SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Verona

Verona is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, with 258,108 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region, it is the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants, it is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, an ancient Roman amphitheater. Two of William Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet and The Two Gentlemen of Verona, it is unknown if Shakespeare visited Verona or Italy, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities. The city has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture; the precise details of Verona's early history remain a mystery. One theory is. With the conquest of the Valley of the Po, the Veronese territory became Roman. Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC.

It was classified as a municipium in 49 BC, when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important. Stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, the Gothic domination of Italy began. Theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there, it remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a single day in 541, when the Byzantine officer Artabazes made an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when the Goths were overthrown that they surrendered it. In 569, it was taken by Alboin, King of the Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second most important city. There, Alboin was killed by his wife in 572; the dukes of Treviso resided there. Adalgisus, son of Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance in Verona to Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom.

Verona became the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of the counts of San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii resided there. Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on the Duchy of Bavaria; when Ezzelino III da Romano was elected podestà in 1226, he converted the office into a permanent lordship. In 1257 he caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona. Upon his death, the Great Council elected Mastino I della Scala as podestà, he converted the "signoria" into a family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the government. Failing to be re-elected podestà in 1262, he effected a coup d'état, was acclaimed capitano del popolo, with the command of the communal troops. Long internal discord took place before he succeeded in establishing this new office, to, attached the function of confirming the podestà. In 1277, Mastino della Scala was killed by the faction of the nobles.

The reign of his son Alberto as capitano was a time of incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his sons, Bartolomeo and Cangrande I, only the last shared the government. By war or treaty, he brought under his control the cities of Padua and Vicenza. At this time before the Black death the city was home to more than 40,000 people. Cangrande was succeeded by sons of Alboino. Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po, he purchased Lucca. After the King of France, he was the richest prince of his time, but a powerful league was formed against him in 1337 – Florence, the Visconti, the Este, the Gonzaga. After a three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Vicenza. Mastino's son Cangrande II was a cruel and suspicious tyrant, he was killed by his brother Cansignorio, who beautified the city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, founded the state treasury. He killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino.

Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for Antonio, Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolomeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight, thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination, however, survived in its monuments; the year 1387 is the year of the Battle of Castagnaro, between Giovanni Ordelaffi, for Verona, John Hawkwood, for Padua, the winner. Antonio's son Canfrancesco attempted in vain to recover Verona. Guglielmo, natural son of Cangrande II, was more fortunate; the last representatives of the Scaligeri lived at the imperial court an

Straightwashing

Straightwashing is portraying LGB or otherwise queer characters in fiction as heterosexual, making LGB people appear heterosexual, or altering information about historical figures to make their representation comply with heteronormativity. Straightwashing is seen most prominently in works of fiction television and cinema, whereby characters who were portrayed as homosexual, bisexual, or asexual are misrepresented as heterosexual. Straightwashing is a contemporary term which has increased in usage and acknowledgement in recent years. Despite increasing presence and recognition on U. S. television, queer characters and storylines are still subject to empirical examples of straightwashing. Common justifications for straightwashing include "producers' concerns about audience reactions and social norms and stereotypes regarding acceptable forms of queerness." Etymologically, straightwashing is derived from the term'whitewash', which alludes to "both censorship and the intersectional link with the discrimination faced by people of color."Straightwashing differs from "pinkface", the use of straight actors to play LGB roles or characters.

Anna King of Time Out likens "pinkface" to blackface. The LGB community raised concerns about the film Brüno, in which the straight actor Sacha Baron Cohen plays the role of a gay man to "...mak fun of the queer community". Dragos Manea distinguishes between changing a queer character in fiction into a straight character. In fiction, the practice of straightwashing has been noted in screenplays based on comic books; the X-Men character Mystique is depicted as bisexual in the comic books, but in the films, she is shown as straight. Within the comic books published by Marvel comics, Mystique had romantic relationships with both male and female characters, her most prominent relationship was with Destiny, a female "fellow member of the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants with whom she raised a child." Within the X-Men films that date back to the year 2000, the character Mystique, now played by the actress Jennifer Lawrence, has not had any relationship or interest in another female character. The 2015 film Stonewall was accused of straightwashing and of the related practice of "ciswashing" for not including a representation of the two black trans activists who launched the Stonewall riots.

The NBC TV drama Rise has been criticized for changing the basis of the production, a "real-life gay drama teacher" in a working class town, into a straight man. In Stuart Richard's article "The Imitation Game and the'straightwashing' of film", about the film The Imitation Game, Richards states that WW II code breaker "Alan Turing's sexuality is downplayed and used as a plot device", to show him as a "tragic hero and an eccentric, secretive man"; the character John Constantine from the NBC television series Constantine has been criticized for not displaying the same sexuality, written in the DC comic book series, Constantine: Hellblazer. The TV executives decided. Throughout the television series, John Constantine, played by the actor Matt Ryan, was depicted as a straight male rather than the sexuality, given to him by the original comic books published by DC comics. However, when Ryan reprised the role on Legends of Tomorrow, the character was portrayed as bisexual; the TV series Riverdale from The CW television network has been subject to criticisms about their depiction of one of the main characters Jughead Jones.

This character is played by the American actor Cole Sprouse. According to an interview with comicbook.com, Chip Zdarsky, the author of the Jughead comic book, stated that he wrote Jughead as an asexual character. This interview has brought up controversy in regard to The CW series of Riverdale in which Jughead is portrayed as a straight male character. Many people “within the asexual community are upset about the development of the TV series, Riverdale, on the CW”. Games such as Blizzard's World of Warcraft can be seen as inherently queer, since in the game both gender and sexuality are fluid and customizable. Here, the possibility of playing a non-straight main character is developmental. However, in 2010 Blizzard began to “straighten” many parts of the game by removing the majority of the same-sex material and mechanics; the heteronormativity can be seen as a movement towards homophobia seen in two parts of the game which were added in 2010. First, is entitled “Shafted.” Evocative of phallic penetration, the task is to “shoot 10 players with the Silver Shafted Arrow,”, a special holiday item that creates a small, cupid-like goblin that flits about the target.

Both the item and quest flirt with the titillation and anxiety over penetrative sex anal or male-on-male sex. The second is entitled “Flirting with Disaster,” and requires the player to “get smashed, put on your best perfume, throw a handful of rose petals on Sraaz or Jeremiah Payson and kiss him. You’ll regret it in the morning.” The humorous intention of “Flirting with Disaster” is for a male avatar to kiss another male. When a player character drinks in-game to the point of being “complet

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 273

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 273 of the United States Reports: Albrecht v. United States, 273 U. S. 1 Florida v. Mellon, 273 U. S. 12 Myers v. Hurley Motor Co. 273 U. S. 18 Byars v. United States, 273 U. S. 28 Di Santo v. Pennsylvania, 273 U. S. 34 Interstate Busses Corp. v. Holyoke Street R. Co. 273 U. S. 45 FTC v. Pacific States Paper Trade Assn. 273 U. S. 52 Maguire & Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 67 Liberty Warehouse Co. v. Grannis, 273 U. S. 70 Wong Tai v. United States, 273 U. S. 77 Public Util. Comm'n of R. I. v. Attleboro Steam & Elec. Co. 273 U. S. 83 Oklahoma v. Texas, 273 U. S. 93 McGuire v. United States, 273 U. S. 95 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 100 United States ex rel. Vajtauer v. Commissioner of Immigration, 273 U. S. 103 Waggoner Estate v. Wichita County, 273 U. S. 113 James-Dickinson Farm Mortgage Co. v. Harry, 273 U. S. 119 Missouri ex rel. Wabash R. Co. v. Public Serv. Comm'n, 273 U. S. 126 Mosler Safe Co. v. Ely-Norris Safe Co. 273 U.

S. 132 McGrain v. Daugherty, 273 U. S. 135 Great Northern R. Co. v. Sutherland, 273 U. S. 182 Jones v. Prairie Oil & Gas Co. 273 U. S. 195 Jacob Reed's Sons v. United States, 273 U. S. 200 United States v. Noveck, 273 U. S. 202 Hartford Accident & Indemnity Co. v. Southern Pacific Co. 273 U. S. 207 Charleston Mining Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 220 Barrett Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 227 De Forest Radio Telephone Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 236 Hellmich v. Missouri Pacific R. Co. 273 U. S. 242 Oklahoma Natural Gas Co. v. Oklahoma, 273 U. S. 257 United States v. Ritterman, 273 U. S. 261 American Railway Express Co. v. Kentucky, 273 U. S. 269 American Railway Express Co. v. Royster Guano Co. 273 U. S. 274 Louisiana & Western R. Co. v. Gardiner, 273 U. S. 280 Farrington v. Tokushige, 273 U. S. 284 United States v. Los Angeles & Salt Lake R. Co. 273 U. S. 299 Pueblo of Santa Rosa v. Fall, 273 U. S. 315 Louisville & Nashville R. Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 321 Davis Sewing Machine Co. v. United States, 273 U.

S. 324 Sacramento Nav. Co. v. Salz, 273 U. S. 326 Smyer v. United States, 273 U. S. 333 United States v. Burton Coal Co. 273 U. S. 337 Missouri Pacific R. Co. v. Porter, 273 U. S. 341 Bowers v. New York & Albany Lighterage Co. 273 U. S. 346 Quon Quon Poy v. Johnson, 273 U. S. 352 Eastman Kodak Co. of N. Y. v. Southern Photo Materials Co. 273 U. S. 359 Myers v. International Trust Co. 273 U. S. 380 Fred T. Ley & Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 386 Smith v. Wilson, 273 U. S. 388 United States v. Trenton Potteries Co. 273 U. S. 392 Swiss Oil Co. v. Shanks, 273 U. S. 407 Hayman v. Galveston, 273 U. S. 414 Tyson & Brother v. Banton, 273 U. S. 418 Pan American Petroleum & Transport Co. v. United States, 273 U. S. 456 Tumey v. Ohio, 273 U. S. 510 Nixon v. Herndon, 273 U. S. 536 Ingenohl v. Olsen & Co. 273 U. S. 541 Shukert v. Allen, 273 U. S. 545 First Nat. Bank of Hartford v. Hartford, 273 U. S. 548 Minnesota v. First Nat. Bank of St. Paul, 273 U. S. 561 Georgetown Nat. Bank v. McFarland, 273 U. S. 568 United States v. Shelby Iron Co. 273 U.

S. 571 Shields v. United States, 273 U. S. 583 Kelley v. Oregon, 273 U. S. 589 Ford v. United States, 273 U. S. 593 Railroad and Warehouse Comm'n of Minn. v. Duluth Street R. Co. 273 U. S. 625 Beech-Nut Packing Co. v. P. Lorillard Co. 273 U. S. 629 Harmon v. Tyler, 273 U. S. 668 Supreme Court of the United States United States Supreme Court cases in volume 273 United States Supreme Court cases in volume 273 United States Supreme Court cases in volume 273