and divorced in 1890. The last years of his life were affected by diabetes, as a result of which he lost sight in both eyes, he died next year. His chair at Leiden remained vacant until 1904. Schlegel's 1866 monograph on the Heaven and Earth Society is considered the major breakthrough in its study in 21st century scholarship.
Schlegel was fortunate that he had access to secret writings, seized by the police. Its impact extended beyond Dutch colonies. Schlegel's magnum opus was his Dutch-Chinese dictionary, published in 4 volumes between 1882-1891, it won international acclaim, including the Prix Stanislas Julien. Although the German press bracketed this work in the same category of achievements as the Forth Bridge and the Eiffel Tower, it had little impact outside Dutch sinology; the publisher, had printed more copies than were ordered, these were shredded only in 1975. Despite Schlegel's pleas, Dutch did not become a language of international scientific exchange in his field. Schlegel's most lasting contribution is the founding in 1890, together with Henri Cordier, of the journal T'oung Pao, providing a joint publishing venue for the leading Sinological centers of Europe; this journal has remained a leading Sinology journal to present times. He is credited for being the first European to amply document the Chinese origins of gunpowder.
Schlegel wrote extensively on the geographical accounts found in Chinese historical texts like the Book of Liang. His articles on this theme were published in T'oung Pao in French in a series entitled Problèmes Géographiques: Les Peuples Étrangers Chez Les Historiens Chinois, continued in English as Geographical Notes; the first article in this series was on Fusang. His articles on ancient Chinese geography were collected and republished as standalone books. Works by or about Gustaaf Schlegel at Internet Archive List of works available at BRILL in 1902
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, it is colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan, a part of South Asia, is sometimes included in Central Asia. Central Asia has been tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe and China; this crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae.
After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Tatars, Turkmen and Uyghurs. From the mid-19th century until the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, both Slavic-majority countries, the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians; the idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia; the most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union, which defined Middle Asia as consisting of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, hence omitting Kazakhstan. This definition was often used outside the USSR during this period. However, the Russian culture has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия and Центральная Азия.
Soon after independence, the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. Since this has become the most common definition of Central Asia; the UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, published in 1992, defines the region as "Afghanistan, northeastern Iran and central Pakistan, northern India, western China and the former Soviet Central Asian republics."An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may be included; the Tibetans and Ladakhi are included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region.
Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, a village 200 miles north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China. Central Asia is an large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts, treeless, grassy steppes; the vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. Much of the land of Central Asia is too rugged for farming; the Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: The world's northernmost desert, at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia, 50°18' N; the Northern Hemisphere's southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia, 46°17' N. The world's shortest distance between non-frozen desert and permafrost: 770 km.
The Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities. Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, the Hari River and the Murghab River. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes. Water is an valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes. Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia; the northern half of Cent