Caminho das Índias
Caminho das Índias is a Brazilian Emmy-winning television telenovela produced by Rede Globo. It was broadcast from 19 January to 11 September 2009, ranked within the top of the most watched shows on Brazilian television. Caminho das Índias storylines examine beliefs and values that differentiate the Eastern and Western world, the telenovela brings to the screen a story of contrasts. Telefutura aired an edited version of India from 5 October 2010 to 25 April 2011 at 10 pm central, removing episode previews and a custom-made intro and commercial bumpers were produced; the show starred Juliana Paes and Rodrigo Lombardi as the main protagonists and Letícia Sabatella as the main antagonist. It starred Tânia Khallil, Débora Bloch, Alexandre Borges and Bruno Gagliasso; the telenovela was screened as six one-hour chapters per week, from Monday to Saturday. It was one of the Brazil's highest-rated programs appearing at the top of the daily's ratings released by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics.
The average audience share for a chapter reached between 36 and 45 million, with each point equivalent to sixty thousand households tuned on Rede Globo in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. The title can be interpreted in two ways: it is Portuguese for "Route to the Indies" or "India's Way"; the plot spans a period during the transition of India into a modern democracy, parts during the 1970s, during modern period, where most of the complex plot begins to unravel. There are many flashbacks, but the story is divided between continents, as the story delves with characters in Rio de Janeiro and some elements in Dubai. Many themes are explored in the novella, including love, sanity and tradition versus modernity. With beliefs and values that separate the West and the East, the soap brings to the screen a story full of contrasts; the story is treated from a complex mesh of relationships, of families, their familiars and friends, who all circle in a "small world" where everyone has a relationship that connects to the other characters in some way.
One of the main plot points is a forbidden love between castes, as played by two characters with different origins and Bahuan. Maya is amazingly charming with dimples and enchanting eyes, she is cheerful, an employee of a call-center in Rajasthan and part of a traditional family of Vaishyas – the trader caste. Bahuan is finishing his studies in America, where he works, but could never forget the humiliation he had to go through as a child for being a dalit. Bahuan is the son of two servants untouchables, who were burned at the stake for accidentally touching their master while he bathed; as a young boy, the disorientated youth, walks by the River Ganges, where Opash Ananda is with his two sons: Amithab and Raj. Amithab out of curiosity, touches Bahuan, reaching for his necklace. Opash sees this and reprimands his son, since Bahuan is an untouchable and is not "clean". Shankar, a liberal Brahmin appears and defends Bahuan, beginning a fight with Opash that will prevail until the end of the narrative.
Opash leaves with his two children. Bahuan recounts his troubled life to the attentive Shankar, who reveals his lonely life and adopts the child, despite the prejudice he suffers from many people. Maya has reached the age to marry and her parents, the perfume maker Manu Meetha and Kochi, search all over for a suitable husband. Like every Indian girl, she had always believed they were the best suited people to find the right man. Moved by an overwhelming feeling, Maya is willing to impose her will to her family and doesn't understand why he seems so reticent. Only when the truth about his origins come to light she understands his fears. Between promises and risks, the couple keep being surprised by fate. On their way, are Raj Ananda, her parents' "golden dream". Raj is the middle child of Indira Ananda. Opash is a wealthy tradesman, who makes the agreement with Raj's marriage. Opash and Indira have three other children: Amithab and Shanti. Amithab, married to Surya, with whom he had a precocious daughter, Anusha.
Amitahab is the dutiful older son, but not having a male heir has diminished his status, a point of jealousy that drives the ambitious Surya. Ravi, the youngest boy, falls in love with a Brazilian girl, Camilla Motta, their relationship, which leads to marriage will bring the conflict between East and West to the forefront, as Camilla tries to adapt to the Hindu culture. Shanti, the youngest and the only girl, had been prepared for marriage since she was a small child, learning the "womanly arts" of the society: dancing, brewing chai, looking beautiful and serving members of the family, but she is uncomfortable in this role, with her friendship with Camilla she explores new possibilities beyond the home. She aspires to obtain a university education and be free to choose who she falls in love with, or if she marries; this is in the most dominant figure in the house. She is the vanguard of tradition in the Ananda home, quoting traditional proverbs, insinuating normative roles and an
A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced in Latin America. The word combines tele, short for televisión or televisão, novela, a Spanish and Portuguese word for "novel". Similar genres around the world include teleserye, téléroman, or dramas. In Spain, they are called culebrones because of the convoluted plots. Described using the American colloquialism Spanish soap opera, many telenovelas share some stylistic and thematic similarities to the soap opera familiar to the English-speaking world; the significant difference is their series run length. This makes them shorter than most other television series, but still much longer than a miniseries; this planned run results in a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to a typical soap opera. Episodes of telenovelas last between 30 and 45 minutes, more than an hour, except for final episodes; the telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century feuilleton, evolved from the Latin American radionovela, according to Blanca de Lizaur.
The medium has been used by authorities in various countries to transmit sociocultural messages by incorporating them into storylines, which has decreased their credibility and audiences in the long run. By the 1970s and 1980s, Mexico became a world pioneer in using telenovelas to shape behavior successful in introducing the idea of family planning. Mexico and Brazil in the 1990s, played a key role in the international export of telenovelas, while Asia overtook the role in the 21st century, thus the so-called'Telenovela Craze' that spread in many regions in the world until today. Over time telenovelas evolved in the themes that they address. Couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover taboo themes such as urban violence and homosexuality were incorporated into telenovelas. In the 2000s, Latin America and Asia altogether emerged as the biggest producers of telenovelas, which evolved out from soap operas to form another category of television drama, were one of the most common forms of popular entertainment in the world.
By 2018 some signs of fading popularity emerged. Telenovelas, which are sometimes called "tassels" or "comedias," are produced in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries and are shown during prime time; the first telenovelas were produced in Brazil and Mexico: Sua vida me pertence was shown twice a week, Senderos de amor and Ángeles de la calle were shown once a week. Between 1957 and 1958 Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, Senda prohibida, written by Fernanda Villeli; the first global telenovela was Los ricos también lloran, exported to Russia, the United States and other countries. Countries that produce well-known telenovelas are Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Germany, the Philippines, Spain and the USA. Telenovelas tend to fall within these seven categories: Working-class melodrama, the most popular to date, easy to understand and contains less explicit content; this is reliant of the common rags-to-riches plot featuring a poor woman who falls in love with a rich man whose family spurns her, such as the Las Tres Marias.
Historical romance is set in the past, such as the colonial period, the restoration of the Republic, the late 19th Century the Mexican Revolution, the 20th-century military dictatorships Teen drama, which portrays the lives of high school teenagers and their issues with sex and other coming-of-age topics. This genre started with Quinceañera in 1987. Mystery/thriller is a category of telenovela, more cold-hearted than the other subgenres, it may portray a mysterious death or disappearance, which may tear couples families apart, such as Cuna de Lobos, La Casa al Final de la Calle, La Mujer de Judas, ¿Dónde está Elisa?, El Rostro de la Venganza or La Casa de al Lado. Chile has produced this genre. Romantic comedy, which portrays love stories with some or lots of comedy such as Las tontas no van al cielo "Fools Don't Go to Heaven" or Yo soy Betty, la fea. Pop band story portrays the lives of aspiring popstars such as in Alcanzar una estrella and its sequel Alcanzar una estrella II, as well as Rebelde, which spawned a multi-platinum pop group, RBD.
Some, though not all, of these type of telenovelas are geared towards a teenage and/or pre-teen audience. Narcotraffic Recently narcotrafficer telenovelas have become presented. Besides these, another category of serial that has become popular in recent
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Love Strange Love
Love Strange Love is a 1982 Brazilian erotic drama film written and directed by Walter Hugo Khouri. The film stars Tarcísio Meira and Xuxa Meneghel. Fischer won the Best Actress Award at the 15th Festival de Brasília as well as the Air France Award; the story involves an adult man's recollection of a short period of his life in 1937. That year, on the eve of a key political change in Brazil, a 12-year-old boy is sent to live in a bordello; the bordello's owner, the favorite woman of an important politician, is the child's mother. In those hours, he discovers his own sexuality. Vera Fischer as Anna Tarcísio Meira as Dr. Osmar Xuxa Meneghel as Tamara Íris Bruzzi as Laura Walter Forster as Hugo Marcelo Ribeiro as Hugo Mauro Mendonça as Dr. Benicio In the criticism of the website Filmes do Chico, it is stated that "because it was associated with Xuxa as a pedophile, the film gained a fame that does not correspond to the material it offers." Like all of Khouri's films, Estranho Amor has many sex scenes, a lot of free nudity, putting the drops on the is, it's a good movie."
Love Strange Love caused some controversy due to the participation of Xuxa in the cast. In an interview, Xuxa explained that she was between 19 years old when the film was made. In another interview Xuxa comments that the film was made in 1979, her character has sexual relations with a boy of 12 years, interpreted by the actor Marcelo Ribeiro. As in the contract there was no release of the image for video, through a judicial injunction, ordered to collect all the original tapes of stores and stores of the country 4,000 copies were sold before the Justice to distribute its distribution, therefore, many pirate copies continued circulating, making of the film a true legend among people who did not know the work; the video of Love Strange Love has its distribution prohibited in the country. However, the film was released on DVD in the United States in 2005 and can be purchased by any Brazilian on foreign import sites; the US producer lost. In 2006, Marcelo Ribeiro was found at 39 and gave several interviews, published a book on how everything happened at the time, including conversations behind the scenes with the actress.
In 2007, taking advantage of its momentary popularity, it made a pornographic film. In 2007, Marcelo Ribeiro at age 40, gives an interview where he comments on the film's controversy. In 2007, the entire film became available in uncut. No legal action has yet been taken on the case. In 2011, producer Anibal Massaine fights in justice in the attempt to commercialize the film, taking advantage of the fame of the artist. In 2014, Xuxa lost a lawsuit it filed against Google to create a filter in order to eliminate results related to the movie in its search engine. Xuxa filed an appeal against that decision but had, in 2017, the appeal denied. Amor Estranho Amor on IMDb
The Brazilian edition of Playboy is a local franchise of Playboy magazine. Established in 1975 by Editora Abril, it was only the fourth overall international version of the magazine, following Germany and France; when Editora Abril founder Victor Civita asked his son Roberto Civita to drop his job at the Tokyo offices of Time in 1958 to instead join him at Abril, Roberto accepted on the condition that he could create three new publications: a Time-like weekly news magazine, a Fortune-like business magazine, the last of those to get into print, a local issue of Playboy. By the mid-1970s, Roberto had struck a deal with Playboy Enterprises, was asked by his father to consult the Ministry of Justice given the military dictatorship in place had a censorship policy on the press. Minister Armando Falcão vetoed the publication, saying that "no publication under the name Playboy in Brazil, no matter its content." Seeing a loophole, Roberto submitted the done preprint for issue 1 under the name A Revista do Homem, got approved.
The first issue of Homem got on newsstands in August 1975, the magazine was allowed to use its trademark name only as of 1978. The Brazilian edition follows the general guidelines of the original magazine in the United States, featuring the trademark sections of the magazine, such as the monthly interview, the 20 Questions interview and the centerfold pictorial featuring the "Miss of the month", which most of the time, but not always, coincides with the month's "star", but the Brazilian installment has some sections of its own, such as Coelhinhas, which features unknown models photographed by freelance photographers, Click, which features candid pictures of celebrities of all calibers in revealing situations. The magazine in Brazil makes a much heavier use of celebrities to attract its target public telenovela actresses and TV hostesses; this strategy is facilitated by the Brazilian general perception of the Playboy magazine as a tasteful medium for nude pictorials, as opposed to other adult magazines published in the country.
This perception attracts young models looking to use the exposition to launch their careers. Playboy makes extensive use of circumstantial celebrities, such as stage assistants from TV shows or women who took part in TV reality shows. In that aspect, the Brazilian version of the reality show Big Brother, created by Dutch production company Endemol and produced in Brazil by Globo TV, has been the main source of models for the magazine. Between May 2002 and August 2007, 13 female participants from that reality show have posed for the magazine, always on the cover. Playboy has not, monopolized the nude or revealing pictorials featuring former participants of the TV show, since a few of the participants chose to appear in other adult publications, such as SEXY Magazine and the lad magazine VIP the last one from Abril). In a few of those cases, Playboy was not interested in signing on the former participants because it had been revealed that they had posed for competing publications prior to participating in the reality show on Globo TV.
The record holders for most covers are actress and former model Luma de Oliveira, dancer Scheila Carvalho, with a total of five covers each. The best-selling issue is the December 1999 issue with Joana Prado "Feiticeira" in the cover, with 1.25 million magazines sold. In 2015, the fortieth year of publication, Abril dedided to stop publishing Playboy due to costs given the diminishing circulation could not offset the licensing royalties. A new deal was set with PBB Entertainment to relaunch the publication starting in March 2016. Official website Official Blog Playboy Brazil at GlossaryOne.com Brazilian Playboy Covers at PBCovers.com
O Rei do Gado
O Rei do Gado is a Brazilian telenovela written by Benedito Ruy Barbosa and directed by Luiz Fernando Carvalho, produced and broadcast on Rede Globo, from 17 June 1996 to 15 February 1997, totaling 209 episodes and 130 in the original version of the SIC in Portugal. Occurs during the Second World War in the 1940s. In São Paulo, two families and Mezenga have a feud over land, it happens that the children of two families, Giovanna Berdinazzi and Enrico Mezenga, fall in love, going against the fight of his parents and Antonio. Giovanna and Enrico get married and have one son, named Bruno, named after a brother of Giovanni, who died in the war and was a close friend of Enrico, despite the enmity between the families. Occurs in 1996, Bruno is now a successful farmer, known by the nickname "King of the Cattle" for possessing a large herd. A man of simple habits, to whom the wealth is just something else, Bruno lives an unhappy marriage to Leah and has two sons and Leah. Upon discovering the betrayal of Leah with the driver Ralf, Bruno divorces her.
When having to solve the problem of occupation of their farms Pereira Barreto, a group of landless led by Regino and his wife Jacira, Bruno knows a day-worker called Luana. The two fall in love, unaware, he begins to find happiness until he meets her uncle - senior Geremias Berdinazzi - a powerful millionaire known as "King of Coffee and Milk" from Guaxupé Minas Gerais. Both man manifest intention of buying land. Long after the rift between the Berdinazzi and Mezenga started; the day-worker Luana, who lived at the landless camp, was Marietta Berdinazzi, the only niece of Geremias still alive, but long been missing. As he had no heir, the fortune of Geremias has always been an easy target for impostors. Comes a mysterious Marietta, appearing out of nowhere, saying she was the niece he was looking for; this woman is called Rafaela and she has eyes on the fortune of the producer. The villain was able to keep all the post niece and heir of the family fortune, she tried to make an attempt on the life of Geremias for him to die soon and not take her name off the inheritance.
In reality Luana took what was rightfully hers. Geremias still ended up finding another nephew in Italy, the young Giuseppe who returned to Brazil and has inherited the fortune of the farmer with Luana. Aparicio and Joe Bento, the two singers are passionate about the wilderness that decide to join to form a double hinterland, hence born Saracura and Firefly. Bruno's daughter, Leah, a young sweet and kind, Firefly falls for and against the wishes of the family, he leaves with the road to live their love in a bus followed from city to city, but the son of Bruno, the rebellious Mark, a young man, not worried about tomorrow, engages with Liliana Caxias, the daughter of Senator Robert Caxias and deludes the point of abandoning the child. A blow too hard for a dreamy girl who still had to live with the lack of attention his father, who only had their head fixed in the struggle of the landless. USA: Telemundo Mexico: Azteca 13 Argentina: Telefe / Canal 9 Libertad Chile: Canal 13 Paraguay: Canal 13 RPC / Paravisión / Unicanal Hungary: Magyar Televízió - M1, M2 and M3 Serbia: RTS 1 Bosnia and Herzegovina: RTRS FTV Croatia: HRT1 O Rei do Gado - Official website O Rei do Gado on IMDb
Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine. It was founded in Chicago in 1953, by Hugh Hefner and his associates, funded in part by a $1,000 loan from Hefner's mother. Notable for its centerfolds of nude and semi-nude models, Playboy played an important role in the sexual revolution and remains one of the world's best-known brands, having grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. with a presence in nearly every medium. In addition to the flagship magazine in the United States, special nation-specific versions of Playboy are published worldwide; the magazine has a long history of publishing short stories by novelists such as Arthur C. Clarke, Ian Fleming, Vladimir Nabokov, Saul Bellow, Chuck Palahniuk, P. G. Wodehouse, Roald Dahl, Haruki Murakami, Margaret Atwood. With a regular display of full-page color cartoons, it became a showcase for notable cartoonists, including Harvey Kurtzman, Jack Cole, Eldon Dedini, Jules Feiffer, Shel Silverstein, Erich Sokol, Roy Raymonde, Gahan Wilson, Rowland B. Wilson.
Playboy features monthly interviews of notable public figures, such as artists, economists, conductors, film directors, novelists, religious figures, politicians and race car drivers. The magazine reflects a liberal editorial stance, although it interviews conservative celebrities. After a year-long removal of most nude photos in Playboy magazine, the March–April 2017 issue brought back nudity. By spring 1953, Hugh Hefner—a 1949 University of Illinois psychology graduate who had worked in Chicago for Esquire magazine writing promotional copy, he formed HMH Publishing Corporation, recruited his friend Eldon Sellers to find investors. Hefner raised just over $8,000, including from his brother and mother. However, the publisher of an unrelated men's adventure magazine, contacted Hefner and informed him it would file suit to protect their trademark if he were to launch his magazine with that name. Hefner, his wife Millie, Sellers met to seek a new name, considering "Top Hat", "Gentleman", "Sir'", "Satyr", "Pan" and "Bachelor" before Sellers suggested "Playboy".
The first issue, in December 1953, was undated. He produced it in his Hyde Park kitchen; the first centerfold was Marilyn Monroe, although the picture used was taken for a calendar rather than for Playboy. Hefner chose what he deemed the "sexiest" image, a unused nude study of Marilyn stretched with an upraised arm on a red velvet background with closed eyes and mouth open; the heavy promotion centered around Marilyn's nudity on the already-famous calendar, together with the teasers in marketing, made the new Playboy magazine a success. The first issue sold out in weeks. Known circulation was 53,991; the cover price was 50¢. Copies of the first issue in mint to near mint condition sold for over $5,000 in 2002; the novel Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury, was published in 1953 and serialized in the March and May 1954 issues of Playboy. An urban legend started about Hefner and the Playmate of the Month because of markings on the front covers of the magazine. From 1955 to 1979, the "P" in Playboy had stars printed around the letter.
The legend stated that this was either a rating that Hefner gave to the Playmate according to how attractive she was, the number of times that Hefner had slept with her, or how good she was in bed. The stars, between zero and 12 indicated the domestic or international advertising region for that printing. From 1966 to 1976, Robie Macauley was the Fiction Editor at Playboy. During this period the magazine published fiction by Saul Bellow, Seán Ó Faoláin, John Updike, James Dickey, John Cheever, Doris Lessing, Joyce Carol Oates, Vladimir Nabokov, Michael Crichton, John le Carré, Irwin Shaw, Jean Shepherd, Arthur Koestler, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Bernard Malamud, John Irving, Anne Sexton, Nadine Gordimer, Kurt Vonnegut and J. P. Donleavy, as well as poetry by Yevgeny Yevtushenko. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." These included copies of Cosmopolitan magazines. One of the key pamphlets produced by the protesters was "No More Miss America!", by Robin Morgan which listed ten characteristics of the Miss America pageant that the authors believed degraded women.
Since reaching its peak in the 1970s, Playboy saw a decline in circulation and cultural relevance due to competition in the field it founded—first from Penthouse Oui and Gallery in the 1970s. In response, Playboy has attempted to re-assert its hold on the 18–35 male demographic through slight changes to content and focusing on issues and personalities more appropriate to its audience—such as hip-hop artists being featured in the "Playboy Interview". Christie Hefner, daughter of the founder Hugh Hefner, joined Playboy in 1975 and became head of the company in 1988, she announced in December 2008 that she would be stepping down from leading the company, effective in January 2009, said that the election of Barack Obama as the next President had inspired her to give more time to charitable work