SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe. Vercingetorix was the son of leader of the Gallic tribes. Vercingetorix came to power after his formal designation as chieftain of the Arverni at the oppidum Gergovia in 52 BC, he established an alliance with other Gallic tribes, took command and combined all forces, led them in the Celts' most significant revolt against Roman power. He won the Battle of Gergovia against Julius Caesar in which several thousand Romans and allies died and Caesar's Roman legions withdrew. However, Caesar had been able to exploit Gaulish internal division to subjugate the country, Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late. At the Battle of Alesia, the Romans defeated his forces. In order to save as many of his men as possible, he gave himself to the Romans, he was held prisoner for five years. In 46 BC, as part of Caesar's triumph, Vercingetorix was paraded through the streets of Rome and executed by strangulation. Vercingetorix is known through Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War.

To this day, Vercingetorix is considered a folk hero in his native region. Vercingetorix derives from the Gaulish ver-, cingeto-, rix, thus either "great warrior king" or "king of great warriors". In his Life of Caesar, Plutarch renders the name as Vergentorix. Having been appointed governor of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis in 58 BC, Julius Caesar proceeded to conquer the Gallic tribes beyond over the next few years, maintaining control through a careful divide and rule strategy, he made use of the factionalism among the Gallic elites, favouring certain noblemen over others with political support and Roman luxuries such as wine. Attempts at revolt, such as that of Ambiorix in 54 BC, had secured only local support, but Vercingetorix, whose father, had been put to death by his own countrymen for seeking to rule all of Gaul, managed to unify the Gallic tribes against the Romans and adopted more current styles of warfare; the revolt that Vercingetorix came to lead began in early 52 BC while Caesar was raising troops in Cisalpine Gaul.

Believing that Caesar would be distracted by the turmoil in Rome following the death of Publius Clodius Pulcher, the Carnutes, under Cotuatus and Conetodunus, made the first move, slaughtering the Romans who had settled in their territory. Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of the Arvernian city of Gergovia, roused his dependents to join the revolt, but he and his followers were expelled by Vercingetorix's uncle Gobanitio and the rest of the nobles because they thought opposing Caesar was too great a risk. Undeterred, Vercingetorix raised an army of the poor, took Gergovia, was hailed as king, he made alliances with other tribes, having been unanimously given supreme command of their armies, imposed his authority through harsh discipline and the taking of hostages. He adopted the policy of retreating to natural fortifications, undertook an early example of a scorched earth strategy by burning towns to prevent the Roman legions from living off the land. Vercingetorix scorched much of the land marching north with his army from Gergovia in an attempt to deprive Caesar of the resources and safe haven of the towns and villages along Caesar's march south.

However, the capital of the Bituriges, Avaricum, a Gallic settlement directly in Caesar's path, was spared. Due to the town's strong protests defendable terrain, strong man-made reinforcing defenses, Vercingetorix decided against razing and burning it. Leaving the town to its fate, Vercingetorix camped well outside of Avaricum and focused on conducting harassing engagements of the advancing Roman units led by Caesar and his chief lieutenant Titus Labienus. Upon reaching Avaricum however, the Romans laid siege and captured the capital. Afterwards, in a contemptuous reprisal for 25 days of hunger and of laboring over the siegeworks required to breach Avaricum's defenses, the Romans slaughtered nearly the entire population of some 40,000, leaving only about 800 alive; the next major battle was at capital city of the Arverni and Vercingetorix. During that battle and his warriors crushed Caesar's legions and allies, inflicting heavy losses. Vercingetorix decided to follow Caesar but suffered heavy losses during a cavalry battle and he retreated and moved to another stronghold, Alesia.

In the Battle of Alesia, Caesar built a fortification around the city to besiege it. However, Vercingetorix had summoned his Gallic allies to attack the besieging Romans; these forces included an army of Arverni led by Vercingetorix's cousin Vercassivellaunos and an army of 10,000 Lemovices led by Sedullos. With the Roman circumvallation surrounded by the rest of Gaul, Caesar built another outward-facing fortification against the expected relief armies, resulting in a doughnut-shaped fortification; the Gallic relief came in insufficient numbers: estimates range from 80,000 to 250,000 soldiers. Vercingetorix, the tactical leader, was cut off from them on the inside, without his guidance the attacks were unsuccessful. However, the attacks did reveal a weak point in the fortifications and the combined

Penalty Phase

Penalty Phase is a 1986 American made-for-television thriller drama film directed by Tony Richardson and starring Peter Strauss. Supreme court judge, Kenneth Hoffman oversees a high profile murder trial which appears to be an open-and-shut case; the murderer has confessed and Prosecutor Susan Jansen is direct and hard hitting, the jury has delivered a guilty verdict. However, Judge Hoffman discovers that the evidence was not obtained, for him to reject it and the trial outcome may have consequences for his career. Peter Strauss as Judge Kenneth Hoffman Jonelle Allen as Susan Jansen Karen Austin as Julie Melissa Gilbert as Leah Furman Mitchell Ryan as Judge Donald Faulkner Jane Badler as Katie Pinter John Harkins as Mr. Hunter Millie Perkins as Nancy Faulkner Richard Bright as Judge Von Karman Richard Chaves as Nolan Esherman Rossie Harris as Zach Hoffman Art LaFleur as Pete Pavlovich Penalty Phase on IMDb

École secondaire Étienne-Brûlé

École secondaire Étienne-Brûlé is a French-language public high school located in North York, Canada, named for a famous explorer. Part of the Conseil scolaire Viamonde, the school serves the French population of the Greater Toronto Area, it is featured in the NFB documentary Une école sans frontières by Nadine Valcin. Throughout the mid 1960s, Étienne-Brûlé was part of the North York Board of Education. A four-year battle resulted in the opening of the school on September 2, 1969: following the adoption of Bill 141, a group of Francophones demanded that a French-language public high school be established in the Toronto area. To this end, 15 portable classrooms were set up on the grounds behind the English-language secondary school York Mills Collegiate Institute. At the time, 310 students from Francophone families living not only in Toronto, but in Oshawa, Georgetown and Mississauga, formed the first student body at Étienne-Brûlé. In 1973, the school inaugurated its first building, still located at 300 Banbury Road in North York.

The majority of students were of Franco-Ontarian origin, while others came from Quebec and the Atlantic provinces, a few from outside of Canada. Today, Étienne-Brûlé reflects the diverse population of modern-day Toronto; the school was part of the Conseil des écoles françaises de la communauté urbaine de Toronto of the Metropolitan Toronto School Board. In 1998, it became the part of the newly formed Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest, now le Conseil scolaire Viamonde. Frank Baylis Marjolaine Boutin-Sweet Patrick Chan Rose Cossar Shady El Nahas Chantal Hébert Dan McTeague Sarah Osman Paul Poirier List of high schools in Ontario École secondaire Étienne-Brûlé www.lexpress.to/archives/3798/ picasaweb.google.com/lexpress.to/TheatreEtienneBrule#