SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased. In some cultures, it is related to beliefs that the dead have a continued existence, may possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living; some groups venerate their familial ancestors. Certain sects and religions, in particular the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church, venerate saints as intercessors with God. Other religious groups, consider veneration of the dead to be idolatry and a sin. In Europe, Oceania and Afro-diasporic cultures, the goal of ancestor veneration is to ensure the ancestors' continued well-being and positive disposition towards the living, sometimes to ask for special favours or assistance; the social or non-religious function of ancestor veneration is to cultivate kinship values, such as filial piety, family loyalty, continuity of the family lineage. Ancestor veneration occurs in societies with every degree of social and technological complexity, it remains an important component of various religious practices in modern times.

Ancestor reverence is not the same as the worship of deities. In some Afro-diasporic cultures, ancestors are seen as being able to intercede on behalf of the living as messengers between humans and the gods; as spirits who were once human themselves, they are seen as being better able to understand human needs than would a divine being. In other cultures, the purpose of ancestor veneration is not to ask for favors but to do one's filial duty; some cultures believe that their ancestors need to be provided for by their descendants, their practices include offerings of food and other provisions. Others do not believe that the ancestors are aware of what their descendants do for them, but that the expression of filial piety is what is important. Most cultures who practice ancestor veneration do not call it "ancestor worship". In English, the word worship but not always refers to the reverent love and devotion accorded a deity or God. However, in other cultures, this act of worship does not confer any belief that the departed ancestors have become some kind of deity.

Rather, the act is a way to express filial duty and respect and look after ancestors in their afterlives as well as seek their guidance for their living descendants. In this regard, many cultures and religions have similar practices; some may visit the graves of their parents or other ancestors, leave flowers and pray to them in order to honor and remember them, while asking their ancestors to continue to look after them. However, this would not be considered as worshiping them since the term worship may not always convey such meaning in the exclusive and narrow context of certain Western European Christian traditions. In that sense the phrase ancestor veneration may but from the limited perspective of certain Western European Christian traditions, convey a more accurate sense of what practitioners, such as the Chinese and other Buddhist-influenced and Confucian-influenced societies, as well as the African and European cultures see themselves as doing; this is consistent with the meaning of the word veneration in English, great respect or reverence caused by the dignity, wisdom, or dedication of a person.

Although there is no accepted theory concerning the origins of ancestor veneration, this social phenomenon appears in some form in all human cultures documented so far. David-Barrett and Carney claim that ancestor veneration might have served a group coordination role during human evolution, thus it was the mechanism that led to religious representation fostering group cohesion. Ancestor veneration is prevalent throughout Africa, serves as the basis of many religions, it is augmented by a belief in a supreme being, but prayers and/or sacrifices are offered to the ancestors who may ascend to becoming a kind of minor deities themselves. Ancestor veneration remains among many Africans, sometimes practiced alongside the adopted religions of Christianity, Islam in much of the continent. In orthodox Serer religion, the pangool is venerated by the Serer people; the Seereer people of Senegal, The Gambia and Mauritania who adhere to the tenets of A ƭat Roog believe in the veneration of the pangool. There are various types of pangool, each with its own means of veneration.

Veneration of ancestors is prevalent throughout the island of Madagascar. Half of the country's population of 20 million practice traditional religion, which tends to emphasize links between the living and the razana; the veneration of ancestors has led to the widespread tradition of tomb building, as well as the highlands practice of the famadihana, whereby a deceased family member's remains may be exhumed to be periodically re-wrapped in fresh silk shrouds before being replaced in the tomb. The famadihana is an occasion to celebrate the beloved ancestor's memory, reunite with family and community, enjoy a festive atmosphere. Residents of surrounding villages are invited to attend the party, where food and rum are served and a hiragasy troupe or other musical entertainment is present. Veneration of ancestors is demonstrated through adherence to fady, taboos that are respected during and after the lifetime of the person who establishes them, it is believed that by showing respect for ancestors in these ways, they may intervene on behalf of the living.

Conversely, misfortunes are attribu

Agaricus placomyces

Agaricus placomyces is a large mushroom that resides in the woodlands. Agaricus placomyces has a cap, 5–12 cm and varies from convex to broadly convex or nearly flat in age. In addition, the surface of the cap is dry and covered with brownish fibers and scales over the center. Underneath, the cap can pinkish in wet weather. Covered with fine, appressed greyish-brown scales and concentrated at the disc, the cap is thick becoming vinaceous when injured, it yellows in KOH. The gills of this mushroom are free from the stem and pale grayish-pink, turning brown in age. In addition, the stem is 6–15 cm long, 1–1.5 cm. thick and more or less equal, with an enlarged base. It is smooth and bruising yellow at the base, with a persistent ring, the partial veil when still covering the gills developing brownish to yellowish droplets. At 8–15 cm long and 2–3.5 cm thick, the stipe is enlarged at the base. The veil of the stipe is membranous, thick and forms a persistent ring with a smooth upper and lower surface.

The base of the stipe is yellow when bruised and smells of phenol. The spores are 4–6.0 x 3.5–4.5 µm, elliptical. For some people, Agaricus placomyces can be toxic. Like other phenolic-odored Agaricus species, it can cause gastrointestinal upsets. Other people, who are not affected by the toxicity, may find it edible; the mushroom's taste is somewhat unpleasant. The flesh is white, the base becomes yellow when bruised. Agaricus placomyces is saprobic. In addition, it grows in mixed woods during summer and fall, it is found east of the Rocky Mountains and northern in distribution. It is solitary, living in either small groups, or clusters on disturbed ground under conifers. Unlike many other Agaricus species, it fruits from mid to late winter rather than during the late spring and early fall. List of Agaricus species mushroomexpert mykoweb rogermushrooms

Senchas Fagbála Caisil

Senchas Fagbála Caisil "The Story of the Finding of Cashel" is an early medieval Irish text which relates, in two variants, the origin legend of the kingship of Cashel. Myles Dillon has dated the first variant to the 8th century, the second tentatively to the 10th century; the text survives only in Dublin, Trinity College, H.3.17: V, pp. 768–73. The Lebor na Cert refers to the story. §§ 1-3. Duirdriu, swineherd of the king of Éile, Cuirirán, swineherd of the king of the Múscraige, were masting their pigs in the woods of Cashel when they fell asleep and experienced a vision in which they saw an angel blessing the first king of Cashel, Conall Corc mac Luigdech, the line of Éoganacht kings of Munster which sprang from him. Having recounted the vision to his king, Conall mac Nenta Con, Duirdriu obtained the land at Cashel and sold it to Conall Corc; that would have been why the Uí Duirdrenn, Duirdriu's descendants, were entitled to seven cumala from the king of Cashel. Follows a list of kings from Conall Corc to Dub Lachtna as well as a rhetoric called Dicta Cuirirán Muiceda "The Sayings of Cuirirán the Swineherd".

§§ 4-8. When one night the two swineherds stayed at Clais Duirdrenn, north of Cashel, they experienced a prophetic vision, in which they witnessed St. Patrick's arrival in Ireland; the following night, they had a second vision in which they enjoyed a magnificent feast and an angel announced that the first person to light a fire on Cashel would obtain the kingship of Munster. Cuirirán recounted his vision to Conall Corc, son of the king of Munster, who hastened to light a fire at Dún Cuirc in Cashel. There he organised a lavish feast. On Corc's request, the swineherds went to their kings to invite them to the feast. At Fíad Duma in Muiceda, king of the Éile, heard the story from Druidriu, confirmed by the king's druids, however much to his displeasure; the land belonged to his kingdom and so Conall marched south to Cashel. However, on arrival, Conall was welcomed to the feast and on his request, Druidriu gave the angelic blessing to Corc and proclaimed him king of Munster, for which Corc richly rewarded the swineherd.

From that time onwards, the Uí Druidrenn were to proclaim every new king of Cashel, for which they were entitled to a reward of seven cumala. Moreover, the blessing would protect the kings of Cashel against violent deaths unless they neglected to uphold truth and justice; the text goes on to say that this took place sixty years before the baptism of Óengus mac Nad Froích, king of Munster, by St. Patrick, according to scholarly calculations, that Óengus imposed the tri-annual "Tribute of Patrick’s Baptism" on the Munstermen, levied until the reign of King Cormac. Dillon, Myles. "The Story of the Finding of Cashel." Ériu 16: 61-73. Edition and translation of the text from H 3.17. Contributions to Dillon's edition are to be found in: Hull, Vernam. "Two passages in The Story of the Finding of Cashel." ZCP 30. 14-6. Hull, Vernam. "Varia Hibernica, no. 2: móaigid." Celtica 5: 136–7. Hull, Vernam. "Notes on Irish texts, no. 3: A passage in Senchas fagbála Caisil." ZCP 29: 187–8. Dillon, Myles. Lebor na Cert; the Book of Rights.

Irish Texts Society 46. Available from CELT. Cycles of the Kings, by Dan M. Wiley. Thesaurus Linguae Hibernicae (the digital publication of Dillon's edition and translation are forthcoming]