Commius was a king of the Belgic nation of the Atrebates in Gaul in Britain, in the 1st century BC. When Julius Caesar conquered the Atrebates in Gaul in 57 BC, as recounted in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico, he appointed Commius as king of the tribe. Before Caesar's first expedition to Britain in 55 BC, Commius was sent as Caesar's envoy to persuade the Britons not to resist him, as Caesar believed he would have influence on the island; however he was arrested as soon. When the Britons failed to prevent Caesar from landing, Commius was handed over as part of the negotiations. Commius was able to provide a small detachment of cavalry from his tribe to help Caesar defeat further British attacks. During Caesar's second expedition to Britain Commius negotiated the surrender of the British leader Cassivellaunus, he remained Caesar's loyal client through the Gaulish revolts of 54 BC, in return Caesar allowed the Atrebates to remain independent and exempt from tax, in addition appointed Commius to rule the Morini.
However this loyalty was not to last, as related by Aulus Hirtius in the final book of the De Bello Gallico, written after Caesar's death. While Caesar was in Cisalpine Gaul in the winter of 53, the legate Titus Labienus believed that Commius had been conspiring against the Romans with other Gaulish tribes. Labienus sent a tribune, Gaius Volusenus Quadratus, some centurions to summon Commius to a sham meeting at which they would execute him for his treachery, but Commius escaped with a severe head wound, he vowed never again to associate with Romans. In 52 BC the Atrebates joined the pan-Gaulish revolt led by Vercingetorix, Commius was one of the leaders of the army that attempted to relieve Vercingetorix at the Siege of Alesia. After Vercingetorix was defeated Commius joined a revolt by the Bellovaci and persuaded some 500 Germans to support them, but this too was defeated and Commius sought refuge with his German allies. In 51 BC he returned to his homeland with a small mounted war-band for a campaign of agitation and guerrilla warfare.
That winter Mark Antony, a legionary legate at the time, ordered Volusenus to pursue him with cavalry, something Volusenus was more than happy to do. When the two groups of horsemen met Volusenus was victorious, but sustained a spear-wound to the thigh. Commius sued for peace through intermediaries, he offered hostages and promised he would live where he was told and no longer resist Caesar, on the condition that he never again had to meet a Roman. Antony granted his petition. A 1st century AD source, Sextus Julius Frontinus's Strategemata, tells how Commius fled to Britain with a group of followers with Caesar in pursuit; when he reached the English Channel the wind was in his favour but the tide was out, leaving the ships stranded on the flats. Commius ordered. Caesar, following from a distance, called off the pursuit; this suggests that the truce negotiated with Antony broke down and hostilities resumed between Commius and Caesar. However John Creighton suggests that Commius was sent to Britain as a condition of his truce with Antony - where better to ensure that he never again met a Roman? - and that Frontinus's anecdote either refers to an escape prior to the truce, or is unreliable a legend Frontinus heard while governor of Britain.
Creighton argues that Commius was in fact set up as a friendly king in Britain by Caesar, his reputation was rehabilitated by blaming his betrayal on Labienus. Commius's name appears on coins of post-conquest date in Gaul, paired with either Garmanos or Carsicios; this suggests he continued to have some power in Gaul in his absence ruling through regents. Alternatively and Carsicios may have been Commius's sons who noted their father's name on their own coins. By about 30 BC Commius had established himself as king of the Atrebates in Britain, was issuing coins from Calleva Atrebatum, it is possible that Commius and his followers founded this kingdom, although the fact that, when Caesar was unable to bring his cavalry to Britain in 55 BC, Commius was able to provide a small detachment of horsemen from his people, suggests that there were Atrebates in Britain at this time. Coins marked with his name continued to be issued until about 20 BC, some have suggested, based on the length of his floruit, that there may have been two kings and son, of the same name.
However, if Commius was a young man when appointed by Caesar he could well have lived until 20 BC. Some coins of this period are stamped "COM COMMIOS", which, if interpreted as "Commius son of Commius", would seem to support the two kings theory. Three kings, Tincomarus and Verica, are named on their coins as sons of Commius. From about 25 BC Commius appears to have ruled in collaboration with Tincomarus. After his death Tincomarus appears to have ruled the northern part of the kingdom from Calleva, while Eppillus ruled the southern part from Noviomagus. Eppillus became. AD 7. Verica succeeded him about 15, ruled until shortly before the Roman conquest of 43; the name Commius is thought to derive from the Celtic verb *kom·binati'to cut, kill'. French Nobel laureate Anatole France wrote a lengthy short story about the Romanization of Belgic Gaul from the point of view of Commius, whose name he recasts in Germanic form as Komm; the story, "Komm of the Atrebates," appears in France's historical fiction collection Clio and can be read in English translation online.
Commius appeared in the 2001 French movie Vercingétorix. Caesar (Masters of Ro
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
King, or king regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own refers to the consort of a king. In the context of prehistory and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership. In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor. In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies; the title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East, sultan or emir, etc. The term king may refer to a king consort, a title, sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A king dowager is the male equivalent of the queen dowager. A king father is a king dowager, the father of the reigning sovereign; the English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as kuningas; the English term "King" translates, is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx and its equivalents in the various European languages. The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages, it is a derivation from the term *kunjom "kin" by the -inga- suffix. The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the kin", or "son or descendant of one of noble birth"; the English word is of Germanic origin, refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century. With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons, the intermediate positions of counts and dukes; the core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period.
In the Iberian Peninsula, the remnants of the Visigothic Kingdom, the petty kingdoms of Asturias and Pamplona, expanded into the kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon with the ongoing Reconquista. In southern Europe, the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy; the Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a separate title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217. In eastern-central Europe, the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars; the kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, respectively. In Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus' consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia. In northern Europe, the tribal kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great, king of Denmark and Norway.
The Christianization of Scandinavia resulted in "consolidated" kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, by the end of the medieval period the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union. Fifteen kings are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states. Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies. Thomas J. Craughwell, 5,000 Years of Royalty: Kings, Princes, Emperors & Tsars. David Cannadine, Simon Price, Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Jean Hani, Sacred Royalty: From the Pharaoh to the Most Christian King. Media related to Kings at Walter Alison. "King". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Pp. 805–806
The Twelve Caesars
De vita Caesarum known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus. The work, written in AD 121 during the reign of the emperor Hadrian, was the most popular work of Suetonius, at that time Hadrian's personal secretary, is the largest among his surviving writings, it was dedicated to the Praetorian prefect Gaius Septicius Clarus. The Twelve Caesars was considered significant in antiquity and remains a primary source on Roman history; the book discusses the significant and critical period of the Principate from the end of the Republic to the reign of Domitian. The book can be described as racy, packed with gossip and sometimes amusing. At times the author subjectively expresses his knowledge. Although he was never a senator himself, Suetonius took the side of the Senate in most conflicts with the princeps, as well as the senators' views of the emperor; that resulted in biases, both unconscious.
Suetonius lost access to the official archives shortly after beginning his work. He was forced to rely on secondhand accounts when it came to Claudius and does not quote the emperor; the book still provides valuable information on the heritage, personal habits, physical appearance and political careers of the first Roman emperors. It mentions details. For example, Suetonius is the main source on the lives of Caligula, his uncle Claudius, the heritage of Vespasian. Suetonius made a reference in this work to "Chrestus". During the book on Nero, Suetonius does mention Christians; as with many of his contemporaries, Suetonius took omens and includes reports of omens portending imperial births and deaths. The first few chapters of this section are missing. Suetonius begins this section by describing Caesar's conquests in Gaul, his Civil War against Pompey the Great. Several times Suetonius quotes Caesar. Suetonius includes Caesar's famous decree, "Veni, vici". In discussing Caesar's war against Pompey the Great, Suetonius quotes Caesar during a battle that Caesar nearly lost, "That man does not know how to win a war."
Suetonius describes an incident. Caesar was captured by pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. Caesar engaged in philosophical discussion with the pirates while in captivity, he promised that one day he would find them and crucify them. When told by the pirates that he would be held for a ransom of 20 talents of gold, Caesar laughed, said that he must be worth at least 50 talents. Just as he had promised, after being released, Caesar crucified them, it is from Suetonius. While serving as quaestor in Hispania, Caesar once visited a statue of Alexander the Great. Upon viewing this statue, Suetonius reports; when asked what was wrong, Caesar sighed, said that by the time Alexander was his age, Alexander had conquered the whole world. Suetonius describes Caesar's gift at winning the admiration of his soldiers. Suetonius mentions that Caesar referred to them as "comrades" instead of "soldiers." When one of Caesar's legions took heavy losses in a battle, Caesar vowed not to trim his beard or hair until he had avenged the deaths of his soldiers.
Suetonius describes an incident during a naval battle. One of Caesar's soldiers had his hand cut off. Despite the injury, this soldier still managed to subdue its crew. Suetonius mentions Caesar's famous crossing of the Rubicon, on his way to Rome to start a Civil War against Pompey and seize power. Suetonius describes Caesar's major reforms upon defeating Pompey and seizing power. One such reform was the modification of the Roman calendar; the calendar at the time had used the same system of solar years and lunar months that our current calendar uses. Caesar updated the calendar so as to minimize the number of lost days due to the prior calendar’s imprecision regarding the exact amount of time in a solar year. Caesar renamed the fifth month in the Roman calendar July, in his honor. Suetonius says that Caesar had planned on conquering the Parthian Empire; these plans were not carried out due to Caesar's assassination. Suetonius includes a description of Caesar's appearance and personality. Suetonius says.
Due to embarrassment regarding his premature baldness, Caesar combed his hair over and forward so as to hide this baldness. Caesar wore a senator's tunic with an orange belt. Caesar is described as wearing loose clothes. Suetonius quotes the Roman dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla as saying, "Beware the boy with the loose clothes, for one day he will mean the ruin of the Republic." This quote referred to Caesar, as Caesar had been a young man during Sulla's Social War and subsequent dictatorship. Suetonius describes Caesar as taking steps. Political enemies at the time had claimed that C
Epaticcus or Epaticcu was a brother of Cunobelinus, king of the Catuvellauni, a tribe of Iron Age Britain. Coins bearing his name begin to appear in the northern lands of the neighbouring Atrebates tribe and their capital, Calleva Atrebatum fell to him around AD 25, it is that Epaticcus was permitted to govern the area by his brother as part of the Catuvellaunian hegemony, expanding across south eastern Britain at the time. Catuvellauni at Roman-Britain.org Catuvellauni at Romans in Britain
Calleva Atrebatum was an Iron Age settlement, capital of the Atrebates tribe, subsequently a town in the Roman province of Britannia. Its ruins lie to the west of, beneath, the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Silchester, in the county of Hampshire; the church occupies a site just within the ancient walls of Calleva although the village of Silchester itself now lies about a mile to the west. Unusually for a tribal capital in Britain, the Iron Age town was situated on the same site as the Roman town although the layout was revised; the Late Iron Age settlement at Silchester has been revealed by archaeology and coins of the British Q series link Silchester with the seat of power of the Atrebates. Coins found stamped with "COMMIOS" show that Commius, king of the Atrebates, established his territory and mint here after moving from Gaul; the oppidum was situated on the edge of a gravel plateau. The Inner Earthwork, constructed c. 1 AD, enclosed an area of 32 hectares, a more extensive series of defensive earthworks was built in the wider area.
Small areas of Late Iron Age occupation have been uncovered on the south side of the Inner Earthwork and around the South Gate. More detailed evidence for Late Iron Age occupation was excavated below the Forum-Basilica. Several roundhouses and pits occupy a north-east - south-west alignment, dated to c. 25 BC - 15 BC. Subsequent occupation, dated to c. 15 BC - AD 40/50, consisted of metalled streets, rubbish pits and palisaded enclosures. Imported Gallo-Belgic finewares and iron and copper-alloy brooches show that the settlement was "high status". Distinctive evidence for food was identified, including oyster shell, a large briquetage assemblage and sherds from amphorae which would have contained olive oil, fish sauce and wine. Further areas of Late Iron Age occupation have been uncovered by the Insula IX'Town Life' Project which has revealed a substantial boundary ditch c. 40 - 20 BC, a large rectangular hall c. 25 BC - AD 10 and the laying out of lanes and new property divisions c. AD 10 - 40/50.
Archaeobotanical studies have demonstrated the import and consumption of celery and olive in Insula IX prior to the Claudian Conquest. After the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD the settlement developed into the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum, it was larger, covering about 40 hectares, was laid out along a distinctive street grid pattern. The town flourished until the early Anglo-Saxon period. A large mansio was situated in Insula VIII, near the South Gate, consisting of three wings arranged around a courtyard. A possible nymphaeum was located near to the amphitheatre to the north of the walled city. Calleva was a major crossroads; the Devil's Highway connected it with the provincial capital Londinium. From Calleva, this road divided into routes to various other points west, including the road to Aquae Sulis; the earthworks and, for much of the circumference, the ruined walls are still visible. The remains of the amphitheatre, added about AD 70-80 and situated outside the city walls, can be seen.
The area inside the walls is now farmland with no visible distinguishing features, other than the enclosing earthworks and walls, with a tiny mediaeval church in one corner. There is a spring that emanates from inside the walls, in the vicinity of the original baths, which flows south-eastwards where it joins Silchester Brook. Silchester was abandoned in the 5th to 7th century, unusually late compared to other deserted Roman settlements; the historian David Nash Ford identifies the site with the Cair Celemion of Nennius's list of the 28 cities of Sub-Roman Britain. Most Roman towns in Britain continued to exist after the end of the Roman era, their remains underlay their more recent successors, which are still major population centres. There is a suggestion that the Saxons deliberately avoided Calleva after it was abandoned, preferring to maintain their existing centres at Winchester and Dorchester. There was a gap of a century before the twin Saxon towns of Basing and Reading were founded on rivers either side of Calleva.
As a consequence, Calleva has been subject to benign neglect for most of the last two millennia. Calleva Atrebatum was first excavated by the Rev. James Joyce who, in 1866, discovered the bronze eagle known as'The Silchester Eagle' now in the Museum of Reading, it may have formed part of a Jupiter statue in the forum. Calleva was excavated by the Society of Antiquaries of London between 1890 and 1909, this excavation provided valuable information about civic life and daily life in the first centuries AD, as well as a map of the town. Whilst the excavation techniques of the time could deal with buildings with stone foundations, they were not capable of recovering timber construction that predominated in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD and which may have been destroyed; the excavations included pioneering studies of plant remains including imported plant foods and insects. Molly Cotton carried out excavations on the defences from 1938-39. Since the 1970s Michael Fulford and the University of Reading have undertaken several excavations on the town walls and the forum basilica, which has revealed remarkably good preservation of items from both the Iron Age and early Roman occupations.
From 1997 to 2014 Reading University has made sustained and concentrated excavations in Insula IX. Results of the Late Roman and Mid Roman phases have been published. In 2013, excavations be