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Verdun

Verdun is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is Bar-le-Duc, smaller than Verdun, it is well known for giving its name to a major battle of the First World War. Verdun was founded by the Gauls, it has been the seat of the bishop of Verdun since the 4th century, with interruptions. In 486, following the decisive Frankish victory at the Battle of Soissons, the city refused to yield to the Franks and was thus besieged by King Clovis I; the 843 Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's empire into three parts. At around this time Verdun was the centre of a Europe-wide thriving trade selling young boys to be enslaved eunuchs to the Islamic emirates of Iberia. Verdun is famous for its Dragées or sugared almonds from 1200 onward. Verdun was part of the middle kingdom of Lotharingia, in 1374 it became a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire; the Bishopric of Verdun formed together with Tull and Metz the Three Bishoprics, which were annexed by France in 1552.

From 1624 to 1636, a large bastioned citadel was constructed on the site of the Abbey of Saint Vanne. In 1670, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban visited Verdun and drew up an ambitious scheme to fortify the whole city. Although much of his plan was built in the following decades, some of the elements were not completed until after the Napoleonic Wars. Despite the extensive fortifications, Verdun was captured by the Prussians in 1792 during the War of the First Coalition, but abandoned by them after the Battle of Valmy. During the Napoleonic War, the citadel was used to hold British prisoners of war. In the Franco-Prussian War, Verdun was the last French fortress to surrender in 1870. Shortly afterwards, a new system of fortification was begun; this consisted of a mutually supporting ring of 22 polygonal forts up to 8 kilometres from the city, an inner ring of 6 forts. The Battle of Verdun was fought on August 20, 1792 between French Revolutionary forces and a Prussian army; the Prussians were victorious.

This therefore opened the path to Paris. Norwich Duff visited Verdun in 1819, shortly after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars. Duff wrote: Verdun is prettily situated in a valley surrounded by hills; the River Meuse runs through the town and forms several canals and ditches round the town, fortified and, I believe, by the great Marshal Vauban. The citadel and were at work on them. Though there is little to see at Verdun, every part of it felt interesting from the number of our countrymen confined here during the war. Verdun is famous for its sweetmeats, sugar plums, confits etc. which are said to be the best in France. They made. Verdun was the site of a major battle, the longest-lasting, of the First World War. One of the costliest battles in military history, Verdun exemplified the policy of a "war of attrition" pursued by both sides, which led to an enormous loss of life and large casualty lists. Following the failure of the Schlieffen Plan in 1914 and the solidifying of the Western Front, Germany remained on the strategic defensive in the west throughout most of 1915.

In the winter of 1915–16, German General Erich von Falkenhayn, the chief of the German General Staff made plans for a large offensive on the Western Front that aimed to break the French Army through the application of firepower at a point that the French had to hold for reasons of national prestige. As Falkenhayn recalled it, his so-called "Christmas memorandum" to Kaiser Willhelm II envisioned a massive but limited attack on a French position'for the retention of which the French Command would be compelled to throw in every man they have'. Once the French army had bled to death, Britain could be brought down by Germany's submarine blockade and superior military strength; the logic of initiating a battle not to gain territory or a strategic position but to create a self-sustaining killing ground—to bleed the French army to death—pointed to the grimness of military vision in 1916. Recent scholarship by Holger Afflerbach and others, has questioned the veracity of the Christmas memo. No copy has surfaced and the only account of it appeared in Falkenhayn's post-war memoir.

His army commanders at Verdun, including the German Crown Prince, denied any knowledge of an attrition strategy. It is possible that Falkenhayn did not design the battle to bleed the French army but used this supposed motive after the fact in an attempt to justify the Verdun offensive, despite its failure. Verdun was the strongest point in pre-war France, ringed by a string of powerful forts, including Douaumont and Fort Vaux. By 1916, the salient at Verdun jutted into the German lines and lay vulnerable to attack from three sides; the historic city of Verdun had been an oppidum of the Gauls before Roman times and a key asset in wars against Prussia, Falkenhayn suspected that the French would throw as many men as necessary into its defence. France had weakened Verdun's defences after the outbreak of the war, an oversight that would contribute to the removal of Joseph Joffre from supreme command at the end of 1916; the attack was slated to begin on 12 February 16 February, but the snow forced repeated postponements.

Falkenhayn massed artillery to the north and east of Verdun to p

Tuvaluan constitutional crisis

The Tuvaluan constitutional crisis was a political dispute in Tuvalu between the government, led by Prime Minister Willy Telavi, the opposition, led by Enele Sopoaga, precipitated by the death of the Minister of Finance, Lotoala Metia MP on 21 December 2012, which eliminated the government's majority. The dispute was resolved in August 2013 by a motion of no confidence in Prime Minister Willy Telavi, following which Enele Sopoaga was elected Prime Minister. Tuvalu is a parliamentary democracy. Queen Elizabeth II—as the Queen of Tuvalu—is the head of state, represented by the Governor-General, appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister; the Prime Minister is elected by the members of the Parliament but it is within the Governor-General's reserve powers to unilaterally dismiss him. The dispute began following the sudden death of the incumbent Member of Parliament for Nukufetau, Lotoala Metia, on 21 December 2012, resulting in both the government and opposition having seven representatives in Parliament.

Despite protests from the opposition, the ministry of Prime Minister Willy Telavi delayed a by-election for the seat by more than six months, until June 2013, when the High Court of Tuvalu ordered that the by-election be held within 28 days of the judgment. The decision was delivered by Senior Magistrate Afele Kitiona on behalf of Chief Justice Sir Gordon Ward; the decision was delivered following two separate legal challenges by both the government and the opposition that sought to determine the minister, responsible for allowing elections to take place. The ruling gave the opposition the necessary notices required to begin the by-election process in the constituency, which would allow them to gain a majority in parliament and, pass a motion of no confidence in the government. Opposition member and lawyer Taukelina Finikaso said the following after the ruling: "We have been working with our candidate and we are confident we will be able to get through this by-election." The by-election was held on 28 June 2013 and opposition member Elisala Pita beat the government candidate Petely Niuatui by 537 votes to 264, giving the opposition an 8–7 majority over the government in the Tuvaluan Parliament.

The constitutional crisis continued as the Prime Minister announced that, under the Constitution of Tuvalu, he was only required to convene Parliament once a year, was thus under no obligation to summon it until December 2013. Tuvalu's opposition requested the Governor-General Sir Iakoba Italeli to intervene against the Prime Minister's decision. On 3 July, Italeli exercised his reserve powers in ordering Parliament to convene, against the Prime Minister's wishes, on 30 July. Opposition member Finikaso said: "It looks like we have seen the end of the uncertainty that reigned in Tuvalu for the last six months." He continued by announcing that the opposition were planning to move a motion of no confidence in the incumbent prime minister and that they would put forward their candidate for the job. In an attempt to avoid a vote of no confidence, Prime Minister Willy Telavi tabled a motion to dissolve Parliament, but this was subsequently defeated by the opposition by 8 votes to 5. In a further twist, just minutes the government's Health Minister, Taom Tanukale, announced he was resigning his post, helping to dwindle government numbers further from five to four, following Education Minister Falesa Pitoi's absence due to illness.

Opposition member Finikaso described. Following the resignation of the Minister of Health, on 31 July 2013, the Speaker of the Tuvaluan Parliament Sir Kamuta Latasi announced he was adjourning Parliament for six weeks to allow for a by-election to take place in the Nui constituency; the adjournment led to further hostility from the opposition, who hoped to move a vote of no confidence in Telavi, claiming that the Speaker has failed to "listen to the advice of the Attorney-General". In response, Latasi claimed that the constitution does not allow for a vote if a constituency lacks representation, stating: If he is removed from Parliament he is removed by a two-thirds majority of the total membership. I have acted on the advice of the Governor-General; the Governor-General has ordered that Parliament sit on the 30th of this month, which we sat yesterday. That order has been carried out by the Speaker of Parliament; the Attorney-General told the opposition that despite the Health Minister's resignation, the motion of no confidence could still go ahead.

The Speaker's response prompted the opposition to seek assistance from the Governor-General for a second time so that parliament could be reconvened once again. The opposition claimed that the prime minister had given no indication that he would call a by-election for Nui, which, in Tuvalu, the PM must do to allow an election to occur. A day on 1 August 2013, Prime Minister Willy Telavi issued a public announcement where he informed the nation that he advised the Queen of Tuvalu, Elizabeth II, to remove Governor-General Itelali from his post. Responding to this, Governor-General Italeli, acting on behalf of the Queen sent out a proclamation dismissing Telavi as the Prime Minister of Tuvalu; the Queen chose to delay accepting the Prime Minister's advice, though she cannot reject it outright. Until the Governor-General was still incumbent: "Up until now I have not received anything from Telavi so I have decided to use my own powers and make the proclamation," Italeli said. Minutes Opposition leader Enele Sopoaga was appointed as acting prime minister.

Although advice from the Prime Minister to the Queen is binding, she does have to accept or assent in order for it to go into effect. The Governor-General's off

Burning Rival

Burning Rival is a 1993 fighting arcade game developed by Sega AM2 and published by Sega. It was released in Japan in July 1993, it was the first fighting game developed by Sega AM2. Virtua Fighter and Shenmue creator Yu Suzuki was involved as a producer, it is developed by Zero-One. It was created during the fighting game trend of the 1990s, popularized by Capcom's Street Fighter II; the game takes place in a fictional city located in central Canada known as "Destiny City," a midsized American metropolis. Once every few years, strong fighters gather here and hold a violent, secret no-holds-barred fighting spree; this year, too, a group of extraordinary fighters gathered. Some coveted the titled of "World's Strongest,". Things in Destiny City heated up before the tournament began. In Burning Rival, the player engages opponents in one-on-one close quarter combat in a series of best-two-out-of-three matches; the objective of each round is to deplete the opponent's vitality. If both opponents knock each other out at the same time or the timer runs out with both fighters having an equal amount of vitality left a "double KO" or "draw game" is declared and additional rounds will be played until sudden death.

If there is no clear winner by the end of the final round either the computer-controlled opponent will win by default in a single-player match or both fighters will lose in a 2-player match. Unlike the Street Fighter franchise and some other fighting games and franchises, there are no bonus rounds added to the game. Like most fighting games at the time, the game's controls use a configuration of an eight-directional joystick and six attack buttons; the player uses the joystick to jump and move the character towards or away from the opponent, as well as to guard the character from an opponent's attacks. There are three punch buttons and three kick buttons of speed; the player can perform a variety of basic moves in any position, including grabbing/throwing attacks. The player can perform special moves by inputting a combination of directional and button-based commands. There are eight playable characters, one boss, their voices were recorded at the Power House Studio. Arnold - The lead character of the game.

An orphaned karate student. He travels the country training, still in mourning for his master. Craze - The best street fighter in the whole city. Bored with street fighting day after day, he's come to test his strength. Asuka - A modern-day female ninja, she wanders the world trying to find her older brother. Santana - A luchador nicknamed "The Fiery Wind of Mexico." His goal is to use the prize money to help his little sister. Jackson - The current kickboxing champion, he finishes off his opponents by incapacitating them. Bill - A bodyguard for a secret organization, he entered the tournament for his beloved family, counting on the strength he gained playing football to see him through. Mr. Chin - A kung fu master who owns a ramen shop, he entered the tournament to use it to expand his shop. Shingen - The spirit of a dead warrior, he is shrouded in mystery. The answer to where he came from and why he participated at the tournament is unknown. Appears again as the boss. Burning Rival at The Large Cult Fighting Game March Burning Rival at the Killer List of Videogames Burning Rival at arcade-history