Vermouth is an aromatized, fortified wine flavored with various botanicals and sometimes colored. The modern versions of the beverage were first produced in the mid to late 18th century in Turin, Italy. While vermouth was traditionally used for medicinal purposes, its true claim to fame is as an apéritif, with fashionable cafés in Turin serving it to guests around the clock. However, in the late 19th century it became popular with bartenders as a key ingredient in many classic cocktails that have survived to date, such as the Martini, the Manhattan, the Rob Roy, the Negroni. In addition to being consumed as an aperitif or cocktail ingredient, vermouth is sometimes used as an alternative white wine in cooking. There have been two main types of vermouth: sweet and dry. Responding to demand and competition, vermouth manufacturers have created additional styles, including extra-dry white, sweet white, red and rosé. Vermouth is produced by starting with a base of a neutral grape unfermented wine must.
Each manufacturer adds additional alcohol and a proprietary mixture of dry ingredients, consisting of aromatic herbs and barks, to the base wine, base wine plus spirit, or spirit only – which may be redistilled before adding to the wine or unfermented wine must. After the wine is aromatized and fortified, the vermouth is sweetened with either cane sugar or caramelized sugar, depending on the style. Italian and French companies produce most of the vermouth consumed throughout the world, although Spain, the United States and the United Kingdom are producers. Consumption of wines fortified with herbs or roots is believed to have begun in China at least as early as the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties; the extra ingredients were added to wine to make it a medicinal drink. Medicinal drinks made by alcoholic fermentation of herbs and sugars are mentioned in early Indian texts on medicine. Though this does not imply that European vermouths originated from ancient Chinese and Indian drinks. Recipes for infusing white wine date back to ancient Greece from around 400 BC.
A popular ingredient was wormwood, based on the belief that it was effective at treating stomach disorders and intestinal parasites. The name "vermouth" is the French pronunciation of the German word Wermut for wormwood, used as an ingredient in the drink over its history. Fortified wines containing wormwood as a principal ingredient existed in Germany around the 16th century. At about this time an Italian merchant named D'Alessio began producing a similar product in Piedmont as a "wormwood wine". D'Alessio's version of the libation contained other botanical ingredients in addition to wormwood. Competing brands developed shortly thereafter in eastern and southeastern France, containing their own proprietary mix of ingredients, including herbs, roots and spices. By the mid-17th century, the drink was being consumed in England under the name "vermouth", the common name for the beverage until the present day. Over time, two distinct versions of vermouth became established, one pale and bitter, the other red and sweeter.
Merchant Antonio Benedetto Carpano introduced the first sweet vermouth in 1786 in Italy. The drink quickly became popular with the royal court of Turin. Around 1800 to 1813, the first pale, dry vermouth was produced in France by Joseph Noilly. However, not all pale vermouths produced over time have been dry, not all red vermouths have been sweet; the use of vermouth as a medicinal liquor waned by the end of the 18th century, but its use as an aperitif increased in Italy and France. The advent of the cocktail, in the late 19th century, found a new use for vermouth. Bartenders found that it was an ideal mixer for many cocktails, including the Manhattan and the precursors to the Martini. In addition, the popular Vermouth cocktail, first appearing in 1868, consisted of chilled vermouth and a twist of lemon peel with the occasional addition of small amounts of bitters or maraschino; the popularity of vermouth-heavy cocktails in America using twice as much vermouth as gin or whiskey, continued through the 1880s and 1890s.
Although the amount of vermouth used in cocktail recipes had somewhat declined, it has been experiencing a rise as a favorite among a new breed of bartenders, as a key ingredient in many cocktails. Vermouth gained popularity in the 1950s with help from the Martini, being marketed by liquor companies. Product placement and celebrity endorsements from personalities such as Ernest Hemingway and Humphrey Bogart helped to increase the Martini's profile. However, the most successful advertiser of the Martini was the fictional character James Bond; the popularity of vermouth in the United States and Great Britain declined after the mid-20th century, but was still used in those countries in many classic cocktails such as the Manhattan, albeit in smaller amounts. The drink is more popular in other parts of Europe, such as Italy and France, where it is consumed by itself as an apéritif. In the years since 2013, there has been renewed interest in vermouth in the US. Artisanal makers have created new brands of vermouth which do not seek to imitate European styles, vermouth has been a fast-growing category within the wine trade.
Several wine grapes, including Clairette blanche, Bianchetta Trevigiana and Trebbiano, are used as the base ingredients for vermouths. From these grapes, a low-alcohol white wine is produced by vermouth manufacturers; the wine may be aged for a short while before the addition of other ingredients. For sweet vermouths, sugar syrup is added. The
William McCrary Ray II is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. He was a Judge of the Georgia Court of Appeals. Ray was born in Macon, Georgia in 1963, he received his Bachelor of Business Administration from the Terry College of Business in 1985, magna cum laude, his Master of Business Administration from the Terry College of Business in 1986, his Juris Doctor, cum laude, from the University of Georgia School of Law in 1990. Upon graduation he joined the law firm of Andersen, Davidson & Tate, P. C. in Gwinnett County, Georgia. He spent six years representing the 48th District, he served on the Judiciary, Special Judiciary, Appropriations, Natural Resources, Transportation Committees. On January 14, 2002, he took the oath of office to be a Superior Court Judge on the Gwinnett Judicial Circuit, a position in which he served for ten years. On July 30, 2012, Governor Nathan Deal appointed Ray to serve as the 76th Judge of the Court of Appeals of Georgia, where he succeeded Keith R. Blackwell, elevated to the state Supreme Court.
He served in that capacity until his appointment as a federal judge. On July 13, 2017, President Trump nominated Ray to serve as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia, to the seat vacated by Judge Harold Lloyd Murphy, who took senior status on March 31, 2017. On September 20, 2017, a hearing on his nomination was held before the Senate Judiciary Committee. On October 19, 2017, his nomination was reported out of committee by a roll call vote of 11–9. On January 3, 2018, his nomination was returned to the President under Rule XXXI, Paragraph 6 of the United States Senate. On January 5, 2018, President Donald Trump announced his intent to renominate Ray to a federal judgeship. On January 8, 2018, his renomination was sent to the Senate. On January 18, 2018, his nomination was reported out of committee by an 11–10 vote. On October 11, 2018, his nomination was confirmed by a 54–41 vote, he received his judicial commission on October 25, 2018.
Ray has been married since 1989 to Dr. Kelle Chandler Ray, a clinical psychologist who practices in Lawrenceville, Georgia, they reside in Grayson, Georgia. One of Ray's uncles was Richard Ray, a Democratic United States Congressman from Perry and another uncle was Robert Ray of Fort Valley who served in the Georgia House of Representatives for 24 years and as Senator Sam Nunn's Chief of Staff in Washington, D. C. for 12 years. William McCrary Ray II at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. William M. Ray II at Ballotpedia
Eoophyla is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae. It was described by Charles Swinhoe in 1900. Angustalis species group Eoophyla angustalis Eoophyla becki Mey, 2009 Eoophyla fontis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla liwaguensis Mey, 2009 Eoophyla nussi Speidel, 2003 ceratucha species group Eoophyla boernickei Mey, 2006 Eoophyla ceratucha Eoophyla continentalis Jaenicke & Mey, 2011 Eoophyla corniculata Jaenicke & Mey, 2011 Eoophyla nigripilosa Yoshiyasu, 1987 Eoophyla profalcatalis Jaenicke & Mey, 2011 Eoophyla promiscuata Jaenicke & Mey, 2011 Eoophyla silvicola Jaenicke & Mey, 2011 Eoophyla sumatroceratucha Jaenicke & Mey, 2011 crassicornalis species group Eoophyla adjunctalis Eoophyla aureolalis Eoophyla bipunctalis Eoophyla callilithalis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla clasnaumanni Speidel & Mey in Mey & Speidel, 2005 Eoophyla colonialis Eoophyla crassicornalis Eoophyla latifascialis Eoophyla mindanensis Speidel, 1998 Eoophyla myanmarica Mey & Speidel, 2005 Eoophyla philippinensis Speidel, 1998 Eoophyla polydora gibbosalis species group Eoophyla cocos Mey, 2009 Eoophyla gibbosalis Eoophyla hamalis Eoophyla hirsuta Eoophyla mimeticalis Eoophyla ochripicta Eoophyla parapomasalis Eoophyla saturatalis Eoophyla simplicialis Eoophyla sinensis litoralis species group Eoophyla litoralis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla montanalis Speidel, 2003 peribocalis species group Eoophyla conjunctalis Eoophyla dominalis Eoophyla ectopalis Eoophyla halialis Eoophyla inouei Yoshiyasu, 1979 Eoophyla melanops Eoophyla mormodes Eoophyla nectalis Eoophyla sejunctalis Eoophyla thaiensis Yoshiyasu, 1987 quinqualis species group Eoophyla argyropis Eoophyla basilissa Eoophyla bicolensis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla gephyrotis Eoophyla quezonensis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla quinqualis Eoophyla richteri Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla yeni Speidel, 2003 schintlmeisteri species group Eoophyla cernyi Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla cervinalis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla leytensis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla napoleoni Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla schintlmeisteri Speidel, 2003 simplex species group Eoophyla naumanni Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla simplex snelleni species group Eoophyla pulchralis Speidel, 2003 Eoophyla snelleni Semper, 1902 unknown species group Eoophyla abstrusa Li, You & Wang, 2003 Eoophyla accra Eoophyla acroperalis Eoophyla argenteopicta Eoophyla argentimaculalis Eoophyla argyrilinale Eoophyla argyrotoxalis Pagenstecher, 1886 Eoophyla assegaia Mey, 2011 Eoophyla aurantipennis Eoophyla belladotae Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla brunnealis Eoophyla cameroonensis Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla candidalis Pagenstecher, 1886 Eoophyla capensis Eoophyla carcassoni Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla cervinalis Eoophyla chrysoxantha Eoophyla citrialis Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla coniferalis Eoophyla costifascialis Eoophyla cyclozonalis Eoophyla dendrophila Speidel, Mey & Schulze, 2002 Eoophyla dentisigna Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla diopsalis Eoophyla discalis Eoophyla dolichoplagia Eoophyla dominulalis Eoophyla euprepialis Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla euryxantha Eoophyla evidens Li, You & Wang in Li, You & Wang, 2003 Eoophyla excentrica Mey & Speidel, 1999 Eoophyla flavifascialis Eoophyla fuscicostalis Eoophyla goniophoralis Eoophyla grandifuscalis Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla guillermetorum Eoophyla hauensteini Speidel & Mey, 1999 Eoophyla hemicryptis Eoophyla hemimelaena Eoophyla hemithermalis Eoophyla heptopis Eoophyla idiotis Eoophyla intensa Eoophyla interopalis Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla junctiscriptalis Eoophyla kingstoni Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla latifascia Munroe, 1959 Eoophyla latipennis Munroe, 1959 Eoophyla leroii Eoophyla leucostola Eoophyla leucostrialis Eoophyla limalis Viette, 1957 Eoophyla longiplagialis Eoophyla mediofascialis Eoophyla menglensis Li, An, Li & Liu, 1995 Eoophyla mesoscialis Eoophyla metataxalis Eoophyla metazonalis Eoophyla metriodora Eoophyla mimicalis Eoophyla munroei Agassiz & Mey, 2011 Eoophyla nandinalis Eoophyla nigerialis Eoophyla nigriplagialis Eoophyla nyasalis Eoophyla nymphulalis Eoophyla obliquivitta Eoophyla obliquivitta Eoophyla orphninalis Pagenstecher, 1886 Eoophyla ovomaculalis Eoophyla palleuca Eoophyla pentopalis Eoophyla persimilis Munroe, 1959 Eoophyla pervenustalis Eoophyla piscatorum Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla platyxantha Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla postbasalis Eoophyla praestabilis Pagenstecher, 1886 Eoophyla principensis Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla pulchralis Eoophyla quadriplagiata Eoophyla reunionalis Eoophyla rufocastanea Eoophyla ruwenzoriensis Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla scioxantha Meyrick, 1937 Eoophyla similis Eoophyla stepheni Agassiz, 2012 Eoophyla stresemanni (Rothsch