Vehicle audio

Vehicle audio is equipment installed in a car or other vehicle to provide in-car entertainment and information for the vehicle occupants. Until the 1950s it consisted of a simple AM radio. Additions since have included FM radio, 8-track tape players, cassette players, record players, CD players, DVD players, Blu-ray players, navigation systems, Bluetooth telephone integration, smartphone controllers like CarPlay and Android Auto. Once controlled from the dashboard with a few buttons, they can now be controlled by steering wheel controls and voice commands. Implemented for listening to music and radio, vehicle audio is now part of car telematics, telecommunication, in-vehicle security, handsfree calling and remote diagnostics systems; the same loudspeakers may be used to minimize road and engine noise with active noise control, or they may be used to augment engine sounds, for instance making a smaller engine sound bigger. In 1904, well before commercially viable technology for mobile radio was in place, American inventor and self-described "Father of Radio" Lee de Forest did some demonstration around a car radio at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis.

Around 1920, vacuum tube technology had matured to the point where the availability of radio receivers made radio broadcasting viable. A technical challenge was that the vacuum tubes in the radio receivers required 50 to 250 volt direct current, but car batteries ran at 6V. Voltage was stepped up with a vibrator that provided a pulsating DC which could be converted to a higher voltage with a transformer and filtered to create higher-voltage DC. In 1924, Kelly's Motors in NSW, installed its first car radio. In 1930, the American Galvin Manufacturing Corporation marketed a Motorola branded radio receiver for $130, it was expensive: the contemporary Ford Model A cost $540. A Plymouth sedan, "wired for Philco Transistone radio without extra cost," is advertised in Ladies' Home Journal in 1931. In 1932 in Germany the Blaupunkt AS 5 medium wave and longwave radio was marketed for 465 Reichsmark, about one third of the price of a small car; because it took nearly 10 litres of space, it could not be located near the driver, was operated via a steering wheel remote control.

In 1933 Crossley Motors offer a factory fitted car radio. By the late 1930s, push button AM radios were considered a standard feature. In 1946, there were an estimated 9 million AM car radios in use. An FM receiver was offered by Blaupunkt in 1952. In 1953, Becker introduced the AM/FM Becker Mexico with a Variometer tuner a station-search or scan function. In April 1955, the Chrysler Corporation announced that it was offering a Mopar model 914HR branded Philco all transistor car radio, as a $150 option for its 1956 Chrysler and Imperial car models. Chrysler Corporation had decided to discontinue its all transistor car radio option at the end of 1956, due to it being too expensive, replaced it with a cheaper hybrid car radio for its new 1957 car models. In 1963, Becker introduced a tubeless solid state radio with no vacuum tubes. In 1964, Philips launched the Compact Cassette and, in 1968, a dashboard car radio with a built-in cassette player was introduced by Philips. In 1965, Ford and Motorola jointly introduced the 8-track tape in-car tape player as optional equipment for the new 1966 Ford car models.

In subsequent years, cassettes supplanted the 8-track and improved the technology, with longer play times, better tape quality, auto-reverse, Dolby noise reduction. They were popular throughout the'80s. While the CD had been on the market since 1982, it was in 1984 that Pioneer introduced the CDX-1, the first car CD player, it was known for its improved sound quality, instant track skipping and the format's increased durability over cassette tapes. Car CD changers started to gain popularity in the late 80s and continuing throughout the 90s, with the earlier devices being trunk mounted and ones being mounted in the head unit, able to accommodate six to ten CDs. Stock and aftermarket compact disc players began appearing in the late 1980s, competing with the cassette; the first car with an OEM CD player was the 1987 Lincoln Town Car, the last new cars in the American market to be factory-equipped with a cassette deck in the dashboard was the 2010 Lexus SC430, the Ford Crown Victoria. The car cassette adapter, invented by Larry Schotz, allowed motorists to plug in a portable music player.

In the 2010s, the AM/FM radio and CD player combination has remained a mainstay of car audio, despite being obsolete in non-car applications. From 1974 to 2005, the Autofahrer-Rundfunk-Informationssystem was used by the German ARD network. Developed jointly by the Institut für Rundfunktechnik and Blaupunkt, it indicated the presence of traffic announcements through manipulation of the 57kHz subcarrier of the station's FM signal. ARI was replaced by the Radio Data System. In the 2010s, new ways to play music came into competition with the CD and FM radio such as internet radio, satellite radio, USB and Bluetooth, in-dash slots for memory card. By this time some models were offering 5.1 surround sound. And the automobile head unit became important as a housing for front and backup dashcams and operating systems with multiple functions, such as Android Auto, CarPlay and MirrorLink. Latest models are coming equipped with features like Bluetooth technology along with HDMI port for better connectivity.

Screen size varies from 5-inch to 7-inch for the double Din car stereos. The automobile sound system may be part of an active noise control system which reduces engine and road noise for the driver and passengers. One or more microphones are used to pick up sound

Marc Leishman

Marc Leishman is an Australian professional golfer who plays on the PGA Tour. In 2009 he won the Rookie of the Year award on the PGA Tour, he was the first Australian to win the award. Leishman was born in Victoria, he had a successful amateur career in Australia, winning many junior tournaments. He won the Warrnambool Club Championship as a 13-year-old while playing in the same group as his father. In 2001 he won the Victorian Junior Masters, the South Australian Junior Masters and was the Victorian Boys champion, he turned professional in 2005. He played on the Von Nida Tour in 2006, topping the order of merit. In 2007, he played his rookie season on the Nationwide Tour finishing 92nd on the money list, he won his maiden title on the Nationwide Tour in 2008 at the WNB Golf Classic by a record-equaling eleven shots. He finished the year 19th on the money list to earn his PGA Tour card for the 2009 season. Leishman was voted the Rookie of the Year in 2009 after recording three top-10 finishes, which included a runner-up finish behind Tiger Woods at the BMW Championship, the third of the four FedEx Cup playoff events.

Leishman subsequently qualified for the season ending Tour Championship. He ended the year 53rd on the money list, he recorded his second runner-up finish of his PGA Tour career at the Farmers Insurance Open in 2010. He finished inside the top 100 on the money list in both 2010 and 2011, he reached the BMW Championship in both seasons. Leishman won his first tournament after 96 starts on the PGA Tour in June 2012 at the Travelers Championship, coming from six strokes back of the 54 hole leaders to win by a stroke, he shot a final round of 62, which included eight birdies and no bogeys to match his career best round and second best comeback in the tournament's history. He became the second Australian to win the event after Greg Norman in 1995. At the 2013 Masters Tournament, Leishman was the co-leader after the opening round, alongside Sergio García, as he shot a six under total of 66, he maintained his challenge over the second and third rounds to go into the final day two strokes behind the leaders.

He finished T-4 with four shots off the lead. In July 2015, in The Open Championship at St Andrews, Leishman finished as joint runner-up after losing in a four-hole aggregate playoff during a Monday finish to the delayed tournament. After coming close to missing the cut after the first two rounds, Leishman shot a 64 during the third round and a 66 in the final round to finish in a tie for first place with Zach Johnson and Louis Oosthuizen. Leishman did have the sole lead of the Championship with six holes to go during the final round but bogeyed the 16th hole to drop back to 15-under-par and an eventual tie. In the resulting four-hole playoff, after finding a divot with his tee shot at the first hole, this led to a bogey while Johnson and Oosthuizen opened with birdies to open up a two-stroke gap over Leishman. A further bogey at the third hole left him three strokes behind on the final hole and out of contention but his tie for second place gave him his best performance in a major to date.

On 19 March 2017, Leishman won the Arnold Palmer Invitational. On 17 September 2017, he claimed his third PGA Tour event, the BMW Championship with a tournament record −23. On 14 October 2018, Leishman shot a 7-under 65 in the final round to win the CIMB Classic by five strokes and equal Justin Thomas' tournament record of 26-under-par in 2015 on the TPC Kuala Lumpur West course. In December 2019, Leishman played on the International team at the 2019 Presidents Cup at Royal Melbourne Golf Club in Australia; the U. S. team won 16–14. Leishman halved his Sunday singles match against Rickie Fowler. In January 2020, Leishman won the Farmers Insurance Open for his fifth PGA Tour title. Leishman shot a final round 65 to defeat Jon Rahm by one stroke. Leishman is married to Audrey and they have three children, they live in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA. On 31 March 2015, Audrey admitted herself to hospital suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome. Leishman returned from preparations for the 2015 Masters Tournament to be with her.

She was put in an induced coma, toxic shock began to affect her organs. She was given a 5% chance of recovery. In mid-April, she had recovered enough to return home, Leishman resumed the Tour in New Orleans, he and his wife created the Begin Again Foundation which aids families who need assistance with medical expenses. 2001 Victorian Junior Masters, Victorian Boys Championship, South Australian Junior Masters 2005 Lake Macquarie Amateur 1Co-sanctioned by the Asian Tour PGA Tour playoff record 1Co-sanctioned by the Sunshine Tour European Tour playoff record 2006 Cairns Classic, Toyota Southern Classic 2007 Toyota Southern Classic 2008 Victorian PGA Championship 2006 Jisan Resort Open CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied Most consecutive cuts made – 12 Longest streak of top-10s – 1 CUT = missed the halfway cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Results not in chronological order prior to 2015. QF, R16, R32, R64 = Round in which player lost in match play "T" = Tied Professional Presidents Cup: 2013, 2015, 2017, 2019 World Cup: 2016, 2018 2017 – Greg Norman Medal 2008 Nationwide Tour graduates List of golfers with most PGA Tour wins Marc Leishman at the PGA Tour of Australasia official site Marc Leishman at the PGA Tour official site Marc Leishman at the Official World Golf Ranking official site Marc Leishman player profile, Golf Australia

Jeremiah White (chaplain)

Jeremiah White, was a 17th-century Nonconformist minister, preacher to the Council of State, Puritan chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. He was admitted a sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, on 7 April 1646, proceeded B. A. in 1649, M. A. in 1653. In his student years he experienced much mental distress owing to religious difficulties, but found consolation in the doctrine of Universalism and the restitution of all things. On leaving the university he passed at once to Whitehall, became domestic chaplain to Cromwell and preacher to the council of state, his attractive person and witty conversation soon made him popular. His position in the household of the Protector brought him into close relationship with his family, White allowed his ambition to go so far as to aspire to the hand of Cromwell's youngest daughter Frances, it is said. The state of things came to Cromwell's knowledge. With the help of a household spy he managed to surprise the two at a moment when his chaplain was on his knees before his daughter kissing her hand.

‘Jerry,’, never at a loss for something to say, explained that for some time past he had been paying his addresses to the lady's waiting woman, but being unsuccessful in his endeavours, he had been driven to soliciting the Lady Frances's interest on his behalf. The opportunity thus offered was not neglected by Cromwell. Reproaching the waiting woman with her slight of his friend, gaining her consent to the match, he sent for another chaplain and had them married at once. At the Restoration White found himself without fixed income, but abstained from the religious disputes of the day, it is probable. In 1666 the estate of ‘old Mrs. Cromwell’ was in his hands, he collected much information with respect to the sufferings of the dissenters after the Restoration, but refused a thousand guineas from James II for his manuscript, being disinclined to discredit the established church. His manuscript is not known to be extant. White never himself conformed to the church of England, he preached in an independent church in Meeting-house Alley, Queen Street, Lower Rotherhithe, built soon after the Restoration.

He preached at Elstree. White was a conspicuous member of the Calves' Head Club at its annual meetings on 30 Jan. when the ‘Anniversary Anthem’ was sung, wine in a calf's skull went the round to the memory of ‘the patriots who had relieved the nation from tyranny.’ He died in 1707. A glowing character is given of him in the ‘Monthly Miscellany’ for 1707. There is a portrait of White incorrectly attributed to Van Dyck. An engraving is prefixed to his work, ‘A Persuasive to Moderation,’ published after his death in 1708, his publications include: A Funeral Sermon on the Rev. F. Fuller, London, 1702; the Restoration of all Things, London, 1712, 1779, 1851. A Persuasive to Moderation, London, 1708; this is an enlargement of part of White's preface to Peter Sterry's The Rise and Royalty of the Kingdom of God in the Soul. Extracts from White’s work were published in a volume entitled Universal Restoration, with others of a like nature by ‘some of the most remarkable authors who have written in defence of that interesting subject’.

Bertha Porter, "White, Jeremiah", Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 61