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Versailles, Yvelines

Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.

Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.

Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.

At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.

The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.

The 14th century brought the Black Dea


In statistics, the Q-function is the tail distribution function of the standard normal distribution. In other words, Q is the probability that a normal random variable will obtain a value larger than x standard deviations. Equivalently, Q is the probability that a standard normal random variable takes a value larger than x. If Y is a Gaussian random variable with mean μ and variance σ 2 X = Y − μ σ is standard normal and P = P = Q where x = y − μ σ. Other definitions of the Q-function, all of which are simple transformations of the normal cumulative distribution function, are used occasionally; because of its relation to the cumulative distribution function of the normal distribution, the Q-function can be expressed in terms of the error function, an important function in applied mathematics and physics. Formally, the Q-function is defined as Q = 1 2 π ∫ x ∞ exp ⁡ d u. Thus, Q = 1 − Q = 1 − Φ, where Φ is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal Gaussian distribution; the Q-function can be expressed in terms of the error function, or the complementary error function, as Q = 1 2 = 1 2 − 1 2 erf ⁡ -or- = 1 2 erfc ⁡.

An alternative form of the Q-function known as Craig's formula, after its discoverer, is expressed as: Q = 1 π ∫ 0 π 2 exp ⁡ d θ. This expression is valid only for positive values of x, but it can be used in conjunction with Q = 1 − Q to obtain Q for negative values; this form is advantageous in that the range of integration is finite. The Q-function is not an elementary function. However, the bounds, where ϕ is the density function of the standard normal distribution, ϕ < Q < ϕ x, x > 0, become tight for large x, are useful. Using the substitution v =u2/2, the upper bound is derived as follows: Q = ∫ x ∞ ϕ d u < ∫ x ∞ u x ϕ d u = ∫ x 2

Architecture of cathedrals and great churches

The architecture of cathedrals and abbey churches is characterised by the buildings' large scale and follows one of several branching traditions of form and style that all derive from the Early Christian architectural traditions established in the Constantinian period. Cathedrals, as well as many abbey churches and basilicas, have certain complex structural forms that are found less in parish churches, they tend to display a higher level of contemporary architectural style and the work of accomplished craftsmen, occupy a status both ecclesiastical and social that an ordinary parish church does not have. Such a cathedral or great church is one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride. Many cathedrals and basilicas, a number of abbey churches are among the world's most renowned works of architecture; these include St. Peter’s Basilica, Notre Dame de Paris, Cologne Cathedral, Salisbury Cathedral, Prague Cathedral, Lincoln Cathedral, the Basilica of St Denis, the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, the Basilica of San Vitale, St Mark's Basilica, Westminster Abbey, Saint Basil's Cathedral, Gaudí's incomplete Sagrada Familia and the ancient church of Hagia Sophia, now a museum.

The earliest large churches date from Late Antiquity. As Christianity and the construction of churches and cathedrals spread throughout the world, their manner of building was dependent upon local materials and local techniques. Different styles of architecture developed and their fashion spread, carried by the establishment of monastic orders, by the posting of bishops from one region to another and by the travelling of master stonemasons who served as architects; the styles of the great church buildings are successively known as Early Christian, Romanesque, Renaissance, various Revival styles of the late 18th to early 20th centuries and Modern. Overlaid on each of the academic styles are the regional characteristics; some of these characteristics are so typical of a particular country or region that they appear, regardless of style, in the architecture of churches designed many centuries apart. Among the world's largest and most architecturally significant churches, many were built to serve as cathedrals or abbey churches.

Among the Roman Catholic churches, many have been raised to the status of "basilica". The categories below are not exclusive. A church can be an abbey, serve as a cathedral, be a basilica. Among the great Protestant churches, such as Ulm Minster have never served as any of these. Others, such as Westminster Abbey, are former cathedrals. Neither Orthodox or Protestant churches are designated as "basilicas" in the Catholic sense; the term "cathedral" in Orthodoxy and Protestantism is sometimes loosely applied to a large church, not a bishop's principal church. Some significant churches are termed "temples" or "oratories". Among these types of buildings the cathedral is the best known, to the extent that the word “cathedral” is sometimes mistakenly applied as a generic term for any large and imposing church. In fact, a cathedral does not have to be imposing, although many cathedrals are; the cathedral takes its name from the word cathedra, or "bishop's throne". A cathedral has a specific ecclesiastical role and administrative purpose as the seat of a bishop.

The role of bishop as administrator of local clergy came into being in the 1st century. It was. With the legalizing of Christianity in 313 by the Emperor Constantine I, churches were built rapidly. Five large churches were founded in Rome and, though much altered or rebuilt, still exist today, including the Cathedral of Rome, San Giovanni in Laterano and the better-known St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican; the architectural form which cathedrals took was dependent upon their ritual function as the seat of a bishop. Cathedrals are places where, in common with other Christian churches, the Eucharist is celebrated, the Bible is read, the Order of Service is said or sung, prayers are offered and sermons are preached, but in a cathedral, in general, these things are done with a greater amount of elaboration and procession than in lesser churches. This elaboration is present during important liturgical rites performed by a bishop, such as confirmation and ordination. A cathedral is the site of rituals associated with local or national government, the bishops performing the tasks of all sorts from the induction of a mayor to the coronation of a monarch.

Some of these tasks are apparent in the form and fittings of particular cathedrals. The church that has the function of cathedral is not always a large building, it might be as small as Oxford. But the cathedral, along with some of the abbey churches, was the largest building in any region. There were a number of reasons for this: The cathedral was created to the Glory of God, it was seen as appropriate that it should be as grand and as beautiful as wealth and skill could make it. As the seat of a bishop, the cathedral was the location for certain liturgical rites, such as the ordination of priests, which brought together large numbers of clergy and people, it functioned as an ecclesiastical and social meeting-place for many people, not just those of the town in which it stood, but on occasions, for the entire region. The cathedral had its origins in a monastic foundation and was a place of worship for members of a holy order who said the mass at a number of small chapels within the cathedral.

The cathedral became a place of worship and burial for wealthy local patrons. These patrons endowed the cathed

Danielle and Jennifer

Danielle and Jennifer is an American acting, singer-songwriter sister duo consisting of Danielle Melanie Brown and Jennifer Michelle Brown. Danielle plays keyboard, ukulele, vocals. Jennifer plays guitar, ukulele, vocals. Danielle and Jennifer grew up Harleysville and started out in the entertainment industry at young ages. Danielle was the first to get the acting bug and Jennifer was soon to follow. Danielle started acting at the age of 5 and landed her first commercial at the age of 6. Danielle's talent was soon recognized and she secured a role on Broadway in Les Miserables at the age of just 7 years old. Danielle is a member of The Broadway Kids and can be heard on their latest album, "Hey Mr. DJ!". Jennifer was of course wasn't far behind and landed starring roles in Law & Order:SVU, Law & Order: CI and All My Children. Both sisters have a long list of voice-over credentials including voice-over characters in Blue's Clues, jingles for, they have been seen in TV commercials as well such as Wendy's, Ethan Allen, ASPCA, AT&T,

Danielle has performed in the 2003 Off-Broadway musical "The Alchemists". Danielle and Jennifer shared the stage in the Off-Broadway shows "A" for Adultery and The House of Bernarda Alba. Danielle and Jennifer formed the music duo "Danielle and Jennifer" in 2008 and performed at festivals and special events, they recorded and released their first single "Radical Love" along with their first official music video on Valentine's Day 2012. They appeared on The Philadelphia NBC 10! Show to promote the release of their single and played their song, "Radical Love" live on The 10! Show stage. Danielle and Jennifer were chosen to be a Supercuts Rock the cut artist for two years in a row and have their song, "Radical Love" and "The First Time You See Me" played in their stores and available for download on their website. Danielle and Jennifer have opened for national touring acts such as LifeHouse, The Veronicas, Dave Patten, Matt Cermanski, Mycle Wastman, Tyler Bryant, Hydra Melody, Saving Abel; the sister duo has performed at numerous and historic venues including The Legendary Dobbs in Philadelphia and The Bitter End in New York City.

The Sellersville Theater in Sellersville, Pa, Danielle and Jennifer's single and music video to their original song "The First Time You See Me", was co written by Sandy Linzer on Vevo. Danielle and Jennifer have been featured in many online magazines and radio talk shows including, 93.7 Wstw Hometown Heroes with Mark Rogers, Unclaimed Bands, Soundstage Radio with Nicole Zell, Creative Spotlights and Forks, Livewire with Lady Spitfire and many more. The duo has been involved and featured in many music festivals such as, The Haverford music festival in Havertown, PA, Liberty Music Festival in Philadelphia, PA, Dewey Beach Music Conference in Dewey Beach, DE. Cape May Singer Songwriter Frozen Harbor music fest in Baltimore, MD Launch Music Conference in Lancaster, PA Millennium Music Conference. Danielle and Jennifer's newest single, "Hello Sunshine" was written about their experiences at RMC. Hello Sunshine won for Track of The Year at the 2016 Elephant Talk Indie awards and took home a Homey award for Best Pop Song at the 2017 93.7 WSTW Homey Awards.

"Radical Love" single written by Edward B. Kessel and Marc Hoffman. "Radical Love" Music Video Directed by Matthew Bonifacio "The First Time You See Me" single written by Edward B. Kessel and Sandy Linzer "The First Time You See Me" Music Video by Matthew Bonifacio "Not Just Another Christmas CD" Compilation by The Philadelphia Music Scene "Hello Sunshine" Single Written by Danielle and Jennifer "April Fools" Single Written by Danielle and Jennifer Danielle and Jennifer have Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Danielle and Jennifer are big supporters of giving back to the community, they work with Ronald McDonald House Charities and Rotation Records to put on the opening night concert at RMC for hundreds of children with childhood cancer. Their most recent single, "Hello Sunshine" was written about their experience at RMC and is in post production. Danielle and Jennifer have been a part of other charities and their events including, Elephants For Autism, KIND Hearts, The Happiness Project for Mental Health Awareness, AI DuPont Hospital with The Happiness Project Rock 4 Paws, BRAINFEST for Brain tumor Awareness Gobblejam for Hunger and music education Share The Love Fest.

Jennifer Michelle Brown on IMDb Official website

Jeff Chandler (boxer)

"Joltin'" Jeff Chandler is a former boxer. Chandler reigned as the Lineal and WBA world Bantamweight Champion from November 1980 to April 1984; the 5'7" tall Philadelphian began his professional career with a four-round draw in 1976 after only two amateur bouts. Chandler began a four-year string of victories culminating in a challenge for the world's lineal and WBA 118-pound championship held by Julian Solís. On November 14, 1980 Chandler won the title by a fourteenth-round knockout in Miami, becoming the first American fighter to hold the bantamweight crown in over 30 years. Chandler's first defence was against former champion Jorge Luján, winning on points in fifteen rounds, he travelled to Japan to face Asian champion Eljiro Murata, although he was floored in the early rounds, Chandler came back to hold his title with a draw. Many ringside observers felt. With his status in the boxing world rising, Chandler followed this up with a repeat victory over Solis, this time in seven rounds. Chandler finished 1981 against Murata.

In March 1982, Chandler faced the only opponent who defeated him as an amateur, fellow Philadelphian Johnny Carter. The tables were turned this time. Soon after, Chandler was sidelined by an injury sustained in a street-fight. During a traffic altercation in Philadelphia, he was stabbed on the right shoulder with a broken bottle, leaving a distinctive circular scar, but doing no permanent damage. In 1983, Chandler ventured into the Super bantamweight ranks, winning a ten-round decision over Hector Cortez, he faced tough Angelino Oscar Muniz in another non-title bout. Muniz took the fight to Chandler, winning narrowly on points over ten rounds, Chandler's first defeat in the professional ranks, he defended once more against Murata faced Muniz again, this time with the title on the line. A severe cut over Muniz's eye brought a stoppage in the seventh round, enabling Chandler to retain his belt by a seventh-round technical knockout. On April 7, 1984, Chandler faced the undefeated contender Richie Sandoval.

This time his skills were not enough to stop an eager young foe. Sandoval took the title with a fifteenth-round knockout; this turned out to be Chandler's last fight. He elected to have surgery on cataracts, diagnosed the year before. Rather than risk blindness, Chandler retired from boxing, he finished his career with a record of 2 losses and 2 draws. Jeff Chandler provided boxing fans with many memorable performances. In 2000, he was elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame at New York. List of bantamweight boxing champions List of WBA world champions Chandler biography and highlights IBHOF Bio Professional boxing record for Jeff Chandler from BoxRec Jeff Chandler - CBZ Profile

List of Governors of Hidalgo

The Governor of Hidalgo is the head of the executive branch of government of Hidalgo. From the establishment of the office, 78 individuals have served as Hidalgo's governor including those who served on a provisional or interim basis; the following list is a list of all individuals who have served as Hidalgo's governor.: Matías Rodríguez: Bartolomé Vargas Lugo: Ernesto Viveros: Javier Rojo Gómez: Otilio Villegas Lora: José Lugo Guerrero: Vicente Aguirre del Castillo: Quintín Rueda Villagrán: Alfonso Corona del Rosal: Oswaldo Cravioto Cisneros: Carlos Ramírez Guerrero: Manuel Sánchez Vite: Donaciano Serna Leal: Manuel Sánchez Vite: Otoniel Miranda: Raúl Lozano Ramírez: Jorge Rojo Lugo: José Luis Suárez Molina: Jorge Rojo Lugo: Guillermo Rossell de la Lama: Adolfo Lugo Verduzco: Jesús Murillo Karam: Humberto Lugo Gil: Manuel Ángel Núñez Soto: Miguel Ángel Osorio Chong: Francisco Olvera Ruiz: Omar Fayad