Vehicle registration plate

A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate, license plate, or licence plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle or vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. In Europe, most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorcycles, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.

National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.

If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.

Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.

For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".

It recommended that

University of Zambia

The University of Zambia is a public university located in Lusaka, Zambia. It is Zambia's largest learning institution; the university was established in 1965 and opened to the public on 12 July 1966. It is the oldest public university in Zambia; the language of instruction is English. The beginnings of UNZA can be traced back to before the Second World War when the idea to establish a University in Northern Rhodesia was conceived. However, plans were only revived after; the colonial government instituted plans to set up a Central African University College, for Africa, due to the development of higher education institutions in most parts of Africa. The Central Africa council appointed a committee to investigate requirements for a college for higher education and, it subsequently recommended that a college for higher education be established. A subsequent investigation into the need for higher education for Africans in Central Africa was conducted by Sir Alexander Carr-Saunders in 1952, with a follow up report submitted in March 1953.

The Southern Rhodesia Government accepted the establishment of a multi-racial University College and the commission recommended that an institution be established in Salisbury. However, a minority report written by Alexander Kerr, provided a counter argument suggesting that the establishment of a higher education institution on the basis of equality between races was not feasible and thus recommended that a university for non-Europeans be established in Lusaka; the political climate, as a result of the independence struggle, in the late 1950s and early 1960s made the idea of an all-inclusive University College of Rhodesia less attractive. As a result, plans to solicit support for the establishment of a higher education institution in Lusaka were initiated. In March 1963, the new Northern Rhodesia Government appointed a commission, the Lockwood Commission, led by Sir John Lockwood to assess the feasibility of setting up a university for Northern Rhodesia; the commission placed a lot of emphasis on autonomy and thus recommended the establishment of a university with no ties with established universities in Britain.

The report recommended the establishment of the University of Zambia as a full-fledged university from the onset. A Provisional Council of the University of Zambia was put in place after enactment of the University of Zambia Act, 1965. In July 1965, Douglas G. Anglin was appointed Vice Chancellor and, in October 1965, President Kenneth David Kaunda gave the assent of Act no 66 of the 1965 act; the University of Zambia was inaugurated on 13 July 1966 following the appointment of President Kenneth David Kaunda as the first Chancellor on 12 July 1966. Its main campus, the Great East Road Campus, is along the Great East Road, about 7 km from the CBD, it has the Ridgeway Campus located within Lusaka City at the University Teaching Hospital. The University of Zambia has over 157 postgraduate degree programmes; the University of Zambia is divided into the following faculties: School of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Economics and Extension Education Animal Science Food Science and Nutrition Plant Science Soil ScienceSchool of Engineering Agricultural Engineering Civil and Environmental Engineering Electrical and Electronic Engineering Mechanical Engineering Geomatic EngineeringSchool of Education Adult Education and Extension Studies Advisory Unit For Colleges Of Education Educational Administration and Policy Studies Educational Psychology and Special Education Library and Information Science Language and Social Sciences Mathematics and Science Education Primary Education Religious StudiesSchool of Humanities and Social Sciences Development Studies Economics History Political and Administrative Studies Population Studies Psychology Philosophy and Applied Ethics Media and Communication Studies Literature and Language Gender Studies Social Work and SociologySchool of Law Public Law Private LawSchool of Mines Geology Mining Engineering Metallurgy and Material ProcessingSchool of Medicine Anatomy Biomedical Sciences Physiological Sciences Nursing Sciences> Medical Education Development Obstetrics and Gynaecology Paediatrics and Child Health Pathology and MicroBiology Pharmacy Physiotherapy Psychiatry Public Health Surgery Internal MedicineSchool of Natural Sciences Biological Sciences Chemistry Mathematics and Statistics Physics Geography Computer StudiesSchool of Veterinary Medicine Biomedical Studies Clinical Studies Disease Control Para-Clinical Studies Central Services and SupplyGraduate School of Business Business Administration Masters in Business Administration The Institute of Economic and Social Research.

The University of Zambia Library. The Institute of Distance Education UNZA is a member of the Association of African Universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the International Association of Universities. Southern African University

Canvas fingerprinting

Canvas fingerprinting is one of a number of browser fingerprinting techniques for tracking online users that allow websites to identify and track visitors using the HTML5 canvas element instead of browser cookies or other similar means. The technique received wide media coverage in 2014 after researchers from Princeton University and KU Leuven University described it in their paper The Web never forgets. Canvas fingerprinting works by exploiting the HTML5 canvas element; as described by Acar et. al. in: When a user visits a page, the fingerprinting script first draws text with the font and size of its choice and adds background colors. Next, the script calls Canvas API’s ToDataURL method to get the canvas pixel data in dataURL format, a Base64 encoded representation of the binary pixel data; the script takes the hash of the text-encoded pixel data, which serves as the fingerprint... Variations in which graphics processing unit is installed or the graphics driver cause the variations in the fingerprint.

The fingerprint can be stored and shared with advertising partners to identify users when they visit affiliated websites. A profile can be created from the user's browsing activity allowing advertisers to target advertising to the user's inferred demographics and preferences. Since the fingerprint is based on the browser, operating system, installed graphics hardware it does not uniquely identify users. In a small-scale study with 294 participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk, an experimental entropy of 5.7 bits was observed, but the authors of the study suggest more entropy could be observed in the wild and with more patterns used in the fingerprint. While not sufficient to uniquely identify users by itself, this fingerprint could be combined with other sources of entropy to provide a unique identifier, it is claimed that because the technique is fingerprinting the GPU, the entropy is "orthogonal" to the entropy of previous browser fingerprint techniques such as screen resolution and browser JavaScript capabilities.

Tor Project reference documentation states, "After plugins and plugin-provided information, we believe that the HTML5 Canvas is the single largest fingerprinting threat browsers face today." Tor Browser notifies the user of canvas read attempts and provides the option to return blank image data to prevent fingerprinting. However, Tor Browser is unable to distinguish between legitimate uses of the canvas element and fingerprinting efforts, so its warning cannot be taken as proof of a website's intent to identify and track its visitors. Browser add-ons like Privacy Badger, DoNotTrackMe or Adblock Plus manually enhanced with EasyPrivacy list are able to block third-party ad network trackers and will block canvas fingerprinting provided that the tracker is served by a third party server. In May 2012, Keaton Mowery and Hovav Shacham, researchers at University of California, San Diego, wrote a paper Pixel Perfect: Fingerprinting Canvas in HTML5 describing how the HTML5 canvas could be used to create digital fingerprints of web users.

Social bookmarking technology company AddThis began experimenting with canvas fingerprinting early in 2014 as a potential replacement for cookies. 5 % of the top 100,000 websites used canvas fingerprinting. According to AddThis CEO Richard Harris, the company has only used data collected from these tests to conduct internal research. Users will be able to install an opt-out cookie on any computer to prevent being tracked by AddThis with canvas fingerprinting. A software developer writing in Forbes stated that device fingerprinting has been utilized for the purpose of preventing unauthorized access to systems long before it was used for tracking users without their consent; as of 2014 the technique is widespread in many websites with at least a dozen high-profile web ads and user tracking suppliers using it. Evercookie – a type of browser cookie, intentionally difficult to delete Local shared object – a persistent browser cookie known as a Flash cookie Web storage – web application software methods and protocols used for storing data in a web browser Academic research paper describing canvas fingerprinting Partial database of websites that have used canvas fingerprinting