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Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church

In the Catholic Church, the veneration of Mary, mother of Jesus, encompasses various Marian devotions which include prayer, pious acts, visual arts and music devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Popes have encouraged it, while taking steps to reform some manifestations of it; the Holy See has insisted on the importance of distinguishing "true from false devotion, authentic doctrine from its deformations by excess or defect". There are more titles and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than in other Western Christian traditions; the term hyperdulia indicates the special veneration due to Mary, greater than the ordinary dulia for other saints, but utterly unlike the latria due only to God. Belief in the incarnation of God the Son through Mary is the basis for calling her the Mother of God, declared a dogma at the Council of Ephesus in 431. At the Second Vatican Council and in Pope John Paul II's encyclical Redemptoris mater, she is spoken of as Mother of the Church. Growth of Roman Catholic veneration of Mary and Mariology has come not from official declarations, but from Marian writings of the saints, popular devotion, at times reported Marian apparitions.

The Holy See approves only a select few as worthy of belief, the most recent being the 2008 approval of certain apparitions from 1665. Further pious veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary encouraged by Popes are exhibited in the canonical coronations granted to popular Marian images venerated in a particular locality all over the world, while Marian movements and societies with millions of members have arisen from belief in events such as Akita, Fátima, Lourdes, other reasons. In Roman Catholic teachings, the veneration of Mary is a natural consequence of Christology: Jesus and Mary are son and mother and redeemed; this sentiment was expressed by Pope John Paul II in his encyclical Redemptoris mater: "At the centre of this mystery, in the midst of this wonderment of faith, stands Mary. As the loving Mother of the Redeemer, she was the first to experience it:'To the wonderment of nature you bore your Creator'!"In the Roman Catholic tradition Mariology is seen as Christology developed to its full potential.

Mary is seen as contributing to a fuller understanding of the life of Jesus. In this view, a Christology without Mary is not based on the total revelation of the Bible. Traces of this parallel interpretation go back to the early days of Christianity and numerous saints have since focused on it; the development of this approach continued into the 20th century. In his 1946 publication Compendium Mariologiae, Mariologist Gabriel Roschini explained that Mary not only participated in the birth of the physical Jesus, with conception, she entered with him into a spiritual union; the divine salvation plan, being not only material, includes a permanent spiritual unity with Christ. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger wrote: "It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that'truth about Jesus Christ,"truth about the Church' and'truth about man' that John Paul II proposed as a program to all of Christianity," in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary".

It is possible that the practice of invoking the aid of the Mother of Christ had become more familiar to the faithful some time before any expression of it in the writings of the Early Church Fathers. Christians' love for Mary intuited in anticipation, certain aspects of the mystery of the Blessed Virgin, calling the attention of theologians and pastors to them. Venerative and devotional practices have preceded formal theological declarations by the Magisterium; the veneration of the Blessed Virgin takes place in various ways. Marian prayers and hymns begin with veneration of her, followed by petitions; the number of Marian titles continued to grow as of the 3rd century, many titles existed by the 5th century, growing during the Middle Ages. Veneration for Mary is based on the reference in the Gospel of Luke to Mary as the selected handmaid of the Lord, greeted and praised by both Elizabeth and the angel Gabriel. God's work is further illuminated in the Marian dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church such as the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption, are, in the Roman Catholic view, part of the apostolic tradition and divine revelation.

Catholics distinguish veneration from worship. One of the components of the Catholic veneration of Mary is the focus on her participation in the processes of salvation and redemption; this has been explored by such writers as Adrienne von Speyr. John's Gospel records her presence at the end of his public life. Significant is Mary's presence at the Cross, when she received from her dying Son the charge to be mother to the beloved disciple. Catholics interpret; the Acts of the Apostles expressly numbers the Mother of Jesus among the women of the first community awaiting Pentecost. John Eudes wrote that: "The Virgin Mary began to cooperate in the plan of salvation, from the moment she gave her consent to the Incarnation of the Son of God". Lumen gentium, the 1964 Dogmatic Constitution of the Church recognized, "...all the salvific influence of the Blessed Virgin on men originates, not from some inner necessity, but from the divine pleasure. It flows forth from the superabundance of the merits of Christ, rests on His mediation, depends on it and draws all its power from it."

In a singular way she cooperated by her obedience, faith and burning charity in the work of the Savior in giving back supernatural life to souls. "Wherefore she is our mother in the order of grace."One of the first sch

Moolort, Victoria

Moolort is a locality in central Victoria, Australia halfway between the major rural cities of Ballarat and Bendigo. The main industry is agriculture with sheep and crop farming being the most prevalent although over the last 15 years some smaller farms have started growing grapes for wine and conifers for Christmas trees. In the past however, Moolort was a large gold mining area which at one point had rivalled other local mining towns in the area for population. There is one mine on the outskirts of Moolort that mines vivianite and siderite. Due to a mistake with calculations, the first shaft of the Moolort mines was sunk 6,000 ft to the west of the main lead; this new shaft allowed the mines to extract material closer to its source. But the heads of the mining companies did not believe that colonial workmanship was up to the task of constructing the equipment, needed the water pumps; the pumps were needed to clear water from the mines as a water basin is under a large part of the Moolort plains.

This led them to buy the equipment from London in England as well as from the United States at a price of £500,000 at a time when gold was selling for about £2 per ounce. It was this excessive capitalisation that led to the downfall of the Moolort mines as though the mines were quite rich they were never able to pay dividends; the mines around Moolort were significant because they were the first deep lead mines in the Maldon Mining Division and among the first to use electrical power. Victorian Colonial Government "Electric Light and Power Act 1896" Report Archives reveal that the Deep Leads Electric Transmission Company was formed and was approved by the Government in 1899, to build and operate a substantial private Electric Supply Undertaking serving the mines of Charlotte Plains, New Havilah, Junction Deep Leads and Victorian Deep Leads in Moolort; the records advise that the main purpose of the electrical undertaking was to operate the pumps to de-water the mining operations and to provide lighting.

These records indicate that this electrical operation ceased in July 1909. According to Bannear, many of Moolort's mines hold cultural significance due to the difficulties experienced in running deep lead mines as well as the various means used to extract water from the mines to keep them dry and safe. Most of the gold mines were closed by 1906, with the last of the equipment and property being sold off by 1916; the tailings were sold to the State Rivers Board for use as road base. Between 1905 and 1925 Moolort's population shrank quite quickly. A town that once had twenty-eight pubs and three post offices became little more than a village that could no longer field a football team. In the next fifty years the state school, general store and the last post office were closed, with locals having to travel twelve kilometres to Carisbrook or sixteen to Newstead for their needs. Most of Moolort consists of basaltic soil laid down by the eruption of Bald Hill 10,000 years ago. Most of Moolort consists of rolling plains although there are at least three unnamed hills.

At the southern end of Moolort Long Swamp is the only major wetlands. Towards the east, the Cairn Curran reservoir was formed between the basalt of Moolort and the granite formations of the Maldon area. Sheoak Hill or Mt Moolort is a volcanic crater, north of the Pyrenees Highway and east of the Baringhup-Moolort Rd. is more the source of the basalt of the Moolort Plains. This crater is on private property and can't be seen from the roads, it appears as a small hill or rise from the Highway. There are 50 wetlands scattered across the plains. Bannear, D..

Mohammad Fazl

Mullah Mohammad Fazl is the Taliban's former Deputy Defense Minister and was held in the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba after being classified as an enemy combatant by the United States. His Guantanamo Internment Serial Number was 7, he arrived at the Guantanamo detention camps on 11 January 2002, was held there until 31 May 2014. He was released, along with the other four members of the so-called Taliban five—Khairullah Khairkhwa, Abdul Haq Wasiq, Norullah Noori, Mohammad Nabi Omari in exchange for the release of United States Army soldier Bowe Bergdahl, a convicted deserter, held captive by the Taliban-aligned Haqqani network. Not much is known about Fazl, except that he served as the deputy defense minister under the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. American intelligence analysts estimate that Fazl was born in 1967, in Sekzi, Caher Cineh District, Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan. Although he negotiated an amnesty with the Afghan Northern Alliance leader Abdul Rashid Dostum, it is alleged that he is responsible for killing thousands of Shi'a Afghans between 1996 and late 2001.

Former Taliban Ambassador to Pakistan Abdul Salam Zaeef described being flown to the United States Navy's amphibious warfare vessel, the USS Bataan, for special interrogation. Zaeef wrote that the cells were located six decks down, were only 1 meter by 2 meters, he wrote that the captives weren't allowed to speak with one another, but that he "eventually saw that Mullahs Fazal, Burhan, Wasseeq Sahib and Rohani were all among the other prisoners." Historian Andy Worthington, author of The Guantanamo Files, identified Fazil as one of the men Zaeef recognized. Most Afghans had been repatriated to Afghanistan by 2009. Throughout the fall of 2011 and the winter of 2012, the United States conducted peace negotiations with the Taliban, leaked was that a key sticking point was the ongoing detention of Fazl and four other senior Taliban, Norullah Noori, Khirullah Khairkhwa, Abdul Haq Wasiq and Mohammed Nabi. Negotiations hinged on a proposal to send the five men directly to Doha, where they would be allowed to set up an official office for the Taliban.

In March 2012, it was reported that Ibrahim Spinzada, described as "Karzai's top aide" had spoken with the five men, in Guantanamo, earlier that month, had secured their agreement to be transferred to Qatar. It was reported that Karzai, who had opposed the transfer, now backed the plan; when he assumed office in January 2009 President Barack Obama made a number of promises about the future of Guantanamo. He promised, he promised to institute a new review system. That new review system was composed of officials from six departments, where the OARDEC reviews were conducted by the Department of Defense; when it reported back, a year the Joint Review Task Force classified some individuals as too dangerous to be transferred from Guantanamo though there was no evidence to justify laying charges against them. On April 9, 2013, that document was made public after a Freedom of Information Act request. Mohammed Fazl was one of the 71 individuals deemed too innocent to charge, but too dangerous to release.

Although Obama promised that those deemed too innocent to charge, but too dangerous to release, would start to receive reviews from a Periodic Review Board, less than a quarter of men have received a review. On June 1, 2014, the other four Taliban prisoners in Guantanamo Bay, were released in Qatar in exchange for U. S. soldier Bowe Bergdahl, captured by the Taliban nearly five years previously. Bergdahl pleaded guilty to the crime of desertion on October 16, 2017. Fazl and other members of the Taliban five, as part of the conditions of their release, were prohibited from leaving Qatar for one year. Human Rights Watch argues that despite his release from Guantanamo Bay, Fazl should be investigated and prosecuted for war crimes. Who Are the Remaining Prisoners in Guantánamo? Part Two: Captured in Afghanistan Andy Worthington, September 17, 2010

Duncan Dokiwari

Duncan Dalnajeneso Danagogo Dokiwari is a retired Nigerian boxer. At the 1996 Summer Olympics he won a Men's Super Heavyweight bronze medal, together with Aleksei Lezin of Russia. Dokiwari is a descendant of the Kalabari people of the Niger Delta of Nigeria, he is a son of the Horsfall and David-West group of houses in Buguma, in the Asaritoru Local Government Area of Rivers State. Dokiwari is the fifth of eight children raised by their grandmother; as a child Dokiwari played different sports ranging from track and fields, badminton, powerlifting, to volleyball, evident in his agility and strength as a boxer. The young Dokiwari obtained his primary education at Port Harcout Primary School in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. On a successful completion of his primary education, Dokiwari attended Akpor Grammar School Ozuoba, where he completed his secondary education. Duncan Dokiwari graduated with degrees in criminal justice and Advertising from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in the summer of 2008. Dokiwari is an avid reader whose reading interest include philosophy, English literature and justice, as well as religious literature.

Dokiwari came out of the same Nigerian amateur boxing program that produced the likes of Peter Konyegwache, David Izon, Richard Igbeneghu, Ike Ibeabuchi, Friday Ahunanya. As a boxer Dokiwari was a late comer to the sport, he did not lace a pair of gloves until months after his eighteenth birthday. Within a span of 5 years from 1991 through 1996 Dokiwari rose from a unknown in Nigerian boxing circle to become the country's foremost amateur boxing star. Dokiwari won the prestigious Eagle Belt champion of champions title consecutively between 1994 and 1995 in Lagos, Nigeria. Between 1993 through 1996 Duncan was Nigerian super heavyweight champion. In 1994, Dokiwari won the gold medal at the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Canada. A year he defeated the Cubans in Cuba by winning the gold medal at the Guama Cup International Boxing Championships. In 1995, he was proclaimed the African Boxer of the Year after winning the title at the African Games in Harare, where he knocked out all his opponents in the first round.

Gold Medalist at the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Victoria, Australia. Emilio Leti won by TKO 1 Danny Williams won on points David Anyim won on points Represented Nigeria as a Super Heavyweight at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Mohammad Reza Samadi won by TKO 2 Safarish Khan won by TKO 2 Adalat Mamedov won by TKO 3 Paea Wolfgramm lost on points, this was a semi-final match, with the loss Dokiwari won a bronze medal. Dokiwari's boxing career has been plagued with disputes with promoters and managers since turning professional in July 1997. Dokiwari's boxing skill has been honed by reputable trainer such as Eddie Futch, Thell Torrence, Mike McCallum. Duncan dropped a decision to Fres Oquendo early in his career, after running off 10 consecutive victories, dropped a unanimous decision to Dominick Guinn. A year after the loss to Guinn, Dokiwari was stunningly TKO'd in the first by unknown Stacy Frazier. Despite the loss, he continued his boxing career recording impressive wins against tough opposition.

In December 2006 Dokiwari won the WBC USNBC Heavyweight title with an impressive 4th-round knockout of strong and durable Wllie Palms in Laughlin, Nevada. With the victory Dokiwari became the first man to stop Palms. Speculations about Dokiwari's retirement has been exaggerated. Dokiwari has been diligently practicing in anticipation of a return to the ring in the fall. Outside the ring Dokiwari was featured in the motion picture "Undisputed" with Wesley Snipes and Ving Rhames. Professional boxing record for Duncan Dokiwari from BoxRec Duncan Dokiwari at Olympics at Duncan Dokiwari at the International Olympic Committee Duncan Dokiwari at the Commonwealth Games Federation

UERMMMC College of Medicine

The UERMMMC College of Medicine is the centerpiece of the UERM Memorial Medical Center. Recognized as a Center of Excellence in Research by the Department of Science and Technology and has Level IV Accreditation by PAASCU, it is the only private medical school with a Level IV PAASCU Accredited Program. The College of Medicine is in the list of top performing medical schools for having an overall passing percentage of 97.8% as of the August 2015 Physician Licensure examination. In 1956, the University of the East College of Medicine known as the University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, was established; as a non-stock, non-profit foundation named in honor of the late President Ramon Magsaysay, UERMMC was the first philanthropic institution in the country. The Board of Trustees of the University has set its purpose: “complete dedication to the medical education and alleviation of human sufferings”. President Carlos P. Garcia described the founding of UERMMMC as a “great adventure, marking the advent in the Philippines of educational philanthropy”.

The College of Medicine offered more than the usual and conventional medical curriculum, giving its students a more solid foundation in the study of medicine. Creativity has always been a hallmark of the Center, it has enriched medical education through its integrated approach to the teaching of psychiatry and neuroscience. The College of Medicine periodically reviews and upgrades its curriculum by instituting general changes such as the implementation of the core curriculum, granting of the M. D. degree after the Fourth year. Specific changes have been installed in its search for relevance to the national and local health needs, as well as in keeping with international trends, it put more emphasis on science and art in the teaching of all courses, in order to produce graduates who shall internalize science and art and use them as the bases of medical practice. The curricular structure was made more flexible, allowing the student to participate in directing his learning and providing him adequate time for self-study and greater exposure to non-hospital settings of training.

It shifted emphasis of the curricular content to topics, which were directly related to the national and local health and medical problem and issues. A uniform teaching method was utilized for all courses, which fostered the development of problem-solving skills in health and medicine. Through its continued excellence in the field of medical education, the College of Medicine was granted level II accreditation by the PAASCU for a three-year period. Through its linkages with training hospitals in the United States of America, qualified Filipino-Americans are offered the opportunity to undertake part of their clinical clerkship training in these hospitals. Another UERM College of Medicine graduate was included in the Top Ten examinees of the August 2009 Physician Licensure Examination held last August 2009. National Passing Average for the August 2009 examination is 71.3%. The College of Medicine is in the list of top performing schools for having an overall passing percentage of 92%; the College of Medicine has level IV accreditation, Innovative Curriculum, Recognized as a Center of Excellence in Research by the Department of Science and Technology.

St. John’s Episcopal Hospital, South Shore, Far Rockaway, New York, USA Affiliated Institute of Medical Education, Illinois, USA Cathay General Hospital, Taipei City, Republic of China Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC. University of the East UERMMMC University of the East UERMMMC College of Medicine University of the East UERMMMC

Tinus du Plessis

Tinus du Plessis is a Namibian rugby union player and a member of the Namibia national rugby union team. He is a back-row player who plays at number eight. Du Plessis is a graduate from Stellenbosch University. In 2003, he attended Gisborne Boys' High School and played first XV rugby in the Super 8 competition in New Zealand, he was the shot. He has played club rugby in Namibia for Wanderers RFC, professionally in England for Rotherham Titans RFC, he was named Rotherham's player of the year in 2009. In December 2011 he joined London Wasps, on a deal taking him through to the end of the season. Having impressed during his time at Wasps Du Plessis was awarded a two-year contract. Du Plessis signed for English Championship club London Scottish for the remainder of the 2015–2016 season, he was selected for the Namibian squad to play in the 2007 Rugby World Cup where he made three appearances. Having appeared in the Africa Cup in 2008 and 2009 and the RWC 2011 Qualifiers he now has 23 full international caps.

He was a member of the victorious Namibia Squad that won the 2010 IRB Nations Cup which went alongside their 2009 African Cup win. He received the Man of the Match award in a 2011 Rugby World Cup match against Wales in which his Wasps teammate Heinz Koll scored a try; however Namibia lost the match 81-7