The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
"Heartbeats" is a song by Swedish electronic music duo The Knife. It was released in Sweden on 27 December 2002 as the lead single from their second studio album Deep Cuts and re-released on 4 October 2004; the song was listed at #15 on Pitchfork Media's top 500 songs of the 2000s and at #87 on Rolling Stone's top 100 songs of the 2000s. In October 2011, NME placed it at number 95 on its list "150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years". Adjectives used to describe the music were "haunting" and "electro". In Robert Dimery's book 1000 Songs: You Must Hear Before You Die, it was said: "The Stockholm siblings' love of synth pop, minimal beats and electronica create together a moving masterpiece. Singer Karin Dreijer Andersson's hypnotic vocals recall both Björk and Siouxsie Sioux with her icy delivery of magical lines"; the song has been covered by many acts such as José González, Royal Teeth, Scala & Kolacny Brothers, Ah Mer Ah Su, Ellie Goulding. The song has received critical acclaim since its release.
MusicOMH said that the song's "emotive lyrics merge with forward thinking production to create one of the most exciting electronica releases of the year", Contactmusic.com stated the song had "clever synth beats and Björkesque vocals" with the ability to "instil some fun and nostalgia into music." Gigwise.com said that the song was "perhaps one of the most hypnotic and haunting electronic songs of recent times, innately infectious from the outset." Several reviews commented. UK CD"Heartbeats" – 3:53 "Heartbeats" – 6:12 "Heartbeats" – 2:47 "Afraid of You" – 3:48UK 12-inch vinyl"Heartbeats" – 3:53 "Heartbeats" – "Heartbeats" – 6:12 "Heartbeats" – 2:47 Christoffer Berg – mixing Rex the Dog – re-mixing, producer Linus Eklow – re-mixing The song was covered by Argentinian-Swedish singer-songwriter José González for his debut studio album Veneer and released as its lead single in January 2006. In contrast to the electronic, synth-based original, González's cover features only an acoustic classical guitar.
The song peaked at number nine on the UK Singles Chart. González's version was used in a Sony Bravia advertisement and in several TV shows; the song appears on the third soundtrack of One Tree Hill "The Road Mix" and it was used in the show's season 4 episode "Some You Give Away", in the Bones episode "The Salt in the Wounds", in a Scrubs episode "My Hard Labor", in Brothers & Sisters, in Covert Affairs, in 90210, in The Blacklist, in This Is Us, in the 9-1-1 episode "Heartbreaker". It is part of the soundtrack of the British horror film Donkey Punch as well as Everything and was heard in S1 E3 "Every Last Minute" of New Amsterdam (TV series as well as on Superstore in Season 3,Episode 19 when Jonah teaches Amy golf
José González (singer)
José Gabriel González is a Argentinian-Swedish indie folk singer-songwriter and guitarist from Gothenburg, Sweden. González is a member of the band Junip, along with Tobias Winterkorn. In 1976, the González family – made up of González's father, a National University of San Luis psychology student, González's mother, a fellow student studying biochemistry, both of whom were politically active, González's older sister an infant – fled Argentina after an ultra-conservative military junta seized power in March 1976, the beginning of the "Dirty War". José was born two years in 1978, in a suburb of Gothenburg, Sweden, he has a younger sibling. He commented, "It's a small town, it has about a half-million people living there. It's a pretty good music city by the ocean, it rains a lot there, but it's beautiful in the summertime."González grew up listening to Latin folk and pop music and has named Cuban singer-songwriter Silvio Rodríguez as a favourite artist. He said the first concert. I got their autographs and everything.
I was about 12 or so. At the time, my favourite music was Bob Marley and Michael Jackson."González was in a PhD program for Biochemistry at the University of Gothenburg. In 2003, González stopped working on the PhD; the first band he played in was Back Against the Wall, a Gothenburg hardcore punk band influenced by Black Flag, The Misfits and the Dead Kennedys. He played bass guitar in another hardcore band, between 1993–1998. Between 1997 and 1998 José played guitar with rock band. In June 2003 González released his debut solo release, a two-track 7" single; the single was discovered by Joakim Gävert, co-founder of the fledgling label Imperial Records who signed González as their first official artist. In October he released Veneer, in Europe; the album was subsequently released in the UK on 25 April 2005, in the United States on 6 September 2005. The album was made. González' trademark sound is solo classical guitar with soft vocal melody, his work, although original includes acoustic covers of such hits as "Heartbeats" by his fellow Swedes The Knife, "Love Will Tear Us Apart" by Joy Division, "Born in the U.
S. A." and "The Ghost of Tom Joad" by Bruce Springsteen, "Hand on Your Heart" by Kylie Minogue, "Smalltown Boy" by Bronski Beat, "Teardrop" by Massive Attack and "Last Snowstorm of the Year" by Low. His second album, In Our Nature, was released internationally on 22 September 2007; the album's lyrical content was in part influenced by his reading of books like The God Delusion by evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins and Practical Ethics by ethicist Peter Singer. In 2007, González won a European Border Breakers Award Award; every year the European Border Breakers Awards recognize the success of ten emerging artists or groups who reached audiences outside their own countries with their first internationally released album in the past year. In 2010, a documentary about González called The Extraordinary Ordinary Life Of Jose Gonzalez was released. In December 2014, González performed at Wonderfruit in Thailand, his album Vestiges & Claws was released in February 2015. It received the IMPALA Album of the Year Award.
González has performed on several television programs, including Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Jimmy Kimmel Live!, the BBC's Later... with Jools Holland, Last Call with Carson Daly, Seven Network's Sunrise and Canada's MTV Live. The song "Crosses", from González's Crosses EP and the Veneer album, appeared on the finale of the second season of the popular American television comedy-drama The O. C. as well as on a trailer for a BBC Four programme. Taken from the Veneer album, "Stay in the Shade" was used in The O. C. midway in the episode The Pot Stirrer. The song "Storm," from Veneer, was used in season 1 episode called "Best Laid Plans" in the Friday Night Lights TV series, his cover of The Knife's "Heartbeats" has been used many times. It featured in a Sony BRAVIA commercial featuring 250,000 coloured bouncing balls in San Francisco. Gone, a 2007 film directed by Ringan Ledwidge, Kyss Mig, a 2011 film directed by Alexandra Therese Keining, both feature the track "Lovestain", from the Veneer album.
Music from González' latest album has been used in other television shows. His version of Massive Attack's "Teardrop" was used in the fourth season finale of House entitled "Wilson's Heart", it features in the fifth-season episode of Numb3rs entitled "The Fifth Man". The song can be heard at the end of Friday Night Lights season 4, episode "A Sort of Homecoming". González features prominently on the soundtrack to Ben Stiller's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty", whether with Junip or by himself, including choir-backed opener "Step Out" and lush John Lennon cover "#9 Dream". González performed his original song "Far Away" at the Spike Video Game Awards, where it won Best Song for its featured appearance in Rockstar Games' video game Red Dead Redemption, which took home the award for Game of the Year. González pla
Karin Elisabeth Dreijer is a Swedish singer-songwriter and record producer. She was one half of the electronic music duo the Knife, formed with her brother Olof Dreijer. Dreijer was the vocalist and guitarist of the alternative rock band Honey Is Cool. Dreijer released her debut solo album under the alias Fever Ray in January 2009, her second studio album under the alias, was released in October 2017. Dreijer's vocal style is notable for both shrill and deep tones, the use of multitracked vocals, with different uses of pitch-shifting technology on each track, creating an intricate and mysterious effect. Visually, Dreijer employs the use of masks and body paint, intricate costumes, other theatrical elements in photo shoots and live performances, during which she performs behind a gauze screen that obscures her from view. Dreijer was born on 7 April 1975 in Sweden; when she was 10, she started playing guitar. At 15, she became interested in power structures in society. Before she pursued a career in music, Dreijer worked as a web designer.
In 1998, she moved to Stockholm. Karin and her brother Olof Dreijer formed the electronic music duo The Knife in Gothenburg in 1999, they released their eponymous debut album in 2001. The duo gained a wider international recognition following the release of "Heartbeats", the lead single of their second studio album, Deep Cuts; the duo performed live for the first time in 2006, when they went on the Silent Shout Tour in support of their universally acclaimed third album of the same name. In 2009, the duo were commissioned alongside Mt. Sims and Planningtorock by the Danish performance group Hotel Pro Forma to compose an opera, titled Tomorrow, in a Year, based on Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. In 2013, the band released their fourth and final studio album, Shaking the Habitual, to universal acclaim; the duo disbanded in November 2014, after completing the Shaking the Habitual Tour. While The Knife were on hiatus, Dreijer released under the alias Fever Ray her self-titled solo debut album.
It was released digitally on 12 January 2009 and physically on 18 March 2009 through Rabid Records to universal acclaim. The album was preceded by its lead single "If I Had a Heart", used in numerous television series, including Person of Interest, Breaking Bad and Wentworth, as well as the opening theme song for the Canadian-Irish historical drama television series Vikings. In September 2009, Dreijer composed the soundtrack to Dirty Diaries, a collection of feminist pornographic short films. In a review of the collection, Swedish newspaper Smålandsposten described the soundtrack as appropriate to the film, though repetitive. Dreijer received positive reviews. In September of the same year, she performed at Electric Picnic in Ireland and at Bestival in England. Contrary to a statement from the film's director, Dreijer did not make a cameo appearance in the 2011 film Red Riding Hood. However, the soundtrack features a new track performed by Dreijer as Fever Ray, "The Wolf", as well as "Keep the Streets Empty for Me" from her debut album.
"The Wolf" was featured in Ubisoft's Far Cry Primal announcement trailer, as well as during the game's final mission. Dreijer wrote the music for the theatrical adaptation of Ingmar Bergman's 1968 horror film Hour of the Wolf, which premiered at Stockholm's Royal Dramatic Theatre on 12 March 2011. One of these tracks, "No Face", appeared in demo form on the 2012 compilation album We Are the Works in Progress, organised by Blonde Redhead to benefit victims of the 2011 Japanese tsunami. In February 2016, Dreijer announced she had written and produced music for a theater play called Vahák, which plays on themes of colonial and homophobic violence; that same month, Dreijer revealed in an interview with The Fader that she was working on solo music, though she was unsure whether it will be under the Fever Ray moniker. On 20 October 2017, Dreijer released the single "To the Moon and Back" and its accompanying music video, it served as the lead single to her second studio album, released on 27 October without prior announcement.
The album received widespread acclaim from music critics upon release and appeared on numerous year-end lists. In support of the album, Dreijer embarked on an international tour throughout 2018, with the first leg of, held in Europe and began in February, followed by a North American leg held in May. More European dates were added from June until November. In the 2018 Swedish Grammys and the producers she collaborated with on Plunge won the award for "Producer of the Year". Plunge was nominated for Best European Independent Album at the IMPALA awards. In 2005, Dreijer supplied vocals on the track "What Else Is There?" by Röyksopp on the album The Understanding. The song charted raising Karin's profile at an early stage of her career, she appeared in the video for that single, but not as the vocalist, portrayed by the Norwegian model Marianne Schröder. In 2008, Dreijer provided vocals for the Deus song "Slow" from the band's Vantage Point album. Dreijer was featured on the tracks "This Must Be It" and "Tricky Tricky" again by Röyksopp, appearing on their 2009 album Junior.
Dreijer has two daughters. She keeps her private life outside the headlines, but in 2017, she told The Guardian in an interview that she was married and had dropped Andersson from her name following a divorce. In the same interview, she stated that she is "definitely a queer person, but I'm gender-fluid, I think." Official website Fever Ray at AllMusic Karin Dreijer Andersson disc
The Irish Times
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859. The editor is Paul O'Neill who succeeded Kevin O'Sullivan on 5 April 2017; the Irish Times is published every day except Sundays. It employs 420 people. Though formed as a Protestant nationalist paper, within two decades and under new owners it had become the voice of British unionism in Ireland, it is no longer marketed as a unionist paper. The editorship of the newspaper from 1859 until 1986 was controlled by the Anglo-Irish Protestant minority, only gaining its first nominal Irish Catholic editor 127 years into its existence; the paper's most prominent columnists include writer and arts commentator Fintan O'Toole and satirist Miriam Lord. The late Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald was once a columnist. Senior international figures, including Tony Blair and Bill Clinton, have written for its op-ed page, its most prominent columns have included the political column Backbencher, by John Healy, Drapier and Reason and the long-running An Irishman's Diary.
An Irishman's Diary was written by Patrick Campbell in the forties. After Myers' move to the rival Irish Independent, An Irishman's Diary has been the work of Frank McNally. On the sports pages, Philip Reid is the paper's golf correspondent. One of its most popular columns was the biting and humorous Cruiskeen Lawn satire column written in Irish in English, by Myles na gCopaleen, the pen name of Brian O'Nolan who wrote books using the name Flann O'Brien. Cruiskeen Lawn is an anglicised spelling of the Irish words crúiscín lán, meaning'full little jug'. Cruiskeen Lawn made its debut in October 1940, appeared with varying regularity until O'Nolan's death in 1966; the first appearance of a newspaper using the name The Irish Times occurred in 1823, but this closed in 1825. The title was revived as a thrice-weekly publication by Major Lawrence E. Knox, with the first edition being published on 29 March 1859, it was founded as a moderate Protestant Nationalist newspaper, reflecting the politics of Knox, who stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate for Isaac Butt's Home Rule League.
Its headquarters were at 4 Lower Abbey Street in Dublin. Its main competitor in its early days was the Dublin Daily Express; the Irish Times supported Ireland remaining part of the United Kingdom and was allied to the Irish Unionist Alliance. After Knox's death in 1873, the paper was sold to the widow of Sir John Arnott, MP, a former Lord Mayor of Cork and owner of Arnotts, one of Dublin's major Department stores; the sale, for £35,000, led to two major changes. Its headquarters was shifted to 31 Westmoreland Street, remaining in buildings on or near that site until 2005, its politics shifted becoming predominantly Protestant and Unionist, it was associated with the Irish Unionist Alliance. The paper, along with the Irish Independent and various regional papers, called for the execution of the leaders of the failed 1916 Easter Rising. Though the paper became a publicly listed company in 1900, the family continued to hold a majority shareholding until the 1960s; the last member of the Arnott family to sit on the paper's board was Sir Lauriston Arnott, who died in 1958.
The editor during the 1930s, R. M. Smyllie, had strong anti-fascist views: he angered the Irish Catholic hierarchy by opposing General Franco during the Spanish Civil War; the Irish Times, like other national newspapers, had problems with Irish Government censorship during World War II. The Times was pro-Allied and was opposed to the Éamon de Valera government's policy of neutrality. In 1974, ownership was transferred to The Irish Times Trust; the former owner, Major Thomas McDowell, was made "president for life" of the trust which runs the paper and was paid a large dividend. However several years the articles of the Trust were adjusted, giving Major McDowell 10 preference shares and one more vote than the combined votes of all the other directors should any move be made to remove him. Major McDowell died in 2009; the Trust was set up in 1974 as "a company limited by guarantee" to purchase The Irish Times Limited and to ensure that The Irish Times would be published as an independent newspaper with specific editorial objectives..
The Trust is regulated by a legal document, the Memorandum and Articles of Association, controlled by a body of people under company law. It does not have charitable status, it has no beneficial shareholders and it cannot pay dividends. Any profits made by The Irish Times cannot be distributed to the Trust but must be used to strengthen the newspaper, directly or indirectly; the Trust is composed of a maximum of 11 Governors. The Trust appoints Governors who are required to be "representative broadly of the community throughout the whole of Ireland"; as of June 2012, Ruth Barrington is the chair of the trust, the governors are Tom Arnold, David Begg, Noel Dorr, Margaret Elliott, Rosemary Kelly, Eoin O'Driscoll, Fergus O'Ferrall, Judith Woodworth, Barry Smyth, Caitriona Murphy. In 1969, the longest-serving editor of The Irish Times, Douglas Gageby, was called a "white nigger" by the company chairman (a former Irish Bri