The Alpine ibex known as the steinbock, bouquetin, or ibex, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps. It is a sexually dimorphic species with larger males; the coat colour is brownish grey. Alpine ibex tend to live in rough terrain near the snow line, they are social, although adult males and females segregate for most of the year, coming together only to mate. Four distinct groups exist. During the breeding season, males fight for access to females and use their long horns in agonistic behaviours. After being extirpated from most areas by the 19th century, the Alpine ibex was reintroduced to parts of its historical range. All individuals living today descend from the stock in Gran Paradiso National Park in Aosta Valley; this national park was created to help the ibex to thrive. The ibex is the emblem of both the Vanoise National Park; the species is listed as of least concern by the IUCN, but went through a population bottleneck of less than 100 individuals. This has led to low genetic diversity across populations.
The Alpine ibex was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It is classified in the genus Capra with at least seven other species of wild goat. Both Capra and Ovis descended from a goral-like animal from the Miocene and early Pliocene, whose fossils are found in Kenya and Slovenia; the genus Tossunnoria appears in China during the late Miocene and appears to have been intermediate between gorals and goats. Fossils of Alpine ibex date back to the late Pleistocene, when it and the Spanish ibex evolved from the extinct Pleistocene species Capra camburgensis; the Nubian and Siberian ibex were considered to be subspecies of the Alpine ibex, giving populations in the Alps the trinomial of C. i. ibex. Compared with other members of its genus, the Alpine ibex has a duller coat, it has brownish grey hair over most of the body, a pale abdomen and darker markings on the chin and throat and in a stripe along the back. They moult twice a year, firstly in April or May, again in September, when they replace the short summer coat with thicker hair and a woolly undercoat.
Males grow to a height of 90 to 101 centimetres at the withers, with a body length of 149 to 171 centimetres and weigh from 67 to 117 kilograms. Females are noticeably smaller, with a shoulder height of 73 to 84 centimetres, a body length of 121 to 141 centimetres, a weight of 17 to 32 kilograms. Both male and female Alpine ibexes have large, backwards-curving, horns with numerous ridges along their length. At 69 to 98 centimetres, those of the males are larger than those of females, which reach only 18 to 35 centimetres in length; the Alpine ibex was, at one point, restricted only to the Gran Paradiso National Park in northern Italy, in the Maurienne Valley in the French Alps but i it was both reintroduced to most of the European Alps. Reintroductions started in 1906 into Switzerland. Alpine ibex are now found in most or all the Italian and French alpine ranges, southern Germany and Austria, it was introduced to Bulgaria and Slovenia. An excellent climber, its preferred habitat is the rocky region along the snow line above alpine forests, where it occupies steep, rough terrain at elevations of 1,800 to 3,300 metres.
Alpine ibex are absent from woodland areas although adult males in densely populated areas may stay in larch and mixed larch-spruce woodland if there is no snow. Males spend the winter in coniferous forests. For most of the year and females occupy different habitat. Females rely on steep terrain more so than males. Males use lowland meadows during the spring, when snow melts and green grass appears, they climb to alpine meadows during the summer. When winter arrives, both sexes move to steep rocky slopes, they prefer slopes of 30 -- use small caves and overhangs for shelter. Home ranges are variable, depending on the availability of resources, vary in size throughout the year. Figures of anything from 180 to 2,800 hectares have been recorded. Home ranges tend to be largest during summer and autumn, smallest in winter and intermediate in spring. Female home ranges are smaller than those of males. Alpine ibexes appear to have a low rate of predation and in Gran Paradiso die of age, starvation or disease.
Alpine ibexes are herbivorous, with over half of their diet consisting of grasses, the remainder being a mixture of moss, flowers and twigs. If leaves and shoots are out of reach, they stand on their rear legs to reach this food. Grass genera that are the most eaten are Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Phleum, Poa and Trisetum; the climbing ability of the Alpine ibex is such that it has been observed standing on the sheer face of a dam, where it licks the stonework to obtain mineral salts. Although the Alpine ibex is a social species, they segregate sexually and spatially depending on the season. Four types of groups exist. Adult male groups, female-offspring groups, groups of young individuals 2–3 years old, mixed sex groups. Young groups are numerous at the beginning of summer but are expelled by females at the end of their gestation period. Female and offspring groups occur year-round, at least in an area of the French Alps. Mixed sex gro
The reindeer known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra and mountainous regions of northern Europe and North America. This includes both migratory populations. Rangifer herd size varies in different geographic regions; the Taimyr herd of migrating Siberian tundra reindeer in Russia is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world, varying between 400,000 and 1,000,000. What was once the second largest herd is the migratory boreal woodland caribou George River herd in Canada, with former variations between 28,000 and 385,000; as of January 2018, there are fewer than 9,000 animals estimated to be left in the George River herd, as reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The New York Times reported in April 2018 of the disappearance of the only herd of southern mountain caribou in the lower 48 states, with an expert calling it "functionally extinct" after the herd's size dwindled to a mere three animals.
Rangifer varies in size and colour from the smallest, the Svalbard reindeer, to the largest, the boreal woodland caribou. The North American range of caribou extends from Alaska through Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut into the boreal forest and south through the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia and Selkirk Mountains; the Barren-ground caribou, Porcupine caribou, Peary caribou live in the tundra, while the shy boreal woodland caribou prefer the boreal forest. The Porcupine caribou and the barren-ground caribou form large herds and undertake lengthy seasonal migrations from birthing grounds to summer and winter feeding grounds in the tundra and taiga; the migrations of Porcupine caribou herds are among the longest of any mammal. Barren-ground caribou are found in Kitaa in Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut; some subspecies are rare and at least one has become extinct: the Queen Charlotte Islands caribou of Canada. The range of the sedentary boreal woodland caribou covered more than half of Canada and into the northern States in the U.
S. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range and were designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were 34,000 boreal woodland caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada.. Siberian tundra reindeer herds are in decline, Rangifer tarandus is considered to be vulnerable by the IUCN. Arctic peoples have depended on caribou for food and shelter, such as the Caribou Inuit, the inland-dwelling Inuit of the Kivalliq Region in northern Canada, the Caribou Clan in Yukon, the Inupiat, the Inuvialuit, the Hän, the Northern Tutchone, the Gwich'in. Hunting wild reindeer and herding of semi-domesticated reindeer are important to several Arctic and sub-Arctic peoples such as the Duhalar for meat, antlers and transportation; the Sami people have depended on reindeer herding and fishing for centuries. In Lapland, reindeer pull pulks. Male and female reindeer can grow antlers annually, although the proportion of females that grow antlers varies between population and season.
Antlers are larger on males. In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to good children on Christmas Eve. Carl Linnaeus chose the name Rangifer for the reindeer genus, which Albertus Magnus used in his De animalibus, fol. Liber 22, Cap. 268: "Dicitur Rangyfer quasi ramifer". This word may go back to the Saami word raingo. Linnaeus chose the word tarandus as the specific epithet, making reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi's Quadrupedum omnium bisulcorum historia fol. 859–863, Cap. 30: De Tarando. However and Konrad Gesner – thought that rangifer and tarandus were two separate animals. In any case, the tarandos name goes back to Theophrastus; the use of the terms Reindeer and caribou for the same animal can cause confusion, but the IUCN delineates the issue: "The world's Caribou and Reindeer are classified as a single species Rangifer tarandus. Reindeer is the European name for the species while in North America, the species is known as Caribou."
The word rein is of Norse origin. The word deer was broader in meaning, but became more specific over time. In Middle English, der meant a wild animal of any kind, in contrast to cattle; the word caribou comes through French, from the Mi'kmaq qalipu, meaning "snow shoveler", referring to its habit of pawing through the snow for food. Because of its importance to many cultures, Rangifer tarandus and some of its subspecies have names in many languages. Inuktitut is spoken in the eastern Arctic, the caribou is known by the name tuktu; the Gwich’in people have over two dozen distinct caribou-related words. The species' taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus, was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758; the woodland caribou subspecies' taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788. Based on Banfield's often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer, R. t. caboti, R. t. osborni and R. t. terraenovae were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou. Some recent authorities have considered them all valid suggesting that they are quite distinct.
In their book entitled Mammal Species of the World, American zoologist Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn Reeder agree with Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, that
Digital object identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use to identify academic and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, official publications though they have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable" to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers; this is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely; the DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change.
Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL, it is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless; the developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation, which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs; the DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations. A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash.
Prefix/suffixThe prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner; the prefix takes the form 10. NNNN, where NNNN is a series of at least 4 numbers greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants; the prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10. NNNN. N. For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." Part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace, the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant. 182 is item ID, identifying a single object. DOI names can identify creative works in both electronic and physical forms and abstract works such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc; the names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article.
The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata, associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model. The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182. Contrary to the DOI Handbook, CrossRef, a major DOI registration agency, recommends displaying a URL instead of the specified format This URL is persistent, so it is a PURL — providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item; the CrossRef recommendation is based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyperlinked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.
Major applications of the DOI system include: scholarly materials through CrossRef, a consortium of around 3,000 publishers. Research datasets through DataCite, a consortium of leading research libraries, technical information providers, scientific data centers. Permanent global identifiers for commercial video content through the Entertainment ID Registry known as EIDR. In the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's publication service OECD iLibrary, each table or graph
During regular archaeological excavations several flutes, that date to the European Upper Paleolithic have been discovered in caves in the Swabian Alb region of Germany. Dated and tested independently by two laboratories, in England and Germany, the artifacts are authentic products of the Homo sapiens Aurignacian archaeological culture, made in between 43,000 and 35,000 years ago; the flutes, made of bone and ivory represent the earliest known musical instruments and provide unmistakable evidence of prehistoric music. The flutes were found in the Caves with the oldest Ice Age art, where the oldest known examples of figurative art were discovered. Music and sculpture as artistic expression have developed simutaneously among the first humans in Europe as the region is considered a key area in which various cultural innovations have developed. Experts say, besides recreation and religious ritual music might have helped to maintain larger social networks, a competitive advantage over the Neanderthals.
In 2008, the Hohle Fels Flute was discovered in the Hohle Fels cave in Germany's Swabian Alb. The flute is made from a vulture's wing bone perforated with five finger holes, dates to 35,000 years ago. Several years before, two flutes made of mute swan bone and one made of woolly mammoth ivory were found in the nearby Geissenklösterle cave; the team that made the Hohle Fels discovery wrote that these finds were at the time the earliest evidence of humans being engaged in musical culture. They suggested music may have helped to maintain bonds between larger groups of humans, that this may have helped the species to expand both in numbers and in geographical range. In 2012, a fresh high-resolution carbon dating examination revealed an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years for the flutes from the Geissenklösterle cave, suggesting that they rather than the one from the Hohle Fels cave could be the oldest known musical instruments; the artifact known as the Divje Babe flute, discovered in Slovenia in 1995, has been claimed as the oldest flute, though this has been disputed.
The artifact is a cave bear femur, 43100 ± 700 years old, pierced with spaced holes. Its discoverer suggested the holes were man made and that there may have been four before the item was damaged. However, other scientists have argued. Art of the Upper Paleolithic 35.000 Jahre alte Flöten gefunden, swr.de, Retrieved on June 29, 2009
Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blomboschfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa. The cave contains Middle Stone Age deposits dated at between c. 100,000 and 70,000 years Before Present, a Late Stone Age sequence dated at between 2000 and 300 years BP. The cave site was first excavated in 1991 and field work has been conducted there on a regular basis since 1997, is ongoing; the excavations at Blombos Cave have yielded important new information on the behavioural evolution of anatomically modern humans. The archaeological record from this cave site has been central in the ongoing debate on the cognitive and cultural origin of early humans and to the current understanding of when and where key behavioural innovations emerged among Homo sapiens in southern Africa during the Late Pleistocene. Archaeological material and faunal remains recovered from the Middle Stone Age phase in Blombos Cave – dated to ca. 100,000–70,000 years BP – are considered to represent greater ecological niche adaptation, a more diverse set of subsistence and procurements strategies, adoption of multi-step technology and manufacture of composite tools, stylistic elaboration, increased economic and social organisation and occurrence of symbolically mediated behaviour.
The most informative archaeological material from Blombos Cave includes engraved ochre, engraved bone ochre processing kits, marine shell beads, refined bone and stone tools and a broad range of terrestrial and marine faunal remains, including shellfish, birds and ostrich egg shell and mammals of various sizes. These findings, together with subsequent re-analysis and excavation of other Middle Stone Age sites in southern Africa, have resulted in a paradigm shift with regard to the understanding of the timing and location of the development of modern human behaviour. On 29 May 2015 Heritage Western Cape formally protected the site as a provincial heritage site. Cross-hatching done in ochre on a stone fragment found at Blombos Cave is believed to be the earliest known drawing done by a human in the world. Blombos Cave was first excavated in 1991–1992 as a part of Professor Christopher S. Henshilwood's doctoral thesis. At the University of Cambridge: Holocene archaeology of the coastal Garcia State Forest, southern Cape, South Africa.
Blombos Cave was one of nine Holocene Later Stone Age sites that Henshilwood excavated and it was first given the acronym GSF8. In 1997 GSF8 was renamed Blombos Cave and given its current acronym: BBC. From 1999 to 2011 in total ten field seasons, each six weeks long, have been carried out at the cave site. From the initial excavations conducted in the early 1990s, the Blombos Cave project has adopted and established new and innovative research agendas in the study of southern African prehistory. While Henshilwood's initial, doctoral research was directed towards the more recent Later Stone Age occupation levels, the focus since 1997 has been on the Middle Stone Age sequence; the Blombos Cave project has since developed academically and administratively, from being a local and small-scale test excavation to becoming an international, full scale, high-technological archaeological project. In 2010–2015 the cave site was the focus of the multi-disciplinary, pan-continental research program, the TRACSYMBOLS project.
It was led by Professor Christopher S. Henshilwood based at the Department of Archaeology, Cultural Studies and Religion at the University of Bergen and the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, together with Professor Francesco d'Errico from the University of Bordeaux 1, France; the aim of TRACSYMBOLS project is to examine how key behavioural innovations emerged among Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis in southern Africa and Europe and to explore whether and how environmental variability influenced this development between 180,000 – 25,000 years ago by combining archaeological results, original multi‐proxy palaeoenvironmental data and climatic simulations for two continents. From 2017 the cave site continues to be excavated by many of the same researchers under the newly funded Centre for Early Sapiens Behaviour at the University of Bergen, Norway; the Centre is formed in cooperation with Witwatersrand University, Royal Holloway University of Londn, Université de Bordeaux, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen and UNI research, Norway.
The aim is to follow an broader multi-disciplinary approach, the 10-year programme include cognitive studies, geoscience, climate modelling and reconstruction, fauna etc. The cave is situated in a south-facing cliff face 34.5 meter above sea level, ca. 100 meters from the present day shore line. The cave formation is set in calcretes of the Wankoe Formation, the geological setting indicates that the cave was formed by wave action sometime during the Plio-Pleistocene; the interior of Blombos Cave comprises a single main chamber, the entire interior cave floor is about 39m² behind the drip line. West of the cave's main chamber, anthropogenic deposit extends inwardly 3-5 meter. In this area, the cave ceiling lowers to a point where it falls in level with the surface, preventing access to the deposit beneath. In the area north-east of the main chamber, deposit expands into a low laying ante-chamber of unknown extent due to the sand filling it. By the end of the 2011 field season about 19.5m² of interior cave has been dug during the Blombos Cave excavations.
Blombos Cave's outer talus forms a sloping platform of about 23m² that extends 4-5 meter southwards, before the terrain abruptly drops down towards shoreline that lies some 34,5 meters below the cave entrance. The talus, which prim
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum. It is spoken in Swabia, located in central and southeastern Baden-Württemberg and the southwest of Bavaria. Furthermore, Swabian German dialects are spoken by Caucasus Germans in Transcaucasia; the dialects of the Danube Swabian population of Hungary, the former Yugoslavia and Romania are only nominally Swabian and can be traced back not only to Swabian but to Frankonian and Hessian German dialects, with locally varying degrees of influence of the initial dialects. Swabian can be difficult to understand for speakers of Standard German due to its pronunciation and differing grammar and vocabulary. For example, the Standard German term for "strawberry jam" is Erdbeermarmelade, whereas in Swabian it is called Bräschdlingsgsälz. In 2009, the word "Muggeseggele", meaning the scrotum of a housefly, was voted in a readers' survey by Stuttgarter Nachrichten, the largest newspaper in Stuttgart, as the most beautiful Swabian word, well ahead of any other term.
The expression is used in an ironic way to describe a small unit of measure and is deemed appropriate to use in front of small children. German broadcaster SWR's children's website, explained the meaning of Muggeseggele in their Swabian dictionary in the Swabian-based TV series Ein Fall für B. A. R. Z; the ending "-ad" is used for verbs in the first person plural. As in other Alemannic dialects, the pronunciation of "s" before "t" and "p" is The voice-onset time for plosives is about halfway between where it would be expected for a clear contrast between voiced and unvoiced-aspirated stops; this difference is most noticeable on the unvoiced stops, rendering them similar to or indistinguishable from voiced stops:One simple thing to look for is the addition of the diminutive "-le" suffix on many words in the German language. With the addition of this "-le", the article of the noun automatically becomes "das" in the German language, as in Standard German; the Swabian "-le" is the same as standard German "-lein" or "-chen", but is used, more in Swabian.
A small house is a Häuschen in a Heisle in Swabian. In some regions "-la" for plural is used. Many surnames in Swabia are made to end in "-le". Articles are pronounced as "dr", "d" and "s"; the "ch" is sometimes replaced. "ich", "dich" and "mich" may become "i", "di" and "mi". Vowels:In many regions, the Swabian dialect is spoken with a unique intonation, present when Swabian native speakers talk in Standard German. There is only one alveolar fricative phoneme /s/, a feature, shared with most other southern dialects. Most Swabian speakers are unaware of the difference between /s/ and /z/ and do not attempt to make it when speaking Standard German; the voiced plosives, the post-alveolar fricative, the frequent use of diminutives based on "l" suffixes gives the dialect a "soft" or "mild" feel felt to be in sharp contrast to the harder varieties of German spoken in the North. Swabian is categorized as an Alemannic dialect, which in turn is one of the two types of Upper German dialects; the ISO 639-3 language code for Swabian is swg.
The Swabian dialect is composed of numerous sub-dialects. These sub-dialects can be categorized by the difference in the formation of the past participle of'sein' into gwäa and gsei; the Gsei group is nearer to other Alemannic dialects, such as Swiss German. It can be divided into West Swabian and Central Swabian; the Baden-Württemberg Chamber of Commerce launched an advertising campaign with the slogan "Wir können alles. Außer Hochdeutsch." Which means "We can everything. Except Standard German" to boost Swabian pride for their dialect and industrial achievements. However, it failed to impress Northern Germans and neighboring Baden. Dominik Kuhn became famous in Germany with schwäbisch fandub videos, dubbing among others Barack Obama with German dialect vocals and revised text. Sebastian Sailer August Lämmle Josef Eberle Thaddäus Troll Hellmut G. Haasis Peter Schlack Muss i denn Streck, Tobias. Phonologischer Wandel im Konsonantismus der alemannischen Dialekte Baden-Württembergs: Sprachatlasvergleich, Spontansprache und dialektometrische Studien.
Stuttgart: Steiner. ISBN 978-3-515-10068-7. Cercignani, Fausto; the consonants of German: synchrony and diachrony. Milano: Cisalpino-Goliardica. LCCN 81192307; the Swabian-English dictionary Die Welt auf Schwäbisch - Best of Obama - Vollversammlung der Eigentümer Wilhelmstr. 48 "Harald Schmidt Sprachkurs Schwäbisch" Parody Sprecherdemo: Dialekt schwäbisch Helen Lutz