In 1922 it was renamed after the ancient city of Tarquinii or Tarchna. Although little is visible of the great wealth and extent of the ancient city. The Etruscan and Roman city is situated on the plateau of La Civita to the north of the current town. The ancient burial grounds, dating from the Iron Age to Roman times, were on the adjacent promontories including that of todays Tarquinia and it is said to have been already a flourishing city when Demaratus of Corinth brought in Greek workmen. Descendants of Demaratus, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus and Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, from Tarchuna many of the religious rites and ceremonies of Rome are said to have been derived, and even in imperial times a collegium of sixty haruspices continued to exist there. In 509 BC after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy the family of Tarquinius Superbus went into exile in Caere and he sought to regain the throne at first by the Tarquinian conspiracy and, when that failed, by force of arms. He convinced the cities of Tarchuna and Veii to support him, although the Roman army was victorious it is recorded by Livy that the forces of Tarchuna fought well on the right wing, initially pushing back the Roman left wing.
After the battle the forces of Tarchuna returned home, the Spurinnas tomb, known as the Tomba dellOrco, is decorated with fine frescoes of a banquet uniting the famous members of the family who are identified by inscriptions. The Spurinna family was prominent in Tarquinii up to the 1st Century AD, recently two fragmented slabs were found known as the Elogia Tarquiniensis. During this period, Tarchuna overtook Caere and other Etruscan cities in terms of power and it was about this period that colossal walls were built around the city in response to threats from the Celts and from Rome. Tarchuna, not affected by Celtic invasions, finally colonised all its previously held territories in about 385 BC and this new flourishing state allowed a rapid recovery of all activities. However, during the fourth century BC when Tarchunas expansion was at its peak, a bitter struggle with Rome took place. In 358 BC, the citizens of Tarchuna captured and put to death 307 Roman soldiers, a bishop of Tarquinii is mentioned in 456AD.
The last historic references to Tarquinii are from around 1250, while the name of Corneto was changed to Tarquinia in 1922, reversion to historical place names, was a frequent phenomenon under the Fascist Government of Italy as part of the nationalist campaign to evoke past glories. The painted scenes are of a quality virtually unrivalled elsewhere in the Etruscan world and they show banquets with dances and music, sporting events, occasional erotic and mythical scenes. Famous tombs include the Tomb of the Bulls, Tomb of the Augurs, during the second half of the 4th century sculpted and painted sarcophagi of nenfro and alabaster came into use. They were deposited on rock-carved benches or against the walls in the by very large underground chambers, sarcophagi continued until the second century and are found in such numbers at Tarquinia that they must have been manufactured locally. The city towered above the Marta valley and was about 6 km from the sea, La Civita is made up of two adjoining plateaux, the pian di Civita and the pian della Regina, joined by a narrow saddle
Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is closely associated with Italian Renaissance painting. Buon fresco pigment mixed with water of temperature on a thin layer of wet, fresh plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster. Because of the makeup of the plaster, a binder is not required, as the pigment mixed solely with the water will sink into the intonaco. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster, after a number of hours, many artists sketched their compositions on this underlayer, which would never be seen, in a red pigment called sinopia, a name used to refer to these under-paintings. Later, new techniques for transferring paper drawings to the wall were developed. The main lines of a drawing made on paper were pricked over with a point, the paper held against the wall, if the painting was to be done over an existing fresco, the surface would be roughened to provide better adhesion.
This area is called the giornata, and the different day stages can usually be seen in a large fresco, buon frescoes are difficult to create because of the deadline associated with the drying plaster. Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, if mistakes have been made, it may be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them later, a secco. An indispensable component of this process is the carbonatation of the lime, the eyes of the people of the School of Athens are sunken-in using this technique which causes the eyes to seem deeper and more pensive. Michelangelo used this technique as part of his trademark outlining of his central figures within his frescoes, in a wall-sized fresco, there may be ten to twenty or even more giornate, or separate areas of plaster. After five centuries, the giornate, which were nearly invisible, have sometimes become visible, and in many large-scale frescoes. Additionally, the border between giornate was often covered by an a secco painting, which has fallen off.
One of the first painters in the period to use this technique was the Isaac Master in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. A person who creates fresco is called a frescoist, a secco or fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster. The pigments thus require a medium, such as egg. Blue was a problem, and skies and blue robes were often added a secco, because neither azurite blue nor lapis lazuli. By the end of the century this had largely displaced buon fresco
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Tuff is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption. Following ejection and deposition, the ash is compacted into a rock in a process called consolidation. Tuff is sometimes called tufa, particularly used as construction material. Rock that contains greater than 50% tuff is considered tuffaceous, Tuff is a relatively soft rock, so it has been used for construction since ancient times. Since it is common in Italy the Romans used it often for construction, the Rapa Nui people used it to make most of the moai statues in Easter Island. Tuff can be classified as either sedimentary or igneous rocks and they are usually studied in the context of igneous petrology, although they are sometimes described using sedimentological terms. The material that is expelled in a volcanic eruption can be classified into three types, Volcanic gases, a mixture mostly of water vapour, carbon dioxide. Lava, the name of magma when it emerges and flows over the surface, and tephra, chunks of solid material of all shapes and sizes ejected and thrown through the air.
Tephra is made when magma inside the volcano is blown apart by the expansion of hot volcanic gases. It is common for magma to explode as the gas dissolved in it comes out of solution as the pressure decreases when it flows to the surface and these violent explosions produce solid chunks of material that can fly from the volcano. When these chunks are smaller than 2 mm in diameter they are called volcanic ash and it is made of small, slaggy pieces of lava and rock that have been tossed into the air by outbursts of steam and other gases. Among the loose beds of ash that cover the slopes of many volcanoes, in addition to true ashes of the kind described above, there are lumps of the old lavas and tuffs forming the walls of the crater, etc. In some great volcanic explosions nothing but materials of the kind were emitted. The ashes vary in size from large blocks twenty feet or more in diameter to the minutest impalpable dust, the large masses are called volcanic bombs, they have mostly a rounded, elliptical or pear-shaped form owing to rotation in the air before they solidified.
Many of them have ribbed or nodular surfaces, and sometimes they have a crust intersected by many cracks like the surface of a loaf of bread, any ash in which they are very abundant is called an agglomerate. But many volcanoes stand near the sea, and the ashes cast out by them are mingled with the sediments that are gathering at the bottom of the waters, in this way ashy muds or sands or even in some cases ashy limestones are being formed. As a matter of fact most of the found in the older formations contain admixtures of clay and sometimes fossil shells. The showers of ashes often follow one another after longer or shorter intervals, the coarsest materials or agglomerates show this least distinctly, in the fine beds it is often developed in great perfection
Apollo of Veii
The Apollo of Veii is an over-life-size painted terracotta Etruscan statue of Apollo, designed to be placed at the highest part of a temple. The statue was discovered in the Portonaccio sanctuary of ancient Veii and it was created in the so-called international Ionic or late-archaic Etruscan style. It was discovered in 1916, and is now on display in the National Etruscan Museum in Rome, the statue was probably made by Vulca, the only Etruscan artist whose name is known. The statue is dressed in a tunic and short cloak, advancing towards the left with the right arm outstretched, together with other statues, it decorated the roof beams of the Portonaccio temple, a sanctuary dedicated to Minerva. Placed on high plinths, this series of statues were acroterial and they stood some twelve metres above the ground level and even though they were created separately, they narrated events from Greek mythology that were at least in part tied to the god Apollo. This statue, together with the statue of Heracles, formed a group representing one of the labours of the hero before his apotheosis made him one of the divinities of Olympus.
The myth narrates the contention between the god and the hero for the possession of the doe with the golden horns, there was probably a statue of Mercury united to this group, of which only the head and a part of the body remain. With these accomplishments, the creator of the statues can be identified as the “Artist from Veio. Antefix Etruscan civilization Ornament List of classical architecture terms Spivey, Nigel
Caere is the Latin name given by the Romans to one of the larger cities of Southern Etruria, the modern Cerveteri, approximately 50-60 kilometres north-northwest of Rome. To the Etruscans it was known as Cisra, to the Greeks as Agylla, Caere was one of the most important and populous Etruscan city-states, in area 15 times larger than todays town, and only Tarquinia was equal in power at its height around 600 BC. Caere was one of the cities of the Etruscan League and its sea port and monumental sanctuary at Pyrgi was important for overseas trade. Today, the area of Cerveteri is best known for its Etruscan necropolis, the ancient city was situated on a hill about 7 km from the sea, a location which made it a wealthy trading town derived originally from the iron ore mines in the Tolfa hills. It had three sea ports including Pyrgi and Punicum and it was bounded by the two rivers Mola and Manganello, and lay 80 metres above sea level on an outcrop of rocky tuff. Trade between the Greeks and Etruscans became increasingly common in the middle of the 8th century BC, with standardised urns and pottery common in graves of the time.
The town became the main Etruscan trading centre during the 7th century BC, and trade increased with other Greek colonies in Southern Italy and Sicily, locally manufactured products began to imitate imported Greek pottery especially after the immigration of Greek artists into Etruria. The oldest examples of Bucchero ceramics come from Caere and it can be assumed that these typical Etruscan ceramics were developed here or produced at least for the first time in large scale. From 530-500 BC Greek artists were active in the city and worked there for a generation producing color-painted hydras, burials of the time became increasingly grand, with jewellery and other products of particularly fine manufacture, illustrating the continuing good fortunes of the city. At the height of its prosperity in the 6th century BC, Caere had a good reputation among the Greeks for its values and sense of justice, since it abstained from piracy. It was the only Etruscan city to erect its own treasury at Delphi, in recompense, athletic contests were held every year in the city to honour the dead.
In 509 BC, upon the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, Caere was not spared by the crisis that affected the great centres of southern Etruria during the second half of the 5th c. BC, after the defeat at sea at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC, a recovery can be perceived, however, at the beginning of the 4th century BC, when strong relationships with Rome continued. The town sheltered the Roman refugees including the priests and Vestal Virgins after the Gallic attack and fire of 390 BC, and the Roman aristocracy was educated in Caere. The Roman Tabulae Caeritum dates from time, which listed those citizens of Caere who were classed as Roman citizens and liable for military service. It is supposed to have been the first community to receive this privilege, in 384/383 BC Dionysius plundered Pyrgi. Support came from Caere, but this was beaten, in 353 BC Caere, allied to the Tarquinii, lost a war with Rome and with it some of its territory, including the coastal area and ports so important for trade.
From about 300 BC Caere came under Roman rule, although the exact sequence of their submission can no longer be reconstructed today, there had been numerous feuds
Formello is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome. It is located southwest of the Monti Sabatini, within the Regional Park of Veii, the communal territory is mostly composed by tuff, and is intensively cultivated. The area has settled since prehistoric times. As an Italian comune, it some of the archaeological sites associated with the former Etruscan city of Veii, north of the village of Isola Farnese. Settlement in the region declined after Veiis destruction in 396 BC, the domus territories included a fundus Formellum, where a settlement developed that was first mentioned in 1027. In the 11th century it was a possession of the Roman Basilica of San Paolo fuori le Mura, in 1279 it became a fief of the Orsini family, who sold it to the Chigi in 1661. It received a tower in the fifteenth century, and was renovated in 1574 with the addition of the two aisles. The left one houses frescoes by Donato Palmieri and it was built by the Orsini, probably over the pre-existing castrum mentioned in the 11th century.
It houses the Archaeological Museum of the Countryside of Veii Church of San Michele Arcangelo, the ruined Villa Chigi-Versaglia, built by cardinal Flavio Chigi in the 17th century. Formello is home to the grounds and base of Italian Serie A side S. S. Lazio
Capena is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Lazio region. The town has borrowed its name from a pre-Roman and Roman settlement that was 3 kilometres to its north. The original Capena occupied the plateau of an uninhabited hill called La Civitucola. Its territory was known in ancient times as the Ager Capenas and it is frequently mentioned alongside of Veii and Lucus Feroniae. Ancient Capena seems to have been sacked by the Romans sometime around 390 BC. The settlement continued to exist until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and it was not until the pioneering work of Pierluigi Galletti in the mid-18th century that Capena’s former location was decisively identified. Even then, it more than a hundred years for other historians to reach a consensus that Galletti had been correct. Recent archaeological studies have revealed that ancient Capena may have retained a vibrant urban life, the main frontage of the palazzo faces the Piazza del Popolo, the largest public space in Capena.
Originally simply called the ‘Piazza’, the square was laid out in the 16th century, the surviving monastery complex dates primarily from the Renaissance era, with extensive modifications in 1851. The palazzo continued to be occupied by monks until the end of the 19th century, the former monastery was subsequently used for municipal purposes and as a school until 1930, and was subdivided and sold to individuals. Capena’s population has grown rapidly in recent years, as a result of new developments on its outskirts. Capena is located 26.2 kilometres north of Rome, above the valley of the Tiber, the old quarter stands on a hill overlooking the valley of the Fosso di Morlupo to the west, while the modern district extends into the eastern plain. The neighbouring towns are Castelnuovo di Porto, Civitella San Paolo, Fiano Romano, Morlupo, via Provinciale Capena Bivio connects the E35 Class-A road with Capena. The Lazio region has proclaimed Capena a città darte in recognition of its history, the town is home to a small community of artists, notably Rosina Wachtmeister, who has frequently depicted the old quarter – and particularly its cats – in her work.
The Art Forum Würth Capena opened in 2006, on the Via della Buona Fortuna, Capena has a large number of restaurants for a town of its size, both in the centre and on the outskirts. Pizza is the most commonly served dish but a few of the establishments specialise in the cuisines of other parts of Italy, various local specialities are traditionally prepared for some of the feasts listed in the Events section below, including serpentone, pangiallo and sposatella. The locally produced bianco Capena is a bitter wine that is straw yellow with a lightly fruity aroma. It is made with grapes from the Malvasia del Lazio, Trebbiano Toscano, all the main recurring events in Capena are ostensibly Roman Catholic religious celebrations
This page describes the building in Rome. For the museum itself see National Etruscan Museum, for the Villa Giulia in Naples or Palermo, see Villa Giulia or Villa Giulia. The Villa Giulia is a villa in Rome, Italy and it was built by Pope Julius III in 1551-1553 on what was the edge of the city. Today it is owned, and houses the Museo Nazionale Etrusco. The villa was built in an area of Rome known as the Vigna Vecchia, lying on the slopes of Monte Parioli, as a Villa Suburbana and a place of repose. The pope, a highly literate connoisseur of the arts, assigned the design of the building to Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola in 1551-1553. The nymphaeum and other structures, were designed by Bartolomeo Ammanati. Pope Julius took a direct interest in the design and decor. Villa Giulia became one of the most delicate examples of Mannerist architecture, only a small part of the original property has survived intact, comprising three vineyards which extended down to the Tiber, and to which the pope traveled often by boat.
The villa, as was customary, had an urban entrance, the Villa itself was on the threshold between two worlds, that of the city and that of the country, an essentially Roman concept. A medal struck in 1935 shows the villa as substantially complete, Vignolas urban front of the building is a somber two story facade with each story being given equal value. It has at its centre the triple rhythm of a richly detailed rusticated triumphal arch flanked by wings of two bays only. The facade is terminated at each end by Doric pilasters, in this facade of the Villa Giulia is the genesis of the seven-bay 18th century Georgian villa, which was reproduced as far away as the Tidewater region of Virginia. The rear of the building has Vignolas large hemispherical loggia overlooking the first of three courtyards, laid out as a simple parterre and this three-levelled structure of covered loggias, decorated with marble statuary, reclining river gods in niches, and balustrading, is constructed around a central fountain.
Here in this environment, sheltered from the blazing sun. The central fountain, Fontana dellAcqua Vergine, was designed and sculpted by Vasari and Ammannati, the fountains source, the Acqua Vergine, supplies the Trevi Fountain in Rome. The Casino della Vigna, as it was known, and its gardens were set in the midst of vineyards. Papal parties embarked on boats at the gates of the Vatican and were transported up the Tiber to the villas long-gone private landing stage, the Villa was reserved for the use of the new popes Borromeo nephews
The Villanovan culture and people branched from the Urnfield culture of Central Europe. The Villanovans introduced iron-working to the Italian peninsula, they practiced cremation, the name Villanovan comes from the type-site, that of the first archaeological finds relating to this advanced culture, remnants of a cemetery found near Villanova in northern Italy. The well tomb pit graves lined with stones contained funerary urns, they had only sporadically plundered. In 1893, a chance discovery unearthed another distinctive Villanovan necropolis at Verucchio, cremated remains were placed in cinerary urns and buried. A custom believed to originate with the Villanovan culture is the usage of Hut urns, cinerary urns fashioned like small huts, typical sgraffito decorations of swastikas and squares were scratched with a comb-like tool. Urns were accompanied by simple bronze fibulae and rings, the culture is broadly divided into a Proto-Villanovan culture from c.1100 BC to c.900 BC and the Villanovan culture proper from c.900 BC to c.700 BC.
This period came just before the foundation of Etruscan cities, chamber tombs and inhumation practices were developed side-by-side with the earlier cremation practices. Generally speaking, Villanovan settlements were centered in the Adriatic Etruria, in Emilia Romagna, in Marche and in Lazio. Further south, Villanovan cremation burials are to be found in Campania, at Capua, at the tombs of Pontecagnano near Salerno, at Capo di Fiume, at Vallo di Diano. This site continuity encourages modern opinion generally to follow Massimo Pallottino in regarding the Villanovan culture as ancestral to the Etruscan civilization. Canegrate culture Prehistoric Italy S. Gozzadini, La nécropole de Villanova, Fava et Garagnani, Bologna,1870 J. P. Mallory, Villanovan Culture, G. Bartoloni, The origin and diffusion of Villanovan culture. In M. Torelli, The Etruscans, pp 53–74, M. E. Moser, The Southern Villanovan Culture of Campania,1982
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist, Plutarchs surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers. Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the town of Chaeronea, about 80 km east of Delphi. The name of Plutarchs father has not been preserved, but based on the common Greek custom of repeating a name in alternate generations, the name of Plutarchs grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony. His brothers and Lamprias, are mentioned in his essays and dialogues. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarchs wife, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not to grieve too much at the death of their two-year-old daughter, interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them and the second Plutarch, are often mentioned.
Plutarchs treatise De animae procreatione in Timaeo is dedicated to them, another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarchs son, but this is nowhere definitely stated. Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67, at some point, Plutarch took Roman citizenship. He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, and was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman Empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, at his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, and the 78 essays, Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality, probably only an annual one which he likely served more than once.
He busied himself with all the matters of the town. The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, and Plutarch probably did not speak Illyrian. Plutarch spent the last thirty years of his serving as a priest in Delphi. He thus connected part of his work with the sanctuary of Apollo, the processes of oracle-giving