Material culture is the aspect of social reality grounded in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes the usage, consumption and trade of objects as well as the behaviors and rituals that the objects create or take part in; some scholars include other intangible phenomena that include sound and events, while some consider language and media as part of it. The term is most used in archaeological and anthropological studies, to define material or artifacts as they are understood in relation to specific cultural and historic contexts and belief systems. Material cultural can be described as any object that humans use to survive, define social relationships, represent facets of identity, or benefit peoples' state of mind, social, or economic standing; the scholarly analysis of material culture, which can include both human made and natural or altered objects, is called material culture studies. It is an interdisciplinary field and methodology that tells of the relationships between people and their things: the making, history and interpretation of objects.
It draws on both theory and practice from the social sciences and humanities such as art history, anthropology, historic preservation, archival science, literary criticism and museum studies, among others. Research in several areas looked into the reasons for perceiving an object with meaning. Common reasons for valuing material lie in their sentimental value. A well-known related theory is Kahneman's endowment effect theory. According to Kahneman, people evaluate objects they own with higher value than the same object if they do not own it; the endowment effect was found to increase over time. Another way in which material can hold meaning and value is by carrying communication between people, just like other communication forms such as speech and gesture. An object can mediate messages between both between people who are not together. A work of art, for example, can transfer a message from the creator to the viewer and share an image, a feeling, or an experience. Material can contain memories and mutual experiences across time and influence thoughts and feelings.
A study found that couples who have more items that were jointly acquired and more favorite items among them had higher-quality relationships. Researchers from the fields of sociology and anthropology have been fascinated by gift-giving, a universal phenomenon that holds emotional meaning using material culture. According to Schieffelin, "gift-giving is a vehicle of social obligation and political maneuver." Mauss defines the gift as creating a special bond between the receiver. According to Mauss, the giver never leaves the gift but becomes part of the receiver's future by inserting the gift into their life. A gift leads at some point to another gift in response, which creates a special reciprocal bond between people. Material culture studies as an academic field grew along the field of anthropology and so began by studying non-Western material culture. All too it was a way of putting material culture into categories in such a way that marginalized and hierarchized the cultures from which they came.
During the "golden age" of museum-going, material cultures were used to show the supposed evolution of society from the simple objects of non-Westerners to the advanced objects of Europeans. It was a way of showing that Europeans were at the end of the evolution of society, with non-Westerners at the beginning. Scholars left the notion that culture evolved though predictable cycles, the study of material culture changed to have a more objective view of non-Western material culture; the field of material culture studies as its own distinct discipline dates to the 1990s. The Journal of Material Culture began publishing in 1996. Collecting habits date back hundreds of years. Leslie White was an American anthropologist, known for his advocacy of theories of cultural evolution, sociocultural evolution, neoevolutionism and for his role in creating the department of anthropology at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor, he was president of the American Anthropological Association. He wrote The Science of Culture in 1949 in which he outlined schema of the world as divided into cultural and physical levels of phenomenon.
White believed that the development of culture rested on technology and that the history of human technology could be understood through the study of human-produced materials. American anthropologist James Deetz, known for his work in the field of historical archaeology, wrote the book "In Small Things Forgotten" in 1977 and published a revised and expanded version in 1996, he pioneered there the ideas of using neglected substances such as trash pits and soil stains to reveal human actions. By analyzing objects in association with their location, the history of that location, the objects they were found with, not singling out the most valuable or rarest ones, archaeologists can create a more accurate picture of daily life. Deetz looks at the long view of history and investigates the impact of European culture on other cultures across the globe by an analysis of the spread of everyday objects. Ian M. G. Quimby's Material Culture and the Study of American Life, written in 1978, tried to bridge the gaps between the museum world and the university and between curator and historian.
Quimby posits that objects in museums are understood through an intellectual framework that uses non-traditional sources. He describes the benefits of work on exhibit design as a vehicle for education. Thomas Schlereth, Professor Emeritus of American Studies at the Universi
The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian circa 33,000 years BP. It is archaeologically the last European culture many consider unified, had disappeared by c. 22,000 BP, close to the Last Glacial Maximum, although some elements lasted until c. 17,000 BP. At this point, it was replaced abruptly by the Solutrean in France and Spain, developed into or continued as the Epigravettian in Italy, the Balkans and Russia, they are known for their Venus figurines, which were made as either ivory or limestone carvings. The Gravettian culture was first identified at the site of La Gravette in Southwestern France; the Gravettians were hunter-gatherers who lived in a bitterly cold period of European prehistory, Gravettian lifestyle was shaped by the climate. Pleniglacial environmental changes forced them to adapt. West and Central Europe were cold during this period. Archaeologists describe two regional variants: the western Gravettian, known from cave sites in France and Britain, the eastern Gravettian in Central Europe and Russia.
The eastern Gravettians, which include the Pavlovian culture, were specialized mammoth hunters, whose remains are found not in caves but in open air sites. Gravettian culture thrived on their ability to hunt animals, they utilized a variety of tools and hunting strategies. Compared to theorized hunting techniques of Neanderthals and earlier human groups, Gravettian hunting culture appears much more mobile and complex, they lived in caves or semi-subterranean or rounded dwellings which were arranged in small "villages". Gravettians are thought to have been innovative in the development of tools such as blunted-back knives, tanged arrowheads and boomerangs. Other innovations include the use of woven nets and oil lamps made of stone. Blades and bladelets were used to make decorations and bone tools from animal remains. Gravettian culture extends across a large geographic region, as far as Estremadura in Portugal, but is homogeneous until about 27,000 BN. They developed burial rites, which included the inclusion of simple, purpose built, offerings and/or personal ornaments owned by the deceased, placed within the grave or tomb.
Surviving Gravettian art includes numerous cave paintings and small, portable Venus figurines made from clay or ivory, as well as jewelry objects. The fertility deities date from the early period, they conform to a specific physical type, with large breasts, broad hips and prominent posteriors. The statuettes tend to lack facial details, their limbs that are broken off. During the post glacial period, evidence of the culture begins to disappear from northern Europe but was continued in areas around the Mediterranean. Animals were a primary food source for early humans of the Gravettian period. Since Europe was cold during this period, food sources needed to be high in energy and fat content. Testing comparisons among various human remains reveal that populations at higher latitudes placed greater dietary emphasis on meat. A defining trait distinguishing Gravettian people was their ease of mobility compared to their Neanderthal counterparts. Modern humans developed the technology and social organization that enabled them to migrate with their food source whereas Neanderthals were not adept at travelling with sedentary herds.
With their ability to move with the herds, Gravettian diets incorporated a huge variety of animal prey. The main factors were the animal's size. For example, first year deer offered hides most suitable for clothing, while fourth year deer contained far more meat. Gravettian diet included larger animals such as mammoths, wolves, reindeer killed with stone or bone tools, as well as hares and foxes captured with nets; this time period is classified by the strong emphasis on meat consumption because agriculture had not been introduced nor utilized. In addition, the climate was not favorable to stable crop cultivation. Coastal Gravettians were able to avail of marine protein. From remains found in Italy and Wales, carbon dating reveals that 20-30% of Gravettian diets of coastal peoples consisted of sea animals. Populations of lower latitudes relied more on shell fish and fish while higher latitudes' diets consisted of seals. Clubs and sticks were the primary hunting tools during the Upper Paleolithic period.
Bone and ivory points have all been found at sites in France. Due to the primitive tools, many animals were hunted at close range; the typical artefact of Gravettian industry, once considered diagnostic, is the small pointed blade with a straight blunt back. They are today known as the Gravette point, were used to hunt big game. Gravettians used nets to hunt small game, are credited with inventing the bow and arrow. Gravettian settlers tended towards the valleys. Examples found through discoveries in Gr. La Gala, a site in Southern Italy, show a strategic settlement based in a small valley; as the settlers became more aware of the migration patterns of animals like red deer, they learned that prey herd in valleys, thereby allowing the hunters to avoid travelling long distances for food. In Gr. La Gala, the glacial topography forced the deer to pass through the areas in the valley occupied by humans. Additional evidence of strategically positioned settlements include sites like Klithi in Greece placed to intercept migrating prey.
Discoveries in the Czech Republic suggest that nets were used to capture large numbers of smaller prey, thus offering a quick and consistent food supp
Adorant from the Geißenklösterle cave
The Adorant from the Geißenklösterle cave is a 35,000-to-40,000-year-old section of mammoth ivory with a depiction of a human figure, found in the Geißenklösterle cave in the Swabian Jura near Blaubeuren, Germany. The front face has a human figure of uncertain sex in relief, with raised arms and outstretched legs, but no hands; the posture is interpreted as an expression of worship, why in German the figure is called an "adorant", a word meaning "worshipper". It has been claimed that a belt and sword can be seen, although these are natural features of the ivory. On the plate's reverse are rows of small notches; the piece is now in the Landesmuseum Württemberg, Stuttgart. It is 38 mm tall, 14 mm wide, 4.5 mm thick. Traces of manganese and ochre can be found on it by microscope analysis. Lion-man Venus figurines Venus of Hohle Fels Prehistoric art List of Stone Age art Joachim Hahn, 1980: "Eine aurignacienzeitliche Menschendarstellung aus dem Geißenklösterle bei Blaubeuren, Alb-Donau-Kreis". In: Denkmalpflege in Baden-Württemberg – Nachrichtenblatt der Landesdenkmalpflege, Vol. 9, Nr.
2, S. 56-58. Joachim Hahn, 1988: Die Geißenklösterle-Höhle im Achtal bei Blaubeuren, Stuttgart: Karl Theiss Verlag. C.–S. Holdermann, Müller-Beck, H. and Simon, U. 2001: Eiszeitkunst im süddeutschschweizerischen Jura: Anfänge der Kunst, Stuttgart: Karl Theiss Verlag. H. Müller-Beck und G. Albrecht, 1987: Die Anfänge der Kunst vor 30000 Jahren Theiss: Stuttgart. Article with excellent pictures of the Adorant
Mali the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres; the population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako; the sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on mining; some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, salt. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa.
In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad; the conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and fighting between Tuareg and rebels. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.
The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire. The name was derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning "hippopotamus", but it came to mean "the place where the king lives"; the word carries the connotation of strength. Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali. One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name; this name could have been that of a city. In old Mali, there is one village called Malika which means "New Mali."Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus "Manden" shifts to /Mali/.
Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt and other precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had rigid ethnic identities; the earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire, dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people. The empire expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids; the Mali Empire formed on the upper Niger River, reached the height of power in the 14th century. Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning; the empire declined as a result of internal intrigue being supplanted by the Songhai Empire. The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria; the Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule. In the late 14th century, the Songhai gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali Empire.
The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha. The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance. One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in the 18th century. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the Upper Nile and'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a sustenance', in 1738–1756, when West Africa's greatest recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts killed half the population of Timbuktu." Mali fell under the control of France during the late 19th century. By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan. In early 1959, French Sudan and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation; the Mali Federation gained independence from France on 20 June 1960.
Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanes
Henri Édouard Prosper Breuil referred to as Abbé Breuil, was a French Catholic priest and member of the Society of Jesus, anthropologist and geologist. He is noted for his studies of cave art in the Somme and Dordogne valleys as well as in Spain, Italy, China with Teilhard de Chardin, British Somaliland, Southern Africa. Breuil was born at Mortain, Manche and was the son of Albert Breuil and Lucie Morio De L'Isle, he received his education at the Seminary of St. Sulpice and the Sorbonne and was ordained in 1900 but was given permission to pursue his research interests, he was a man of learning. In 1904 Breuil had recognised that a pair of 13,000-year-old carvings of reindeer at the British Museum were in fact one composition, he assumed a post as lecturer at the University of Fribourg in 1905, in 1910 became professor of prehistoric ethnology in Paris and at the Collège de France from 1925. Breuil was a competent draughtsman, faithfully reproducing the cave paintings. In 1924 he was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal from the National Academy of Sciences.
He published many books and monographs, introducing the caves of Lascaux and Altamira to the general public and becoming a member of the Institut de France in 1938. Breuil visited the Peking Man excavations at Zhoukoudian, China in 1931 and confirmed the presence of stone tools at the site. In 1929, when a recognised authority on North African and European Stone Age art, he attended a congress on prehistory in South Africa. At the invitation of prime minister Jan Smuts he returned there in 1942 and took up a chair at Witwatersrand University from 1944 to 1951. During his South African stay he studied rock art in Lesotho, the eastern Free State and in the Natal Drakensberg, he undertook three expeditions to South West Africa and Rhodesia between 1947 and 1950. He described this period as "the most thrilling years of my research life", he had excursions to Bechuanaland with a local Archeologist Kosie Marais. In 1953 he announced his discovery of a painting about 6 000 years old, subsequently dubbed The White Lady, under a rock overhang in the Brandberg Mountain.
Breuil returned to France in 1952 and produced a series of publications sponsored by the South African Government. Breuil's books contain valuable photographs and sketches of the art works at the sites he visited but are marred by official South African racism. Breuil developed elaborate scenarios to attribute "white" authorship to the paintings. For example, he had a theory that the beautiful painting known as "The White Lady of the Brandberg" had been painted by Egyptians, who had improbably made their way thousands of miles southwest into the wilds of Namibia, rather than accepting the logical and obvious fact that the paintings were the product of the Bushmen and other native peoples of Namibia and South Africa, his contributions to European and African archaeology were considerable and recognised by the award of honorary doctorates from no fewer than six universities. He died at Val-d'Oise, France. Cave painting Caves of Gargas Cave of the Trois Frères Cueva de La Pasiega Cave of Altamira Pierre Teilhard de Chardin List of Roman Catholic cleric–scientists Les Combarelles Émile Cartailhac Rock Paintings of Southern Andalusia: A Description of a Neolithic and Copper Age Art Group.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928. The Cave of Altamira at Santillana del Mar, Spain. Madrid, 1935. Four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art. Montignac, Dordogne, 1952; the White Lady of the Brandberg. London: Faber and Faber; the Men of the Old Stone Age. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965; the Paintings of the Tsisab Ravine The Rock Paintings of Southern Africa Broderick, Alan Houghton. Father of Prehistory. New York: William Morrow & Company, 1963. Arnaud Hurel, L'abbé Henri Breuil. Un préhistorien dans le siècle, CNRS Éditions, 2011 Présentation du livre Straus, L. G. "L'Abbé Henri Breuil: Archaeologist", Bulletin of the History of Archaeology. Vol. 2, No. 2. Pp. 5–9. Straus, L. G. "L'Abbé Henri Breuil: Pope of Paleolithic Prehistory", Homenaje al Dr. Joaquín González Echegaray. Madrid: Museo y Centro de Investigación de Altamira, 1994, pp. 189–198. "Les peintures préhistoriques de la grotte d'Altamira", Cartailhac and Breuil article and analyzed on BibNum
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Venus of Hohle Fels
The Venus of Hohle Fels is an Upper Paleolithic Venus figurine made of mammoth ivory, unearthed in 2008 in Hohle Fels, a cave near Schelklingen, Germany. It is dated to between 35,000 and 40,000 years ago, belonging to the early Aurignacian, at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic, associated with the earliest presence of Cro-Magnon in Europe; the figure is the oldest undisputed known example of a depiction of a human being. In terms of figurative art only the lion-headed, zoomorphic Löwenmensch figurine is older; the Venus figurine is housed at the Prehistoric Museum of Blaubeuren. The Swabian Alb region of Germany has a number of caves that have yielded many mammoth-ivory artifacts of the Upper Paleolithic period. Twenty-five items have been discovered to date; these include the Löwenmensch figurine of Hohlenstein-Stadel dated to 40,000 years ago and an ivory flute found at Geißenklösterle, dated to 42,000 years ago. This mountainous region is located in Baden-Württemberg and is bounded by the Danube in the southeast, the upper Neckar in the northwest, in the southwest it rises to the higher mountains of the Black Forest.
This concentration of evidence of full behavioral modernity, including figurative art and instrumental music among humans in the period of 40 to 30 thousand years ago, is unique worldwide and its discoverer, archaeologist Nicholas Conard, speculates that the bearers of the Aurignacian culture in the Swabian Alb may be credited with the invention, not just of figurative art and music, but the earliest religious practices as well. Within a distance of 70 cm to the Venus figurine, Conard's team found a flute made from a vulture bone. Additional artifacts excavated from the same cave layer included flint-knapping debris, worked bone, carved ivory as well as remains of tarpans, cave bears, woolly mammoths, Alpine Ibexes; the discovery of the Venus of Hohle Fels by the archaeological team led by Nicholas J. Conard of Universität Tübingen Abteilung Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie pushed back the date of the oldest known human figurative art, by several millennia, establishing that works of art were being produced throughout the Aurignacian Period.
The remarkably early figurine was discovered in September 2008 in a cave called Hohle Fels near Schelklingen, some 15 km west of Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany, by a team from the University of Tübingen led by archaeology professor Nicholas Conard, who reported their find in Nature. The figurine was found in the cave hall 20 m from the entrance and 3 m below the current ground level. Nearby a bone flute dating to 42,000 years ago was found, the oldest known uncontested musical instrument. In 2015 the team presented two further pieces of carved mammoth ivory discovered at the site that have been identified as parts of a second female figurine.. The venus and the fragment are shown in comparison here; the figurine was sculpted from a woolly mammoth tusk and it has broken into fragments, of which six have been recovered, with the left arm and shoulder still missing. In place of the head, the figurine has a perforated protrusion, which may have allowed it to be worn as an amulet.
The discoverer, anthropologist Nicholas Conard, said: "This is about sex, reproduction... an powerful depiction of the essence of being female". Anthropologist, Paul Mellars of Cambridge University has suggested that—by modern standards—the figurine "could be seen as bordering on the pornographic". Anthropologists from Victoria University of Wellington have suggested that such figurines were not depictions of beauty, but represented "hope for survival and longevity, within well-nourished and reproductively successful communities", reflecting the conventional interpretation of these types of figurines as representing a fertility goddess. List of Stone Age art Löwenmensch figurine Prehistoric art Venus of Berekhat Ram Venus of Tan-Tan Venus of Willendorf Venus of Dolní Věstonice Cook, Ice Age Art: the Arrival of the Modern Mind. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 978-0-7141-2333-2 The Earliest Pornography? at Science Obsession with Naked Women Dates Back 35,000 Years at LiveScience Nature Magazine