Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are used in cooking. They may be eaten ripe or unripe and are starchy. Many cooking bananas are referred to as plantains or green bananas, although not all of them are true plantains. Bananas are treated as a starchy fruit with a neutral flavour and soft texture when cooked. Bananas fruit all year round. Cooking bananas are a major food staple in West and Central Africa, the Caribbean islands, Central America, northern, coastal parts of South America. Members of the genus Musa are indigenous to the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and Oceania, including the Malay Archipelago and Northern Australia. Africa is considered a second centre of diversity for Musa cultivars: West Africa for some plantains and the central highlands for East African Highland bananas, most of which are cooked, although some are used to make beer; the term "plantain" is loosely applied to any banana cultivar, cooked before it is eaten. However, there is no botanical distinction between plantains.
Cooking is a matter of custom, rather than necessity, for many bananas. In fact, ripe plantains can be eaten raw. In some countries, where only a few cultivars of banana are consumed, there may be a clear distinction between plantains and bananas. In other countries, where many cultivars are consumed, there is no distinction in the common names used. In botanical usage, the term "plantain" is used only for true plantains, while other starchy cultivars used for cooking are called "cooking bananas". All modern true plantains have three sets of chromosomes. Many are hybrids derived from the cross of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana; the accepted scientific name for all such crosses is Musa × paradisiaca. Using Simmonds and Shepherds' 1955 genome-based nomenclature system, cultivars which are cooked belong to the AAB Group, although some belong to the AAA Group, others belong to the ABB Group. Fe'i bananas from the Pacific Islands are eaten roasted or boiled, thus informally referred to as "mountain plantains."
However, they do not belong to either of the two species that all modern banana cultivars are descended from. Plantains contain more starch and less sugar than dessert bananas, therefore they are cooked or otherwise processed before being eaten, they are always fried when eaten green. At this stage, the pulp is hard and the peel so stiff that it has to be cut with a knife to be removed. Mature, yellow plantains can be peeled like typical dessert bananas, they can be eaten raw, but are not as flavourful as dessert bananas, so are cooked. When mature, yellow plantains are fried, they tend to caramelize, they can be boiled, microwaved or grilled over charcoal, either peeled or unpeeled. Plantains are a staple food in the tropical regions of the world, ranking as the tenth most important staple food in the world; as a staple, plantains are treated in much the same way as potatoes and with a similar neutral flavour and texture when the unripe fruit is cooked by steaming, boiling or frying. Since they fruit all year round, plantains are a reliable all-season staple food in developing countries with inadequate food storage and transportation technologies.
In Africa and bananas provide more than 25 percent of the carbohydrate requirements for over 70 million people. Musa spp. Do not stand high winds well, however, so plantain plantations are liable to destruction by hurricanes. An average plantain is a good source of potassium and dietary fiber; the sap from the fruit peel, as well as the entire plant, can stain clothing and hands, can be difficult to remove. Linnaeus classified bananas into two species based only on their uses as food: Musa paradisiaca for plantains and Musa sapientum for dessert bananas. Both are now known to be hybrids between the species Musa Musa balbisiana; the earlier published name, Musa × paradisiaca, is now used as the scientific name for all such hybrids. Most modern plantains are sterile triploids belonging to the AAB Group, sometimes known as the "Plantain group". Other economically important cooking banana groups include the East African Highland bananas of the AAA Group and the Pacific plantains of the AAB Group. In countries in Central America and the Caribbean, the plantain is either fried, boiled or made into plantain soup.
In Ghana, West Africa, boiled plantain is eaten with kontomire stew, cabbage stew or fante-fante stew. The boiled plantain can be mixed with groundnut paste, pepper and palm oil to make eto, eaten with avocado. Ripe plantains can be fried and eaten with black eyed beans cooked in palm oil – a popular breakfast dish. Kelewele, a Ghanaian snack, is spiced ripe plantain deep fried in vegetable oil. In Nigeria, plantain is eaten fried or roasted. In Guatemala, ripe plantains are eaten boiled, fried, or in a special combination where they are boiled and stuffed with sweetened black beans. Afterwards, they are deep fried in corn oil; the dish is call
Manihot esculenta called cassava, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Though it is called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to yucca, a shrub in the family Asparagaceae. Cassava, when dried to a powdery extract, is called tapioca. Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after maize. Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people, it is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava. Cassava is classified as either bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication and ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource in times of famine or food insecurity in some places. Farmers prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests and thieves; the cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, around 15 to 30 cm long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's axis; the flesh can be yellowish. Cassava roots are rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium and vitamin C. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, but deficient in the amino acid methionine and tryptophan. Wild populations of M. esculenta subspecies flabellifolia, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was first domesticated no more than 10,000 years BP.
Forms of the modern domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, at the San Andrés archaeological site; the oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador. With its high food potential, it had become a staple food of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is portrayed in indigenous art; the Moche people depicted yuca in their ceramics. Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial and not nutritious, they much preferred foods from Spain wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, meat, considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans. For these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ.
"Wheat flour was the symbol of Christianity itself" and colonial-era catechisms stated explicitly that only wheat flour could be used. The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish, Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as Havana, Santiago and Baracoa carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage; the Spanish needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water and large amounts of cassava bread. Sailors complained. Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as as regular bread. Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was introduced to Asia through Columbian Exchange by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Eastern Indonesia and the Philippines. Maize and cassava are now important staple foods.
Cassava has become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia and Vietnam. Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics" but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial bread tree, the breadfruit or the African breadfruit. In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million tonnes, with Nigeria as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total. Other major growers were Thailand and Indonesia. Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be grown on marginal soils, gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm to 5 m annually, to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline; these conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and So
Sopa de mondongo
Sopa de mondongo is a soup made from diced tripe slow-cooked with vegetables such as bell peppers, carrots, celery, cilantro, garlic or root vegetables. The dish is prepared in former Spanish colonies in Latin America and the Caribbean, in the Philippines. Many variations of sopa de mondongo exist in Latin America the Caribbean; some add maize late in the process. Bone marrow or hoof jelly may be used; the tripe may be soaked in a paste of sodium bicarbonate before cooking. The vegetables and spices used vary with availability. In Brazil, it is referred to as mondongo or mocotó, it is consumed in the southern regions, but in northeast it is named dobradinha. Dobradinha is made from tripe but is not the same as "sopa de mondongo". In Colombia sopa de mondongo is eaten as the soup course of a traditional almuerzo; the soup in Colombia, is made with chicken or beef stock, with a lot of cilantro. Many vegetables such as peas and onion are used to flavor the chicken or beef stock. Salt and pepper, along with corn, are thrown into the soup for extra flavoring.
The tripe used for this soup is varied. The most typical kind of tripe is beef tripe, but in several other regions across the nation, pork tripe and chicken or turkey tripes are used in the soup. In Panama it is known as "mondongo" and it is cooked as a stew with onions, chickpeas and a bay leaf and seasoned with chorizo and/or pig tails, it is considered a heavy meal, traditionally eaten with white rice. Other side dishes include sweet plantains. In the countryside when a roof is built on a new house, the future owners together with their friends and family and construction workers organize a meal known as "mondongada" where mondongo is the main course. A variant known as "mondongo a la culona" from the province of Colon includes pig knuckles and feet and replaces chickpeas with white beans. In Puerto Rico it is cooked with chickpeas, squash/pumpkin, vegetables, fresh herbs such as cilantro, culantro and parsley. Salted pork feet and tail are added. Lime juice, green or sweet plantains, green banana, capers and other root vegetables like cassava are very common.
In El Salvador, it is referred as "sopa de pata" is considered a nutritious and tasty food. It is cooked with ripe banana, cabbage leaves, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, potatoes, green chile, udder or beef tripe and cow’s feet. In Venezuela, the dish itself is referred to as mondongo while the tripe is called "panza" and is considered a heavy meal reserved as a single meal of the day, it is consumed in the north-central regions and in the llanos, depending of the region, it may turn more sweet or having chickpeas, but a common characteristic that all have, is the adding of pig feet to increase and improve the taste, is the ingredient that gives the mondongo its flavor and extra high caloric content. The mondongo is flavored with lemon or tamarind, accompanied by arepas or casabe. Throughout Venezuela, the mondongo is eaten by the people at early hours of the day, or late in the night, when they go out of the rumbas or parties in nightclubs; the mondongo, is used to be sold in areperas, or restaurants specializing in arepas.
Sancocho Flaki İşkembe çorbası Menudo Tripes à la mode de Caen
Arepa is a type of food made of ground maize dough, originating from pre-Columbian northern region of South America, is notable in the cuisines of Colombia and Venezuela. It is eaten daily in those countries and can be served with accompaniments such as cheese, various meats, chicken and diablito, it can be split to make sandwiches. Sizes, maize types, added ingredients vary its preparation. Arepas can be found in the Canary Islands, it is similar in shape to the Salvadoran pupusa. The arepa is a pre-Columbian dish from the area, now Colombia and Venezuela. Instruments used to make flour for the arepas, the clay slabs on which they were cooked, were found at archaeological sites in the area. Although it has not been specified in which country an arepa was cooked for the first time, it has been possible to define the oldest dates of the presence of maize in Colombia and in Venezuela. For example, In Colombia, the first record of the existence of corn dates from about 3,000 years ago, while in Venezuela the estimate is about 2,800 years ago.
In other words, the creation of the arepa most happened simultaneously in both countries, but in a time that each territory was far from becoming two countries with demarcated borders. Throughout its history, the arepa has stayed unchanged from the arepas that pre-Columbian native peoples would have consumed, making the arepa one of the few pre-contact traditions that have remained popular in the years since colonization; the arepa is a flat, unleavened patty of soaked, ground kernels of maize, or—more nowadays—maize meal or maize flour that can be grilled, fried, boiled or steamed. The characteristics vary by color, flavor and the food with which it may be stuffed, depending on the region, it can be topped or filled with meat, tomatoes, cheese, shrimp, or fish depending on the meal. The flour is mixed with water and salt, oil, eggs, and/or milk; because the flour is cooked, the blend forms into patties easily. After being kneaded and formed, the patties are grilled, or baked; this production of maize is unusual for not using the nixtamalization process to remove the pericarp of the kernels.
This makes arepa flour different from masa flour, used to make tortillas. Arepa flour is specially prepared for making arepas and other maize dough-based dishes, such as hallacas, tamales and chicha; the flour may be called masa al instante, or harina precocida. The most popular brand names of maize flour are Harina PAN, Harina Juana, Goya in Venezuela, Areparina in Colombia; the arepa is an iconic food in Colombia, with some 75 distinct forms of preparation. According to a study conducted by the Colombian Academy of Gastronomy, "The arepa is part of our cultural heritage and can be considered a symbol of national gastronomic unity."In 2006, the arepa was named the cultural symbol of Colombia in a competition organized by Semana magazine with support from Caracol TV, the Minister of Culture and Colombia is Passion. In the Paisa Region, the arepa is important to the local people and accompanies some times all meals of the day. In addition, arepas are strung into necklaces and placed around the necks of honored dignitaries as a sign of praise.
In Colombia, the arepa is sold on a commercial level in neighborhood stores, chain supermarkets and market plazas and packaged with preservatives as a pre-molded white or yellow corn dough, ready to grill or fry at home. It is sold in the form of industrialized corn flour that requires hydration before preparation. In addition, arepas are sold by street vendors, in cafeterias, in neighborhood stores. Restaurants of the Paisa Region offer a wide variety of arepas, including a unique style of stuffed arepa that can be filled with eggs, meat, or cheese; the Colombian Arepa Festival is celebrated in the following five major cities: Bogotá, Medellín, Cali and Bucaramanga. According to the program calendar, each city takes turns organizing the festival between the months of August and December; the arepa is a symbol of Venezuelan gastronomy and one of the most common pre-Hispanic foods still popular in Venezuela. In Venezuela, there are different brands of precooked corn flour; some of these brands are Flour National Food Product.
The latter has become a generic name for all maize flours in the country given the phenomenon of the vulgarized brand. In 1960, Empresas Polar, under the slogan "¡La piladera ran out!" Launches the PAN flour Flour precooked corn, obtained thanks to the procedure developed by the Venezuelan mechanical engineer Luis Alberto Caballero Mejías, 33 34 that represented a important alternative to avoid the long process of making arepas with a pylon. The arepas can be cooked in four different ways: roasted, baked and fried. Another way to make arepas is using a Tosty Arepa, an appliance that, like precooked corn flour, revolutionized the way in which the arepas were prepared and reduced the preparation time.28 27 The Tosty Arepa is a creation of The company Oster de Venezuela, which dates back to 1989, has since been transformed into more modern and efficient models. According to a 2015 survey of the Venezuelan people, nearly 70 percent of the nation ate arepas on a regular basis, it is common for Venezuelans to eat arepas throughout the day, both as snacks and as sides to meals, creating a culture where these corn products can be found everywhere.
The arepa is seen as a cornerstone of a Venezuelan diet, in a good financial year, the average Venezuelan consumes about 30 kilos of t
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green, red, or white biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea, belongs to the "cole crops", meaning it is related to broccoli and cauliflower. Brassica rapa is named Chinese, celery or napa cabbage and has many of the same uses. Cabbage is high in nutritional value. Cabbage heads range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms, can be green, purple or white. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common. Smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors are rarer, it is a multi-layered vegetable. Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large; as of 2012, the heaviest cabbage was 62.71 kilograms. Cabbage was most domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine.
Cabbage heads are picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle, but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and must be kept separate from other cole crops to prevent cross-pollination. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, bacterial and fungal diseases. Cabbages are prepared many different ways for eating. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin C and dietary fiber; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reported that world production of cabbage and other brassicas for 2014 was 71.8 million metric tonnes, with China accounting for 47% of the world total. Cabbage is the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Several other cruciferous vegetables are considered cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts and sprouting broccoli. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. oleracea called colewort or field cabbage. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli.
The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". B. oleracea and its derivatives have hundreds of common names throughout the world."Cabbage" was used to refer to multiple forms of B. oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads. A related species, Brassica rapa, is named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, has many of the same uses, it is a part of common names for several unrelated species. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea and Euterpe oenocarpus; the original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. The word brassica derives from a Celtic word for cabbage. Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head"; the late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche, from the Picard dialect of Old French.
This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Through the centuries, "cabbage" and its derivatives have been used as slang for numerous items and activities. Cash and tobacco have both been described by the slang "cabbage", while "cabbage-head" means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state. Cabbage seedlings have a thin cordate cotyledon; the first leaves produced are ovate with a lobed petiole. Plants are 40–60 cm tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, 1.5–2.0 m tall when flowering in the second year. Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg, with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to dissected. Plants have root systems that are shallow. About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm of soil; the inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm tall, with flowers that are yellow or white.
Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, a superior ovary, two-celled and contains a single stigma and style. Two of the six stamens have shorter filaments; the fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape. Self-pollination is impossible, plants are cross-pollinated by insects; the initial leaves form a rosette shape comprising 7 to 15 leaves, each measuring 25–35 cm by 20–30 cm. Many shapes and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. Leaf types are divided between crinkled-leaf
Pastitsio, sometimes spelled pastichio, is a Greek baked pasta dish with ground meat and béchamel sauce. Pastitsio takes its name from the Italian pasticcio, a large family of baked savory pies which may be based on meat, fish, or pasta. Many Italian versions include a pastry crust, some include béchamel; the word pasticcio comes from the vulgar Latin word pastīcium derived from pasta, means "pie", has developed the figurative meanings of "a mess", "a tough situation", or a pastiche. The typical Greek version has a bottom layer, bucatini or other tubular pasta, with cheese and/or egg as a binder. Other spices like nutmeg or allspice are used in the top layer, a flour-based béchamel or a béchamel with cheese. Grated goat cheese is sprinkled on top. Pastitsio is a common dish, is served as a main course, with a salad. In Cyprus a similar dish is called "oven macaroni", it is an essential dish during weddings and celebrations such as Easter, where it is served along with spit roasted meat. Recipes vary, but the meat sauce in the middle is made of pork, beef or lamb, tomatoes are only sometimes used, it is flavoured with mint, parsley or cinnamon.
The top is sprinkled with grated halloumi or anari cheese, though cheese is sometimes added only to the white sauce. There is a Turkish Cypriot version of this recipe that substitutes the meat with 2 types of cheese. Macarona béchamel is the Egyptian version, an imitation of the French version, it is made with penne pasta, a layer of cooked spiced meat with onions, béchamel or mornay sauce. A contested version is made by adding tomato sauce to one or more of the components of this dish. In Malta, timpana is made by tossing parboiled macaroni in a tomato sauce containing a small amount of minced beef or corned beef, bound with a mixture of raw egg and grated cheese. Hard-boiled eggs are sometimes added; the macaroni is enclosed in a pastry case or lid before being baked. Lasagna Chili mac List of casserole dishes List of pasta dishes Georgios. Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Athens: Κέντρο Λεξικολογίας
Cachapas is the Spanish word for "crumpets" and are a traditional Venezuelan dish made from corn. Like arepas, they are popular at roadside stands, they can be made like pancakes of fresh corn dough, or boiled. The most common varieties are made with fresh ground corn mixed into a thick batter and cooked on a budare, like pancakes. Cachapas are traditionally eaten with queso de mano, a soft, mozzarella-like cheese, with fried pork chicharrón on the side. Cachapas can be elaborate, some including different kinds of cheese, milky cream, or jam, they can be prepared as an appetizer with margarine, or as a full breakfast with hand cheese and fried pork. In Costa Rica, chorreadas are similar. List of pancakes food portal