In Norse mythology, Freyja is a goddess associated with war, love, beauty, fertility and seiðr. Freyja is the owner of the necklace Brísingamen, rides a chariot pulled by two cats, is accompanied by the boar Hildisvíni, possesses a cloak of falcon feathers. By her husband Óðr, she is the mother of two daughters and Gersemi. Along with her brother Freyr, her father Njörðr, her mother, she is a member of the Vanir. Stemming from Old Norse Freyja, modern forms of the name include Freya and Freja. Freyja rules over Fólkvangr, where she receives half of those who die in battle; the other half go to Valhalla. Within Fólkvangr lies her hall, Sessrúmnir. Freyja assists other deities by allowing them to use her feathered cloak, is invoked in matters of fertility and love, is sought after by powerful jötnar who wish to make her their wife. Freyja's husband, the god Óðr, is absent, she cries tears of red gold for him, searches for him under assumed names. Freyja has numerous names, including Gefn, Hörn, Mardöll, Sýr, Vanadís.
Freyja is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. Scholars have debated whether Freyja and the goddess Frigg stem from a single goddess common among the Germanic peoples. Freyja's name appears in numerous place names in Scandinavia, with a high concentration in southern Sweden. Various plants in Scandinavia once bore her name, but it was replaced with the name of the Virgin Mary during the process of Christianization. Rural Scandinavians continued to acknowledge Freyja as a supernatural figure into the 19th century, Freyja has inspired various works of art; the name Freyja transparently means'lady' and derives from Proto-Germanic *frawōn. Freyja is cognate with, for example, Old Saxon frūa "lady, mistress" and Old High German frouwa; the theonym Freyja is thus considered to have been an epithet in origin, replacing a personal name, now unattested. As a result, either the original name became taboo or another process occurred in which the goddess is a duplicate or hypostasis of another known goddess.
In addition to Freyja, Old Norse sources refer to the goddess by way of the following names: In the Poetic Edda, Freyja is mentioned or appears in the poems Völuspá, Grímnismál, Lokasenna, Þrymskviða, Oddrúnargrátr, Hyndluljóð. Völuspá contains a stanza that mentions Freyja, referring to her as "Óð's girl"; the stanza recounts that Freyja was once promised to an unnamed builder revealed to be a jötunn and subsequently killed by Thor. In the poem Grímnismál, Odin tells the young Agnar that every day Freyja allots seats to half of those that are slain in her hall Fólkvangr, while Odin owns the other half. In the poem Lokasenna, where Loki accuses nearly every female in attendance of promiscuity or unfaithfulness, an aggressive exchange occurs between Loki and Freyja; the introduction to the poem notes that among other gods and goddesses, Freyja attends a celebration held by Ægir. In verse, after Loki has flyted with the goddess Frigg, Freyja interjects, telling Loki that he is insane for dredging up his terrible deeds, that Frigg knows the fate of everyone, though she does not tell it.
Loki tells her to be silent, says that he knows all about her—that Freyja is not lacking in blame, for each of the gods and elves in the hall have been her lover. Freyja objects, she says that Loki is lying, that he is just looking to blather about misdeeds, since the gods and goddesses are furious at him, he can expect to go home defeated. Loki tells Freyja to be silent, calls her a malicious witch, conjures a scenario where Freyja was once astride her brother when all of the gods, surprised the two. Njörðr interjects—he says that a woman having a lover other than her husband is harmless, he points out that Loki has borne children, calls Loki a pervert; the poem continues in turn. The poem Þrymskviða features Loki borrowing Freyja's cloak of feathers and Thor dressing up as Freyja to fool the lusty jötunn Þrymr. In the poem, Thor wakes up to find that Mjöllnir, is missing. Thor tells Loki of his missing hammer, the two go to the beautiful court of Freyja. Thor asks Freyja that he may try to find his hammer.
Freyja agrees: Loki flies away in the whirring feather cloak, arriving in the land of Jötunheimr. He spies Þrymr sitting on top of a mound. Þrymr reveals that he has hidden Thor's hammer deep within the earth and that no one will know where the hammer is unless Freyja is brought to him as his wife. Loki flies back, the cloak whistling, returns to the courts of the gods. Loki tells Thor of Þrymr's conditions; the two go to see the beautiful Freyja. The first thing that Thor says to Freyja is that she should dress herself and put on a bride's head-dress, for they shall drive to Jötunheimr. At that
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
Lower Rhine region
The Lower Rhine region or Niederrhein is a region around the Lower Rhine section of the river Rhine in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany between Oberhausen and Krefeld in the East and the Dutch border around Kleve in the West. As the region can be defined either geographically, culturally, or by political and traffic relations throughout the centuries, as well as by more recent political subdivisions, its precise borders are disputable and may be seen as extending beyond the Dutch border. Yet, while the Dutch half of the Lower Rhine geographic area is called Nederrijn in Dutch, it is a separate territory from the adjoining German Niederrhein region, despite both names are a translation of the other. A cultural bond of the German Lower Rhine region is its Low Franconian language the Cleverlander dialect, related to the Dutch dialects of South Guelderish just across the border and East Bergish to the southeast. In the region's southern portion Bergish is spoken, the easternmost dialect of Limburgish.
Other typicalities of the area include the predominantly Catholic background as well as the Rhenish Carnival tradition. The area covers the districts of Cleves, Wesel and Neuss as well as the independent cities of Duisburg, Mönchengladbach and Krefeld. While disputable, Oberhausen and Düsseldorf may be seen as part of the Lower Rhine region; the Lower Rhine region's landscape is flat green grass land with wide views of the horizon. Sights include the historic town centers of Cleves and Xanten, as well as the latter town's Roman archeological museum, the castle "Schloss Moyland" in Bedburg-Hau or the Catholic pilgrimage town of Kevelaer. Regierungsbezirk Düsseldorf Government region Weeze Airport Media related to Niederrhein at Wikimedia Commons www.niederrhein-tourismus.de LVR-Archäologischer Park Xanten
Benedikte Naubert, born Christiana Benedicta Hebenstreit was a German writer who published anonymously more than 50 historical novels, is considered a pioneer of the genre in the 1780s. Naubert wrote under the pseudonyms Verfasser des Walther von Montbarry, Verfasser der Alme, Verfasserin des Walther von Montbarry, Fontanges. Today she is unknown in Germany, she was born in Leipzig. The daughter of professor of medicine, Johann Ernst Hebenstreit, who died in December 1757. From her step-brother, a professor of theology, Naubert received a thorough education in philosophy, history and Greek, she learned to play the piano and harp and taught herself Italian and French. She began writing and published her first book in her mid-twenties, Heerfort und Klärchen, published anonymously. From there she wrote a novel per oftentimes more. Several men were suspected to have written Naubert's works, among them Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Müller In 1797, at age 41, she married Lorenz Holderieder a merchant and estate owner in Naumberg who died in 1800.
Naubert than married Johann Georg Naubert. As she aged Naubert's eyes and ears became weak causing Naubert to write her last publications through diction. Against her will, in 1817 her identity was revealed in an article in the Zeitung für die elegante Welt, her next book, Rosalba bore her true name for the first time. She died in 1819 in Leipzig. Naubert choose anonymity while publishing her works. Using only pseudonyms, Naubert received high praise for her publications; the Allgemeiner Litterarischer Anzeiger wrote on Naubert's anonymity saying "the writings of this anonym... belong without a doubt to the better products of our literature". The public believed she was male because of her in depth knowledge of philosophy and classical languages. Körner wrote to Schiller about the anonymous writer saying, "all these works appear to be from a man, not a mediocre one." However, after K. J. Schütz revealed her true identity, her works without the veil of anonymity found criticism with many reviewers claiming she wrote in imitation "of men she was like or emulated."
A monograph by Hilary Brown on Naubert's study of and influence on English literature was published in 2005. Benedikte Naubert's published works. Heerfort und Klärchen. 1779. Geschichte Emmas, Tochter Karls des Groen, und seines 2 vols. 1785. Die Ruinen, 3 vols. 1786. Amalgunde, Königin von Italien. Eine Sage aus den Zeiten Theodorichs des Groen, vols. 1786. Walther von Montbarry, Gromeister der Tempelordens, 2 vols. 1768. Die Amtmännin von Hohenweiler: eine wirkliche Geschichte aus Familienpapieren gezogen, 1787. Geschichte der Gräfin Thekla von Thurn. Hermann von Unna. Konradin von Schwaben oder Geschichte des unglücklichen Enkels Kaiser Friedrichs des Zweiten, 1788. Elfriede, oder Opfer väterlicher Vorurtheile, 1788. Pauline Frankini oder Täuschung der Leidenschaft und Freuden der Liebe, 1788. Elisabeth, Erbin von Toggenburg: oder Geschichte der Frauen von Sargans in der Schweiz, 1789. Emmy Reinolds. Hatto, Bischof von Mainz: eine Legende des zehnten Jahrhunderts, 1798. Neue Volksmärchen der Deutschen, 1789-1792.
Alfons von Dülmen. Aus den ersten Zeiten der heimlichen Gerichte, 1790. Barbara Blomberg, Vorgebliche Maitresse Kaiser Karls des fünften. Eine Originalgeschichte in zwei Theilen, 1790. Brunilde, Eine Anekdote aus dem bürgerlichen Leben des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, 1790. Geschichte des Lord Fitzherbert und seiner Freunde, oder die verkannte Liebe, 1790. Merkwürdige Begebenheiten der gräflichen Familie von Wallis, 1790. Gustav Adolf IV. aus Schauenburgischem Stamme, 1791. Geschichte Heinrich Courtlands. Edwy und Elgiva, oder die Wunder des heiligen Dunstan, eine altenglische geschichte, 1791. Gebhard Truchse von Waldburg, Churfürst von Cöln
A vǫlva or völva is a female shaman and seer in Norse religion and a recurring motif in Norse mythology. The vǫlur were referred to by many names. Old Norse vǫlva means "wand carrier" or "carrier of a magic staff", it continues Proto-Germanic *walwōn, derived from a word for "wand". Vala, on the other hand, is a literary form based on vǫlva. Another name for the vǫlva is fjǫlkunnig indicating she knew spá and galdr. A practitioner of seiðr is known as a seiðkona "seiðr-woman" or a seiðmaðr "seiðr-man". A spákona or spækona "spá-woman" is a specialised vǫlva. Vǫlur practiced seiðr, spá and galdr, practices which encompassed shamanism, sorcery and other forms of indigenous magic associated with women. Seiðr in particular had connotations of a serious offense in Norse society. Historical and mythological depictions of vǫlur show that they were held in high esteem and believed to possess such powers that the father of the gods, Odin himself, consulted a vǫlva to learn what the future had in store for the gods.
Such an account is preserved in the Völuspá, which translates to "Prophecy of the Vǫlva". In addition to the unnamed seeress in the Vǫluspá, other examples of vǫlur in Norse literature include Gróa in Svipdagsmál, Þórbjǫrgr in the Saga of Erik the Red and Huld in Ynglinga saga; the vǫlur were not considered to be harmless. The goddess, most skilled in magic was Freyja, she was not only a goddess of love, but a warlike divinity who caused screams of anguish and death, what Freyja performed in Asgard, the world of the gods, the vǫlur tried to perform in Midgard, the world of men; the weapon of the vǫlva was not the spear, the axe or the sword, but instead they were held to influence battles with different means, one of them was the wand. The earliest descriptions of Germanic prophetesses appear in Roman accounts about the Cimbri, whose priestesses were aged women dressed in white, they sprinkled their blood in order to prophesy coming events. In his Commentarii de Bello Gallico Julius Caesar writes in the course of clashes with Germanic tribesmen under Ariovistus: When Caesar inquired of his prisoners, wherefore Ariovistus did not come to an engagement, he discovered this to be the reason – that among the Germans it was the custom for their matrons to pronounce from lots and divination whether it were expedient that the battle should be engaged in or not.
Tacitus writes about prophetesses among the Germanic peoples in his Histories 4, 61 - notably a certain Veleda: "by ancient usage the Germans attributed to many of their women prophetic powers and, as the superstition grew in strength actual divinity." Jordanes relates in his Getica of Gothic haliurunnas, witches who were driven into exile by King Filimer when the Goths had settled in Oium. The name is a corruption of a Gothic Halju-runnos, meaning "hell-runners" or "runners to the realm of the dead"; these witches were condemned to seek refuge far away and, according to this account, engendered the Huns. The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon, who died in Southern Italy in the 790s, wrote on how his people once had departed from southern Scandinavia, he tells of a conflict between the Vandals. The latter turned to one Godan, while Gambara, the mother of the two Lombard chieftains Ibor and Aio, turned to Godan's spouse Frea. Frea helped Gambara play a trick on Odin and thanks to the Gambara's good relations with the goddess, her people won the battle.
A detailed eyewitness account of a human sacrifice by what may have been a vǫlva was given by Ahmad ibn Fadlan as part of his account of a diplomatic mission to Volga Bulgaria in 921. In his description of the funeral of a Scandinavian chieftain, a slave girl volunteers to die with her master. After ten days of festivities, she is stabbed to death by an old woman and burnt together with the deceased in his boat. In Norse society, a vǫlva was an elderly woman who had released herself from the strong family bonds that surrounded women in Norse clans, she travelled the land followed by a retinue of young people, she was summoned in times of crisis. She had immense authority and she charged well for her services. In addition, many aristocratic Viking women wanted to represent her in Midgard, they married Viking warlords who had Odin as a role model, they settled in great halls that were earthly representations of Valhalla. In these halls there were magnificent feasts with ritualized meals, the visiting chieftains can be likened with the einherjar, the fallen warriors who fought bravely and were served drinks by Valkyries.
However, the duties of the mistresses were not limited to serving mead to visiting guests, but they were expected to take part in warfare by manipulating weaving tools magically when their spouses were out in battle. Scholars no longer believe that these women wa
Gaius Julius Civilis
Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 AD. His nomen shows that he was made a Roman citizen by either Caligula, he was twice imprisoned on a charge of rebellion, narrowly escaped execution. During the disturbances that followed the death of Nero, he took up arms under pretense of siding with Vespasian and induced the inhabitants of his native country to rebel; the Batavians, who had rendered valuable service under the early emperors, had been well treated in order to attach them to the cause of Rome. They were exempt from tribute, but were obliged to supply a large number of men for the army, the burden of conscription and the opressions of provincial governors were important incentives to revolt; the Batavians were joined by several neighboring Germanic tribes. The Roman garrisons near the Rhine were driven out, twenty-four ships captured. Two legions under Mummius Lupercus were surrounded. Eight cohorts of Batavian veterans joined their countrymen, the troops sent by Vespasian to the relief of Vetera threw in their lot with them.
The result of these accessions to the forces of Civilis was a rising in Gaul. Hordeonius Flaccus was murdered by his troops, the whole of the Roman forces were induced by two commanders of the Gallic auxiliaries —Julius Classicus and Julius Tutor— to revolt from Rome and join Civilis; the whole of Gaul thus declared itself independent, the foundation of a new kingdom of Gaul was contemplated. The prophetess Veleda predicted the fall of the Roman Empire, but disputes rendered co-operation impossible. The arrival of Quintus Petillius Cerialis with a strong force awed the Gauls and mutinous troops into submission, he came to an agreement with Cerialis whereby his countrymen obtained certain advantages, resumed amicable relations with Rome. From this time, Civilis disappears from history; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Civilis, Claudius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; the chief authority for the history of the insurrection is Tacitus, Histories, iv. v. whose account breaks off at the beginning of Civilis's speech to Cerialis.
Josephus, Bellum Judaicum, vii. 4. E. Meyer, Der Freiheitskrieg der Bataver unter Civilis Merivale, Hist. of the Romans under the Empire, ch. 58. H. Schiller, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit, bk. ii. ch. 2, § 54. Jona Lendering, "The Batavian Revolt" "Civilis, Julius". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Revolt of the Batavi
The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between AD 69 and 70. It was an uprising against the Roman Empire started by the Batavi, a small but militarily powerful Germanic tribe that inhabited Batavia, on the delta of the river Rhine, they were soon joined by the Celtic tribes from some Germanic tribes. Under the leadership of their hereditary prince Gaius Julius Civilis, an auxiliary officer in the Imperial Roman army, the Batavi and their allies managed to inflict a series of humiliating defeats on the Roman army, including the destruction of two legions. After these initial successes, a massive Roman army led by the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis defeated the rebels. Following peace talks, the Batavi submitted again to Roman rule, but were forced to accept humiliating terms and a legion stationed permanently on their territory, at Noviomagus; the Batavi were a sub-tribe of the Germanic Chatti tribal group who had migrated to the region between the Old Rhine and Waal rivers in what became the Roman province of Germania Inferior.
Their land, though fertile alluvial deposits, was uncultivable, consisting of Rhine delta swamps. Thus the Batavi population it could support was tiny: not more than 35,000 at this time, they were a warlike people, skilled horsemen and swimmers. They were therefore excellent soldier-material. In return for the unusual privilege of exemption from tributum, they supplied a disproportionate number of recruits to the Julio-Claudian auxilia: one ala and 8 cohortes, they provided most of the emperor Augustus' elite regiment of Germanic bodyguards, which continued in existence until AD 68. The Batavi auxilia amounted to about 5,000 men, implying that for the entire Julio-Claudian period, over 50% of all Batavi males reaching military age may have enlisted in the auxilia, thus the Batavi, although just about 0.05% of the total population of the empire in AD 23, supplied about 4% of the total auxilia i.e. 80 times their proportionate share. They were regarded by the Romans as the best and bravest of their auxiliary, indeed of all their forces.
In Roman service, they had perfected a unique technique for swimming across rivers wearing full armour and weapons. Gaius Julius Civilis was the prefect of a Batavi cohort. A veteran of 25 years' distinguished service in the Roman army, he and the 8 Batavi cohorts had played an important role in the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43 and the subsequent subjugation of that country. By 69, Civilis, the Batavi regiments and the Batavi people had become utterly disaffected from Rome. After the Batavi regiments were withdrawn from Britain in 66, Civilis and his brother were arrested by the governor of Germania Inferior on false accusations of treason; the governor ordered the brother's execution, sent Civilis to Rome in chains for judgement by the Roman emperor Nero.. While Civilis was in prison awaiting trial, Nero was overthrown in AD 68 by an army led into Italy by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, the veteran general Servius Sulpicius Galba. Nero committed suicide, ending the rule of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, founded a century earlier by Augustus.
Galba was proclaimed emperor. He allowed him to return home. Back in Germania Inferior, however, it seems that Civilis was arrested again, this time on the order of the new governor Aulus Vitellius, acting at the urging of the legions under his command, which demanded Civilis' execution. Meanwhile, Galba disbanded the German Bodyguards Regiment, which he distrusted due to the loyalty they had given to Nero in the latter's final days; this alienated several hundred crack Batavi troops, indeed the whole Batavi nation, who considered it a grave insult. At the same time, relations collapsed between the 8 Batavi cohorts and their parent-legion XIV Gemina, to which they had been attached since the invasion of Britain 25 years earlier; the seething hatred between the Roman legionaries and their German auxiliaries erupted in serious fighting on at least two occasions. At this juncture, the Roman empire was convulsed by its first major civil war for a century, the Year of the Four Emperors; the cause was the fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The descendants of Augustus had enjoyed the automatic and fervent loyalty of ordinary legionaries in the frontier armies. But Galba possessed no such legitimacy in their eyes. Supreme power was now open to. First, in AD 69, Galba's deputy, carried out a coup d'état in Rome against his leader, killed by the Praetorian Guard. Vitellius launched his own bid for power, prepared to lead the Rhine legions into Italy against Otho. Now in urgent need of the Batavi's military support, Vitellius released Civilis. In return, the Batavi regiments helped Vitellius defeat Otho's forces at the Battle of Bedriacum; the Batavi troops were ordered to return home. But at this point arrived news of the mutiny of general Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commander of forces in Syria, whose own massive army of 5 legions was soon joined by the legions on the Danube. Vitellius' governor in German