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Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, with more than 1,000 years of history. The city serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast; the city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg. UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992; the city has a population of 218,717 . The "Veliky" part was added to city's name to disambiguate it with another city of similar name, Nizhny Novgorod; the Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year. Novgorod is traditionally considered to be a cradle of Russian statehood.

The oldest archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, have found cultural layers dating back to the late 10th century, the time of the Christianization of Rus' and a century after it was founded. Archaeological dating is easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating; the Varangian name of the city Holmgård or Holmgard is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain. Holmgård referred to the stronghold, now only 2 km to the south of the center of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische. Archaeological data suggests that the Gorodishche, the residence of the Knyaz, dates from the mid-9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century. First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII.

Predating the chronology of the legend of Rurik, an earlier record for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the Annales Bertiniani where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited Constantinople in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at Ingelheim am Rhein, where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader whom they designated as chacanus. In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod's size as well as its political and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod as a minor; when the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya and Ostromir. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father, Vladimir the Great, was a prince in Kiev.

Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they referred to in centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes. His son, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day. In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. Four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, Harald Hardrada—sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod; the Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post. In the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof.

At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges, which made their position more secure. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich; the year is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians

Carl Heinrich von Siemens

Carl Heinrich von Siemens was a German entrepreneur, a child of a tenant farmer of the Siemens family, an old family of Goslar, documented since 1384. He is a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and William Siemens, sons of Christian Ferdinand Siemens and wife Eleonore Deichmann, they had two more brothers, Hans Siemens and Friedrich August Siemens and father to Friedrich Carl Siemens, married on May 22, 1920 in Berlin to Melanie Bertha Gräfin Yorck von Wartenburg (the parents of Heinrich Werner Andreas Siemens Annabel Siemens, Daniela Siemens and Peter Siemens. In 1853, Carl Siemens traveled to St. Petersburg where he established the branch office of his brothers company Siemens & Halske. Siemens had a contract for constructing the Russian telegraph network at the time. Carl went to England in 1869. In the 1880s, he returned to Russia before he became the senior chief executive of Siemens & Halske after the death of his brother Werner in 1892, he resigned in 1904. For his service to Russia, he was ennobled by Tsar Nicholas II in 1895.

His grave is preserved in the Friedhof III der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor. Shaping the Future; the Siemens Entrepreneurs 1847–2018. Ed. Siemens Historical Institute, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 9-783867-746243. Martin Lutz: Carl von Siemens 1829–1906. A life between Family and World Firm. Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-033-05599-5. Lifelines: Carl von Siemens. Vol. 2, ed. Siemens Historical Institute, Munich 2014

Hillsborough County, Florida

Hillsborough County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida. In the 2010 census, the population was 1,229,226, making it the fourth-most populous county in Florida and the most populous county outside the Miami metropolitan area. A 2018 estimate has the population of Hillsborough County at 1,436,888 people, which itself is greater than the populations of 12 states according to their 2018 population estimates, its county seat and largest city is Tampa. Hillsborough County is part of the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hillsborough County was created on January 25, 1834, from Alachua and Monroe Counties, during the U. S. territorial period. The new county was named for Wills Hill, the Earl of Hillsborough, who served as British Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1768 to 1772; the County was created through efforts by Augustus Steele. The county's 1834 area was much larger and included eight other present-day counties: Charlotte County, DeSoto, Manatee, Pinellas and Sarasota.

The last significant change in Hillsborough County's borders was the separation of its western section to create Pinellas County in 1911. On New Year's Day in 1914, the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line initiated the first scheduled commercial airline service in the world, from St. Petersburg to Tampa. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,266 square miles, of which 1,020 square miles are land and 246 square miles are covered by water. About 158.27 miles of shoreline are on Tampa Bay. The county's unincorporated area is more than 84 % of the total land area. Municipalities account for 163 square miles; the modern boundaries of the county place it midway along the west coast of Florida. A narrow portion of Hillsborough County to the south, consisting exclusively of water, extends west to the Gulf of Mexico along the Tampa Port Shipping Channel; this has the effect of keeping Hillsborough County from being technically landlocked. The central portion of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge is in Hillsborough County.

So is Egmont Key, at the entrance to Tampa Bay. The northernmost tip of a spoil island just west of Port Manatee lies in Hillsborough County. Hillsborough is home to Alafia River State Park and Hillsborough River state parks, to the C. W. Bill Young Regional Reservoir and Lithia Springs, one of the largest natural springs in Florida. U. S. Census Bureau 2010 Ethnic/Race Demographics: White: 53.7% Black: 15.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race: 24.9% Asian: 3.4% Two or more races: 3.1% American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.4% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1% Other Races: 5.0% In 2010, 6.0% of the Hillsborough's population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry Of the 536,092 households, 29.74% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.25% were married couples living together, 14.76% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.69% were not families. About 27.12% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.96% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.11. The age distribution was 23.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 11.8% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,536, for a family was $59,886. Males had a median income of $43,125 versus $35,184 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,062. About 10.7% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those aged 65 or over. In 2010, 15.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 44.5% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 67.5% were born in Latin America, 16.7% born in Asia, 9.2% were born in Europe, 3.2% born in Africa, 3.1% in North America, 0.3% were born in Oceania. As of the census of 2000, 998,948 people, 391,357 households, 255,164 families resided in the county.

The population density was 951 people per square mile. The 425,962 housing units averaged 405 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 75.17% White, 14.96% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 2.20% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.66% from other races, a 2.56% from two or more races. 17.99 % of the population were Latino of any race. The county was the thirty-second most populous county in the nation. Of the 391,357 households, 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.70% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present

Namhkam, Shan State

Namhkam spelled Nam Kham is the principal town of Namhkam Township in northern Shan State, situated on the southern bank of the Shweli River near the border with Yunnan Province, China. The region surrounding Namhkam belonged to China, but from 1894 to 1897, the British colonial administration in Burma built a road between this frontier town and Bhamo by the Ayeyarwady River in Kachin State for a distance of 56 miles; the road was intended to be used by Chinese muleteers for the benefit of border trade. The town was rented to the British in 1897 by the Qing Dynasty; the area became formally part of Burma in 1960 when China and Burma signed a border treaty and swapped territory along their border. During the Second World War, the Allies built the Ledo Road, stretching from Ledo in Assam, India to Kunming, across northern Burma. By the end of 1944, the road stretched 439 miles to Namhkam, linking up with the old Burma Road at Bhamo. In 2005, the Shan State Army - South attempted to fill a power vacuum in Namhkam left by the 1989 ceasefire agreement between their counterparts in the north and the Burmese military, but their attempt was promptly thwarted.

The governments of Myanmar and China have been working to resolve a border dispute in the area of Namhkam and Muse since 2014. As of 2017, there are two high schools, three middle schools, 100 primary schools and one monastic school in Namhkam. Cultivation of the opium poppy in the area during British rule caused considerable deforestation, noted in 1920 east of a line from Lashio to Namhkam. A 2005 survey carried out by the Shan State Peace Council recorded 1,800 drug addicts in Namhkam alone, community-run rehabilitation centers were set up to tackle the rising problem of addiction; the first of these facilities were constructed in 1998, but were declared illegal and forced to close down in 2000 by authorities. Buddhist monks and teachers in Namhkam are involved in the amelioration of the HIV/AIDS issue amongst drug users. Hsinshweli high yield hybrid rice cultivation has been promoted in recent years by authorities in the region. Myanmar and China signed a contract in August 2003 for the construction of the hydroelectric Shweli I Dam on the Shweli River near Namhkam, aiming to supply electricity to Kyaukme, Hsipaw and Namtu.

It has a 600 MW installed capacity. Burmese American Dr. Gordon Seagrave, famously known as the "Burma Surgeon", ran the American missionary hospital overlooking Namhkam, he was believed to have had military intelligence duties as well as medical ones, he wrote articles on his experience in Namhkam. Satellite map GeoNames Taipei American Chamber of Commerce. Myanmar: Southeast Asia's Last Frontier for Investment, BY DAVID DUBYNE Oilseedcrops.org. Myanmar: the Missing Link from Western China to India’s N. E. States

Willie Colon (American football)

Willie Colon is an American football player. He was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the fourth round of the 2006 NFL Draft, he was part of the Steelers' Super Bowl XLIII victory over the Arizona Cardinals. He played college football at Hofstra University, he works for Barstool Sports. Colon attended Cardinal Hayes High School in The Bronx; as a senior, he received the Cardinal Hayes Outstanding Defensive Player Award as the defensive MVP. He chose majoring in interdisciplinary studies. Colon is of Puerto Rican descent. Colon was selected by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the fourth round of the 2006 NFL Draft, he started the first two games of his career in Weeks 16 and 17 of the 2006 season, replacing an injured Max Starks. This sparked a position battle with Max Starks for starting right tackle, which continued through an unspectacular 2007 season. Colon was a member of the Steelers' Super Bowl XLIII championship team, he re-signed with the Steelers after the 2008 season for a one-year deal worth $2.2 million.

While working out during the offseason in June 2010, Colon tore his Achilles tendon, forcing him to miss the entire 2010 NFL season. On July 29, 2011, Colon signed a five-year deal worth $29 million with the Pittsburgh Steelers. In week 1 against the Baltimore Ravens, Colon missed the rest of the season. Colon was released from the Steelers on March 13, 2013; the New York Jets signed Colon to a one–year contract on March 15, 2013. The New York Jets re-signed Colon to a one-year contract worth $2 million on March 19, 2014. After his playing career, Colon joined Barstool Sports as a radio host for the Barstool Breakfast show on SiriusXM Barstool Radio on channel 85. Hofstra bio New York Jets bio Pittsburgh Steelers Bio

Canary trap

A canary trap is a method for exposing an information leak by giving different versions of a sensitive document to each of several suspects and seeing which version gets leaked. It could be one false statement. Special attention is paid to the quality of the prose of the unique language, in the hopes that the suspect will repeat it verbatim in the leak, thereby identifying the version of the document; the term was coined by Tom Clancy in his novel Patriot Games, although Clancy did not invent the technique. The actual method has been used by intelligence agencies for many years; the fictional character Jack Ryan describes the technique he devised for identifying the sources of leaked classified documents: Each summary paragraph has six different versions, the mixture of those paragraphs is unique to each numbered copy of the paper. There are over a thousand possible permutations, but only ninety-six numbered copies of the actual document; the reason the summary paragraphs are so lurid is to entice a reporter to quote them verbatim in the public media.

If he quotes something from two or three of those paragraphs, we know which copy he saw and, who leaked it. A refinement of this technique uses a thesaurus program to shuffle through synonyms, thus making every copy of the document unique. Following the troubled production of Star Trek: The Motion Picture in the late 1970s, Paramount Pictures replaced Gene Roddenberry as producer of further movies in the franchise with Harve Bennett. Roddenberry was retained as an "executive consultant", due to the high regard the series' fans held him in; the fans complained about particular plot developments proposed for the films, such as the death of Spock in Star Trek II, that Roddenberry had opposed. So, before any drafts of the screenplay for Star Trek III: The Search for Spock were circulated, Bennett arranged for each individual copy to have subtle clues distinguishing it from the others. Shortly after Roddenberry opposed the destruction of the Enterprise at the climax of that film, fans began to complain to Paramount and Bennett.

He found that a leaked copy of the script was the one given to Roddenberry, but was unable to do anything about it. After a series of leaks at Tesla Motors in 2008, CEO Elon Musk sent different versions of an e-mail to each employee in an attempt to reveal potential leakers; the e-mail was disguised as a request to employees to sign a new non-disclosure agreement. The plan backfired when the company's general counsel forwarded his own unique version of the e-mail with the attached agreement; as a result, Musk's scheme was realized by employees. In 2017, it was proposed as a method for the Trump Administration to catch leaks. In October 2019, British celebrity Coleen Rooney used the technique to identify, leaking information from her private Instagram stories to tabloid newspaper The Sun by posting fake stories which were blocked to all but one account; when these details appeared in the press, she publicly identified the leaks as coming from the account of Rebekah Vardy, wife of footballer Jamie Vardy..

According to the book Spycatcher by Peter Wright the technique is standard practice, used by MI5 for many years, under the name "barium meal test". A barium meal test is more sophisticated than a canary trap because it is flexible and may take many different forms. However, the basic premise is to reveal a secret to a suspected enemy monitor whether there is evidence of the fake information being utilised by the other side. For example, a suspected double agent could be offered some tempting "bait": e.g. be told that important information was stored at a dead drop site. The fake dead drop site could be periodically checked for signs of disturbance. If the site showed signs of being disturbed this would confirm that the suspected enemy was an enemy: i.e. a double agent. The technique of embedding significant information in a hidden form in a medium has been used in many ways, which are classified according to intent: Watermarks are used to show that items are authentic and not forged. Steganography is used to hide a secret message in an innocuous message, in order to escape detection.

A canary trap hides information in a document that uniquely identifies it, so that copies of it can be traced. Screener versions of DVDs are marked in some way so as to allow the tracking of unauthorised releases to their source; as with the Star Trek incident, major films or television productions give out scripts to the cast and crew in which one or two lines are different in each individual version. Thus if the entire script is copied and leaked to the public, the producers can track down the specific person who leaked the script. In practice this does not prevent generalized information about the script from being leaked, but it does discourage leaking verbatim copies of the script itself. Trap streets on maps, or intentionally fictitious streets, are sometimes included to track copyright violations by those who might republish copyrighted maps illegally. Spurious words are sometimes included in dictionaries so as to detect other publishers copying from them; the OED contains an appendix of such words with which edition of which dictionary first used them and which first duplicated them.

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