Province of New Hampshire
The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and a British province in North America. The name was first given in 1629 to the territory between the Merrimack and Piscataqua rivers on the eastern coast of North America, was named after the county of Hampshire in southern England by Captain John Mason, its first named proprietor. In 1776 the province established an independent state and government, the State of New Hampshire, joined with twelve other colonies to form the United States. Europeans first settled New Hampshire in the 1620s, the province consisted for many years of a small number of communities along the seacoast, Piscataqua River, Great Bay. In 1641 the communities were organized under the government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, until Charles II issued a colonial charter for the province and appointed John Cutt as President of New Hampshire in 1679. After a brief period as a separate province, the territory was absorbed into the Dominion of New England in 1686. Following the collapse of the unpopular Dominion, on October 7, 1691 New Hampshire was again separated from Massachusetts and organized as an English crown colony.
Its charter was enacted on May 14, 1692, during the coregency of William and Mary, the joint monarchs of England and Ireland. Between 1699 and 1741, the province's governor was concurrently the governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay; this practice ended in 1741, when Benning Wentworth was appointed governor. Wentworth laid claim on behalf of the province to lands west of the Connecticut River, east of the Hudson River, north of Massachusetts, issuing controversial land grants that were disputed by the Province of New York, which claimed the territory; these disputes resulted in the eventual formation of the Vermont Republic and the US state of Vermont. The province's economy was dominated by fishing; the timber trade, although lucrative, was a subject of conflict with the crown, which sought to reserve the best trees for use as ship masts. Although the Puritan leaders of Massachusetts ruled the province for many years, the New Hampshire population was more religiously diverse, originating in part in its early years with refugees from opposition to religious differences in Massachusetts.
From the 1680s until 1760, New Hampshire was on the front lines of military conflicts with New France and the Abenaki people, seeing major attacks on its communities in King William's War, Dummer's War, King George's War. The province was at first not in favor of independence, but with the outbreak of armed conflict at Lexington and Concord many of its inhabitants joined the revolutionary cause. After Governor John Wentworth fled New Hampshire in August 1775, the inhabitants adopted a constitution in early 1776. Independence as part of the United States was confirmed with the 1783 Treaty of Paris. Prior to English colonization, the area, now northeastern New England was populated by bands of the Abenaki, who lived in sometimes-large villages of longhouses. Depending on the season, they would either remain near their villages to fish, gather plants, engage in sugaring, trade or fight with their neighbors, or head to nearby fowling and hunting grounds; the seacoast was explored in the early years of the 17th century by English and French explorers, including Samuel de Champlain and John Smith.
Permanent English settlement began after land grants were issued in 1622 to John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges for the territory between the Merrimack and Sagadahoc rivers encompassing present-day New Hampshire and western Maine. Settlers, whose early leaders included David Thomson, Edward Hilton and his brother William Hilton, began settling the New Hampshire coast as early as 1623, expanded along the shores of the Piscataqua River and the Great Bay; these settlers were intending to profit from the local fisheries. Mason and Gorges, neither of whom came to New England, divided their claims along the Piscataqua River in 1629. Mason took the territory between the Piscataqua and Merrimack, called it "New Hampshire", after the English county of Hampshire. Conflicts between holders of grants issued by Mason and Gorges concerning their boundaries led to a need for more active management. In 1630, Captain Walter Neale was sent as chief agent and governor of the lower settlements on the Piscataqua, in 1631 Captain Thomas Wiggin was sent to govern the upper settlements, comprising modern-day Dover and Stratham.
After Mason died in 1635, the colonists and employees of Mason appropriated many of his holdings to themselves. Exeter was founded in 1638 by John Wheelwright, after he had been banished from the neighboring Massachusetts Bay Colony for defending the teachings of Anne Hutchinson, his sister-in-law. In the absence of granting authority from anyone associated with the Masons, Wheelwright's party purchased the land from local Indians, his party included William Wentworth, whose descendants came to play a major role in colonial history. Around the same time, others unhappy with the strict Puritan rule in Massachusetts settled in Dover, while Puritans from Massachusetts settled what became Hampton; because of a general lack of government, the New Hampshire settlements sought the protection of their larger neighbor to the south, the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1641, they collectively agreed to be governed from Massachusetts, provided the towns retained self-rule, that Congregational Church membership was not required for their voters.
The settlements formed part of that colony until 1679, sending representat
Ethan Allen was a farmer, land speculator, writer, lay theologian, American Revolutionary War patriot, politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U. S. state of Vermont, for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with Benedict Arnold. He was the father of Frances Allen. Born in rural Connecticut, Allen had a frontier upbringing but received an education that included some philosophical teachings. In the late 1760s he became interested in the New Hampshire Grants, buying land there and becoming embroiled in the legal disputes surrounding the territory. Legal setbacks led to the formation of the Green Mountain Boys, whom Allen led in a campaign of intimidation and property destruction to drive New York settlers from the Grants; when the American Revolutionary War broke out and the Boys seized the initiative and captured Fort Ticonderoga in May 1775. In September 1775 Allen led a failed attempt on Montreal that resulted in his capture by British authorities.
First imprisoned aboard Royal Navy ships, he was paroled in New York City, released in a prisoner exchange in 1778. Upon his release, Allen returned to the Grants, which had declared independence in 1777, resumed political activity in the territory. In addition to continuing resistance to New York's attempts to assert control over the territory, Allen was active in efforts by Vermont's leadership for recognition by Congress, he participated in controversial negotiations with the British over the possibility of Vermont becoming a separate British province. Allen wrote accounts of his exploits in the war that were read in the 19th century, as well as philosophical treatises and documents relating to the politics of Vermont's formation, his business dealings included successful farming operations, one of Connecticut's early iron works, land speculation in the Vermont territory. Land purchased by Allen and his brothers included tracts of land that became Burlington, Vermont, he was twice married.
Ethan Allen was born in Litchfield, the first-born child of Joseph and Mary Baker Allen, both descended from English Puritans. The family moved to the town of Cornwall shortly after his birth; the move to Cornwall grew out of Allen's father's quest for freedom of religion during a time of turmoil: the Great Awakening, when Puritans were separating into churches with differing dogmas, in particular about the proper form of conversion: by works or by grace. His lifelong interest in philosophy and ideas emerged against the backdrop of his father's involvement in these Puritan debates and his father's refusal to convert to the covenant by grace; as a boy Allen excelled at quoting the Bible and was known for disputing the meaning of passages. Seven siblings, all of whom survived to adulthood, joined the family between Allen's birth in 1738 and 1751. Allen had two sisters, his brothers Ira and Heman would become prominent figures in the early history of Vermont. Although not much is known about Allen's childhood, the town of Cornwall was frontier territory in the 1740s.
By the time Allen reached his teens, the area, while still a difficult area in which to make a living, began to resemble a town, with wood-frame houses beginning to replace the rough cabins of the early settlers. Joseph Allen died in 1755. Allen had, before his father's death, begun studies under a minister in the nearby town of Salisbury with the goal of gaining admission to Yale College. Allen's brother Ira recalled that at a young age, Allen was curious and interested in learning. Allen was forced to end his studies upon his father's death. While he volunteered for militia service in 1757 in response to French movements resulting in the siege of Fort William Henry, his unit received word while en route that the fort had fallen, turned back. Though the French and Indian War continued over the next several years, Allen did not participate in any further military activities, is presumed to have tended his farm, at least until 1762. In that year, he became part owner of an iron furnace in Salisbury.
He married Mary Brownson, a woman five years his senior, from the nearby town of Roxbury, in July 1762. They first settled in Cornwall, but moved the following year to Salisbury with their infant daughter Loraine. Allen proceeded to develop the iron works; the expansion of the iron works was costly to Allen. The Allen brothers sold their interest in the iron works in October of 1765. By most accounts Allen's first marriage was an unhappy one, his wife was rigidly religious, prone to criticizing him, able to read and write. In contrast, Allen's behavior was sometimes quite flamboyant. In spite of these differences the marriage survived until Mary's death in 1783. Allen and Mary had five children only two of whom reached adulthood. Allen's exploits in those years introduced him to the wrong side of the justice system, which would become a recurring feature of his life. In one incident, he and his brother Heman went to the farm of a neighbor, some of whose pigs had escaped onto their land, seized the pigs.
The neighbor sued to have the animals returned to him.
Castleton is a town in Rutland County, United States. Castleton is about 15 miles to the west of Rutland, the county's seat and most populous city, about 7 miles east of the New York/Vermont state border; the town had a population of 4,717 at the 2010 census. Castleton University is located there, with roots dating to 1787. Castleton was settled in 1770, chartered in 1761; the charter for 36 square miles of land was granted by Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire and divided the land into 70 "rights" or "shares". Governor Wentworth retained ownership of two shares, several others were given for churches and a school. Three families had settled in Castleton by 1770. In the spring of 1767, some of the town's first settlers, Amos Bird and Noah Lee, arrived in Castleton from Salisbury, Connecticut. Castleton's favorite landmark, Birdseye Mountain, is named for Colonel Amos Bird, he had acquired 40 shares of land when the town was chartered and built a permanent residence there in the summer of 1769.
More settlers followed, by 1777 the town consisted of 17 families. In May 1775 Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys met in Castleton with Benedict Arnold to plan their next day's attack on Fort Ticonderoga, 30 miles west, on the New York side of Lake Champlain, their successful capture of the fort was a holding action that lasted two years until the British launched a powerful sweep southward on Lake Champlain. The battle at nearby Hubbardton, followed by battles at Bennington and Saratoga, marked the turning point of the Revolutionary War in the North. Although German soldiers were stationed in Castleton for a time in 1777, they left as the fortunes of the war changed, Tory sympathizers were treated with scorn by Castleton settlers. Fort Warren, built in 1777, was located in Castleton; the first medical school in Vermont was chartered here in 1818. Following the war, Castleton continued to grow as an agricultural community. Farmers raised cattle, turned for a while to sheep. Saw mills and gristmills were the first industries established in town.
During the 19th century the slate and marble industries thrived around Castleton. The railroad came in 1854, the last half of the century saw the development of tourism around Lake Bomoseen. In the 19th century Castleton flourished, many residents built elaborate houses to replace their log cabins and primitive frame houses. Several luxury hotels were built around the west end of the lake. A trolley system ran from the center of town to Lake Bomoseen, a destination for tourists vacationing during the summer; the Hydeville area flourished in the mid-19th century as a slate milling center. Between 1900 and 1940 several fires occurred in Castleton Village, Castleton Corners and Hydeville, as well as at the lakeside resorts. Despite this destruction of hotels and the original commercial and industrial areas of its villages, the town of Castleton retains an architectural heritage spanning two hundred years of Vermont history. Castleton's mile-long tree-shaded Main Street, with its array of Federal and Greek Revival style houses and public buildings, many by builder Thomas Royal Dake, has been listed in its entirety on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Higley House was built in 1810 by Erastus Higley, houses antiques and furnishings. Antique carriages are located on the grounds; the house is now maintained by the Castleton Historical Society, was built and lived in by the Higley family until 1973. The Castleton Federated Church was built in 1833 by master builder Thomas Dake; the church is listed in the Historic American Buildings Survey. Castleton is part of the Castleton-Hubbardton Union School District; the town has two schools: Castleton Elementary School, which serves grades K–6, the Castleton Village School, which serves grades 7 and 8. Students from Castleton families attend high school at Fair Haven Union High School. Castleton University is located in Castleton and dates back to 1787, it is a public liberal arts college. In 2009, Castleton began running a depot station through Amtrak; the station is located behind Main Street near the post office. The old train stop was renovated early that year; the train stop runs on the Ethan Allen Express line.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Castleton has a total area of 42.35 square miles, of which 38.9 square miles is land and 3.45 square miles, or 8.1%, is water. Within the bounds of the incorporated town, there are three distinct areas. One is the village, where the post office, town offices, general store, a 1940s style diner and a few other commercial enterprises are located; the university is located on a side street nearby. Lake Bomoseen is the second area, a 5-mile-long resort and fishing spot with its post office in Castleton Corners; the third post office is in an extension of Main Street at the end of Lake Bomoseen. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,367 people, 1,550 households, 1,007 families residing in the town; the population density was 111.9 people per square mile. There were 2,107 housing units at an average density of 54.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.98% White, 0.09% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 1,550 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals
Fort Dummer was a British fort built in 1724 during Dummer's War by the colonial militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay under the command of Lieutenant Timothy Dwight in what is now the Town of Brattleboro in southeastern Vermont. The fort was the first permanent European settlement in Vermont, it consisted of a 180-square foot wooden stockade near 42.8309°N 72.5504°W / 42.8309. Near the former site of the fort is a granite monument one mile south of the Brattleboro railway station; the fort was named after Lieutenant Governor William Dummer, acting governor of Massachusetts at the time of the fort's construction. On October 11, 1724, seventy Abenakis killed 3 or 4 soldiers. Fort Dummer State Park is part of the Vermont State Park system, it comprises 217 acres of forest in Guilford & Vernon. The park overlooks the former site of Fort Dummer, flooded when the Vernon Dam was built on the Connecticut River in 1908; the granite monument that commemorates the fort is not within the borders of the park.
The monument itself was moved in 1908 to prevent it from being lost after the dam was completed. The original site of the fort can be seen from the northernmost scenic vista on the Sunrise Trail within the park, it is now underwater near the lumber company located on the western bank of the river. Campground facilities include 50 tent/trailer sites and 10 lean-to sites, toilet buildings with hot showers, a sanitary dump station. Other facilities include a small picnic area, three short hiking trails, one of which leads to a swimming hole, a large open field. Dummer's War Fort at Number 4 Fort Dummer State Park
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Connecticut Western Reserve
The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and by the state of Connecticut in what is now the northeastern region of Ohio. The Reserve had been granted to the Colony under the terms of its charter by King Charles II. Connecticut relinquished claim to some of its western lands to the United States in 1786 following the American Revolutionary War and preceding the 1787 establishment of the Northwest Territory. Despite ceding sovereignty to the United States, Connecticut retained ownership of the eastern portion of its cession, south of Lake Erie, it sold much of this "Western Reserve" to a group of speculators who operated as the Connecticut Land Company. The phrase Western Reserve is preserved in numerous institutional names in Ohio, such as Western Reserve Academy, Case Western Reserve University, Western Reserve Hospital; the Reserve encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga and Huron, Lake, Medina, Trumbull. After the American Revolutionary War, Connecticut was forced by the federal government to surrender the Pennsylvania portion of its "sea-to-sea land grant" following the Yankee-Pennamite Wars.
The state held fast to its claim on the lands between the 41st and 42nd-and-2-minutes parallels that lay west of the Pennsylvania state border. The claim within Ohio was for a 120-mile -wide strip between Lake Erie and a line just south of present-day Youngstown, New London, Willard, about 3 miles south of present-day U. S. Highway 224; the claim beyond Ohio included parts of Michigan, Illinois, Nebraska, Utah and California. The eastern boundary of the reserve follows a true meridian along Ellicott's Line, the boundary with Pennsylvania; the western boundary veers more than four degrees from a meridian to maintain the 120-mile width, due to convergence. Connecticut gave up western land claims following the American Revolutionary War in exchange for federal assumption of its debt, as did several other states. From these concessions, the federal government organized the old Northwest Territory, earlier known as the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio"; the deed of cession was issued on 13 September 1786.
As population increased in portions of the Northwest Territory, new states were organized and admitted to the Union in the early 19th century. Connecticut retained 3,366,921 acres in Ohio, which became known as the "Western Reserve"; the state sold the Western Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company in 1796 for $1,200,000. The Land Company were a group of investors who were from Suffield, Connecticut; the initial eight men in the group planned to divide the land into homestead plots and sell it to settlers from the east. But the Indian titles to the Reserve had not been extinguished. Clear title was obtained east of the Cuyahoga River by the Greenville Treaty in 1795 and west of the river in the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805; the western end of the reserve included the Firelands or "Sufferers' Lands," 500,000 acres reserved for residents of several New England towns, destroyed by British-set fires during the Revolutionary War. The next year, the Land Company sent surveyors led by Moses Cleaveland to the Reserve to divide the land into square townships, 5 miles on each side (25 square miles.
Cleaveland's team founded the city of Cleveland along Lake Erie, which became the largest city in the region. The territory was named "New Connecticut", settlers began to trickle in during the next few years. Youngstown was founded in 1796, Warren in 1798, Hudson in 1799, Ravenna in 1799, Ashtabula in 1803, Stow in 1804. Connecticut ceded sovereignty over the Western Reserve in 1800; the United States absorbed it into the Northwest Territory, which organized Trumbull County within the boundaries of the Reserve. Warren, Ohio, is the former county seat of the Reserve and identifies itself as "the historical capital of the Western Reserve." Several more counties were carved out of the territory. The name "Western Reserve" survives in the area in various institutions such as the "Western Reserve Historical Society" and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio; this area of Ohio became a center of resource development and industrialization through the mid-20th century. It was a center of the steel industry, receiving iron ore shipped through the Great Lakes from Minnesota, processing it into steel products, shipping these products to the east.
This industry stimulated the development of great freight lakers, as the steam ships were known, including the first steel ships in the 20th century. Railroads took over some of the commodity transportation from the lake ships. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these cities attracted hundreds of thousands of European immigrants and migrants from the rural South to its industrial jobs. At the request of Congress in 2011, the National Park Service prepared a feasibility study for declaring the 14-county region of the Western Reserve as a National Heritage Area; this is a means to encourage broad-based preservation of such historical sites and buildings that are related to a large historical theme. Such assessment and designation has been significant for recognizing assets, encouragi
Windsor is a town in Windsor County, United States. As the "Birthplace of Vermont", the town is where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted in 1777, thus marking the founding of the Vermont Republic—a sovereign state until 1791 when Vermont joined the United States. Over much of its history, Windsor was home to a variety of manufacturing enterprises; the population was 3,553 at the 2010 census. One of the New Hampshire grants, Windsor was chartered as a town on July 6, 1761, by colonial governor Benning Wentworth, it was first settled in August 1764 by Captain Steele Smith and his family from Farmington, Connecticut. In 1777, the signers of the Constitution of the Vermont Republic met at Old Constitution House, a tavern at the time, to declare independence from the British Empire. In 1820, it was a thriving center for trade and agriculture. In 1835, the first dam was built across Mill Brook to provide water power. Factories made guns, tinware and harnesses; the community is named for Connecticut.
In 1846, Robbins and Lawerence received a government contract to manufacture firearms. Using advanced machine tools to produce interchangeable parts and their associates established factories in the Connecticut River valley and throughout New England. Two factories, now both closed, sustained the economy of Windsor: Cone Automatic Machine Company and a Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company plant. Windsor village began development at the end of the 18th century and achieved importance in Vermont history as the location of the framing of the constitution of Vermont, it is known as the birthplace of Vermont, where the state constitution was signed, acted as the first capital until 1805 when Montpelier became the official state capital. Commerce prospered due to the village's location on the banks of the Connecticut River where several smaller streams run into it; the economy improved in the mid-19th century when Windsor became the first town in the state to break ground for the railroad with the construction of a rail depot.
Windsor Station connected the town to out-of-state markets. It was. Windsor's war memorial, the City Center Veterans Memorial, was created by sculptor Lawrence Nowlan. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 19.8 square miles, of which 19.5 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water. Home to part of Mount Ascutney, Windsor is situated beside the Connecticut River; the town is crossed by Interstate 91, U. S. Route 5, Vermont Route 12, Vermont Route 44, Vermont Route 44A, it is bordered by the town of Weathersfield to the south, West Windsor to the west, Hartland to the north. To the east, across the Connecticut River, is Cornish, New Hampshire, to which Windsor is connected by the Cornish–Windsor Covered Bridge, one of the longest covered bridges in the world; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,756 people, 1,520 households, 945 families residing in the town. The population density was 192.1 people per square mile. There were 1,611 housing units at an average density of 82.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 97.74% White, 0.24% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.24% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. There were 1,520 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.83. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,815, the median income for a family was $43,551.
Males had a median income of $29,897 versus $23,313 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,640. About 6.4% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.9% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. Windsor is served by Vermont; the district serves grades kindergarten to twelfth. The two schools in the district are Windsor High School; the Mt. Ascutney Hospital and Health Center is located in Windsor. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides daily service through Windsor, operating its Vermonter between Washington, D. C. and St. Albans, Vermont. Moon Dance Since 1999, Windsor has hosted this Autumn street festival, complete with live bands and hypnotists. Windsor is home to Paradise Park in the Windsor Town Forest which borders Runnemede Lake Asa Aikens, Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court Asher Benjamin, author, educator Carlos Coolidge, politician Edward Curtis, politician A. E. Douglass, astronomer Josiah Dunham, Secretary of State of Vermont Maxwell Evarts, president of the Windsor Savings Bank and founded the State Fair Program in Vermont William M. Evarts, United States Attorney General, United States Secretary of State, U.
S. senator for New York Horace Everett, US congressman William Laurel Harris and arts organizer Valentine B. Horton, US congr