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Vertigo (film)

Vertigo is a 1958 American film noir psychological thriller film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock. The story was based on the 1954 novel D'entre les morts by Boileau-Narcejac; the screenplay was written by Samuel A. Taylor; the film stars James Stewart as former police detective John "Scottie" Ferguson. Scottie is forced into early retirement because an incident in the line of duty has caused him to develop acrophobia and vertigo. Scottie is hired by an acquaintance, Gavin Elster, as a private investigator to follow Gavin's wife Madeleine, behaving strangely; the film was shot on location in San Francisco, at Paramount Studios in Hollywood. It is the first film to use the dolly zoom, an in-camera effect that distorts perspective to create disorientation, to convey Scottie's acrophobia; as a result of its use in this film, the effect is referred to as "the Vertigo effect". Vertigo received mixed reviews upon initial release, but is now cited as a classic Hitchcock film and one of the defining works of his career.

Attracting significant scholarly criticism, it replaced Citizen Kane as the greatest film made in the 2012 British Film Institute's Sight & Sound critics' poll. In 1996, the film underwent a major restoration to create DTS soundtrack, it has appeared in polls of the best films by the American Film Institute, including a 2007 ranking as the ninth-greatest American movie of all time. After a rooftop chase, where his fear of heights and vertigo result in the death of a policeman, San Francisco detective John "Scottie" Ferguson retires. Scottie tries to conquer his fear, but his friend and ex-fiancée Midge Wood says that another severe emotional shock may be the only cure. An acquaintance from college, Gavin Elster, asks Scottie to follow his wife, claiming that she is in some sort of danger. Scottie reluctantly agrees, follows Madeleine to a florist where she buys a bouquet of flowers, to the Mission San Francisco de Asís and the grave of one Carlotta Valdes, to the Legion of Honor art museum where she gazes at the Portrait of Carlotta.

He watches her enter the McKittrick Hotel. A local historian explains that Carlotta Valdes committed suicide: she had been the mistress of a wealthy married man and bore his child. Gavin reveals that Carlotta is Madeleine's great-grandmother, although Madeleine has no knowledge of this, does not remember the places she has visited. Scottie tails Madeleine to Fort Point and, when she leaps into the bay, he rescues her; the next day Scottie follows Madeleine. They travel to Muir Woods and Cypress Point on 17-Mile Drive, where Madeleine runs down towards the ocean. Scottie grabs they embrace. Madeleine recounts a nightmare and Scottie identifies its setting as Mission San Juan Bautista, childhood home of Carlotta, he drives her there and they express their love for each other. Madeleine runs into the church and up the bell tower. Scottie, halted on the steps by his acrophobia, sees Madeleine plunge to her death; the death is declared a suicide. Gavin does not fault Scottie, but Scottie breaks down, becomes clinically depressed and is in a sanatorium catatonic.

After release, Scottie frequents the places that Madeleine visited imagining that he sees her. One day, he notices a woman. Scottie follows her and she identifies herself as Judy Barton, from Salina, Kansas. A flashback reveals that Judy was the person Scottie knew as "Madeleine Elster". Judy drafts a letter to Scottie explaining her involvement: Gavin had deliberately taken advantage of Scottie's acrophobia to substitute his wife's freshly killed body in the apparent "suicide jump", but Judy continues the charade because she loves Scottie. They begin seeing each other, but Scottie remains obsessed with "Madeleine", asks Judy to change her clothes and hair so that she resembles Madeleine. After Judy complies, hoping that they may find happiness together, he notices her wearing the necklace portrayed in the painting of Carlotta, realizes the truth, that Judy had been Elster's mistress, before being cast aside just as Carlotta was. Scottie insists on driving Judy to the Mission. There, he tells her he must re-enact the event that led to his madness, admitting he now understands that "Madeleine" and Judy are the same person.

Scottie makes her admit her deceit. Scottie reaches the top conquering his acrophobia. Judy confesses. Judy begs Scottie to forgive her, he embraces her, but a shadowed figure rises from the trapdoor of the tower, startling Judy, who steps backward and falls to her death. Scottie, bereaved again, stands on the ledge, while the figure, a nun investigating the noise, rings the mission bell. James Stewart as John "Scottie" Ferguson Kim Novak as Judy Barton and Madeleine Elster Barbara Bel Geddes as Marjorie "Midge" Wood Tom Helmore as Gavin Elster Henry Jones as the coroner Raymond Bailey as Scottie's doctor Ellen Corby as the manager of the McKittrick Hotel Konstantin Shayne as bookstore owner Pop Leibel Lee Patrick as the car owner mistaken for MadeleineUncredited Margaret Brayton as the Ransohoff's saleslady Paul Bryar as Capt. Hansen (accompanies Scottie t

Wyre Forest

Wyre Forest is a large, semi-natural woodland and forest measuring 26.34 square kilometres which straddles the borders of Worcestershire and Shropshire, England. The forest covers an area in local terms of 2,634 hectares, or on the larger scale 26.34 square kilometres and is noted for its variety of wildlife. Although now the Wyre Forest has been much deforested, it still extends from east of the A442 at Shatterford, north of Kidderminster in the east to Cleobury Mortimer in the west and from Upper Arley in the north to Areley Kings, near Stourport in the south, it is one of the largest remaining ancient woodlands in Britain. The Forestry Commission looks after around half of today's forest. Around two-thirds of the forest has been designated as an SSSI, while a further fifth is listed as a National Nature Reserve; the Dowles Brook flows through the heart of the forest, the A456 road runs through the southern edge of the woodland. It is one of the largest areas of semi-natural woodland in the UK.

Bird species to be found in the forest include hawfinch, wood warbler, common crossbill, spotted flycatcher, pied flycatcher and long-eared owl, among many other woodland animals and plants. The small but colourful moth Oecophora bractella has one of its few English populations here, does not seem to occur much further northwards; the forest's adders have been the subject of a notable study by Sylvia Sheldon. This historic extent of the Wyre Forest is debatable. Leaflets distributed in recent times have included Eymore Wood, in Kidderminster Foreign on the opposite bank of the River Severn, but, a tract of woodland belonging to Worcester Cathedral. Another view is that once it stretched from Worcester to Bridgnorth along the west bank, but evidence for, thin. Wyre Forest has none of the legal peculiarities of a historic forest at all, instead has those of a chase with hunting rights belonging to the Mortimer family, who had the title Earl of March from 1328, as holders for centuries of the manor and liberty of Cleobury Mortimer, which technically still enjoys such hunting rights.

Only the crown could have a forest, a subject could only have chases. How far north the Mortimer family's hunting rights extended is debatable, but it may have included the whole area in south east Shropshire of which they were overlords at the time of Domesday Book. While they may have had hunting rights there, much of the woodland in fact belonged to other manors, such as Upper Arley and Kinlet. A large tract of woodland on the north side of the Dowles Brook was Kingswood, a detached township of the parish of Stottesdon; the town of Bewdley, a Mortimer foundation, may have been cut out of the forest. Far Forest was until recent times part of the borough of Bewdley, though separated from the rest of it by New Parks, which were in Rock parish. Most rights to land in the forest belonged to these medieval manors; the rights of the Mortimer family passed to the crown as a result of the accession of Edward IV, Earl of March to the crown. Its description as'forest' dates from that period; the extent of woodland two to three centuries ago was similar to that today.

The manor of Cleobury Mortimer was alienated in the 16th century, leaving the crown only with the manor of Bewdley and Far Forest. Historical references to the Wyre Forest in this period seem to relate to this rather smaller area owned by the crown. In fact the crown's involvement was slight. One series of leases related to the manor of Bewdley, but another concerned something called the'Wyre Forest'; this may have related to Far Forest, but, not clear. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the forest was intensively managed as coppice to provide cordwood for the production of charcoal; the charcoal was used to fuel iron forges at Cleobury Mortimer, at Wilden and elsewhere in the Stour valley. These supplied iron from manufacture into finished iron goods in the Black Country. Charcoal burning continued into the 20th century. A branch of the Severn Valley Railway, known as the "Tenbury Line", once ran through the Wyre Forest, it branched from the main line north of Bewdley station and crossed the River Severn at Dowles Bridge, the piers of which still remain.

The trackbed of the railway is now a walking route through the forest. The Wyre Forest District of Worcestershire containing the towns Kidderminster and Stourport on Severn takes its name from the forest however just over half the woodland is not in the district and instead is in Shropshire to the north. Ancient woodland Notes References Wyre Forest on UK Forestry Commission site Wyre Forest Visitor and Discovery Centre Aerial Photo photos in and around the Wyre Forest today Norman E. Hickin, The Natural History of an English Forest: The Wild Life of Wyre

George Haas & Sons

George Haas & Sons was a confectioner in San Francisco, California. The business expanded to four stores including one in the Phelan Building, marketed as the most beautiful candy store in the U. S. and features on a historic postcard. Haas had a tea room on the building's second floor; the Haas Factory Building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Tongs from the business are collectible. Haas candies were used in a murder by poisoning. George Haas' son R. C. Haas married daughter of the head of the California Associated Raisin Company. Members of the Gruenhagen family were involved in the business; the Haas Candy Factory building in San Francisco is listed on the NRHP in San Francisco. It is at 54 Mint Street in the South of Market neighborhood


Afula is a city in the Northern District of Israel known as the "Capital of the Valley" due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley. In 2018, the city had a population of 51,737. Afula is mentioned first around 19th century BC as "Ofel" in the Execration texts. During the Ottoman era, in the 18th century, there was a small Arab village el-'Afuleh or Affule, in this region; the modern name may be derived from the name of this village originating in the Canaanite-Hebrew root ofel, or the Arab word for "ruptured". Afula is the place Ophlah, mentioned in the lists of Pharaoh Thutmose III. Afula has been identified with the ancient Israelite town of Ofel mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. With the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel, the area continued to be inhabited, excavations have revealed artifacts from the periods of Persian and Roman rule. Conder suggested that Afula was identical with Kirjath Ophlathah, a place inhabited by Samaritans in the 7th century. An ancient mound or tell known as Tel'Afula, located in the heart of modern Afula, suggests continuous habitation from the late Chalcolithic period to the Ayyubid period in the 13th century.

It contains the remains of a fortress from the Mamluk periods. A fortified Crusader tower, 19 meters square, stands in the center; the lower four courses are made of rough boulders, while the top remaining layer is made of reused Roman sarcophagi. The wall is a total of 5.5 meters tall. Pottery remains indicate that it was occupied in the thirteenth century. For older finds from Tel'Afula see the Archaeology paragraph. In 1321, Afula was mentioned under the name of Afel by Marino Sanuto. A map by Pierre Jacotin from Napoleon's invasion of 1799 showed this place, named as Afouleh in a French transliteration of the Arabic. In 1816, James Silk Buckingham passed by and described Affouli as being built on rising ground, containing only a few dwellings, he noted several other nearby settlements in all populated by Muslims. In 1838, Edward Robinson described both Afuleh and the adjacent El Fuleh as "deserted". William McClure Thomson, in a book published in 1859, noted that Afuleh and the adjacent El Fuleh, were "both now deserted, though both were inhabited twenty-five years ago when I first passed this way."

Thomson blamed their desertion on the bedouin. In 1875 Victor Guérin described Afula as a village on a small hill overlooking a little plain; the houses were built of adobe and various other materials. Around the well, which Guérin thought was ancient, he noticed several tubs of broken sarcophagi serving as troughs. In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described El Afuleh as a small adobe village in the plain, supplied by two wells. A population list from about 1887 showed. Gottlieb Schumacher, as part of surveying for the construction of the Jezreel Valley railway, noted in 1900 that it consisted of 50-55 huts and had 200 inhabitants. North of the village was a grain stop. In 1909 or 1910, Yehoshua Hankin completed his first major purchase in the Jezreel Valley, he bought some 10,000 dunams of land in Al-Fuleh, which became the home of two moshav settlements and Tel Adashim. During the First World War, Afulah was a major communications hub. In 1917, when Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen of British intelligence established contact with the Nili Jewish spy network in Palestine, a German Jewish doctor stationed at el-Afulah railway junction provided the British with valuable reconnaissance reports on Ottoman and German troop movements southwards.

With the advance of General Edmund Allenby's British forces into Ottoman Palestine, el-Afulah was captured by the 4th Cavalry Division of the Desert Mounted Corps, during the cavalry phase of the Battle of Sharon in September 1918. According to the British Mandate's 1922 census of Palestine, Affuleh had 563 inhabitants. In 1925, modern Afula was founded after the American Zionist Commonwealth completed a purchase of the Afula valley from the Sursuk family of Beirut. A quarter of the one hundred Arab families who had lived in the area accepted compensation for their land and left voluntarily. Jews began settling in Afula shortly after as the town developed. By the 1931 census, the population had increased to 874. In the 1945 census the population of Afula was recorded as 10 Muslims; the town had a total of 18,277 dunams of land, according to an official population survey. Of this, 145 dunams of land was used to cultivate citrus and bananas, 347 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 15,103 for cereals, while 992 dunams were built-up land.

During this time, the community was served by the Jezreel Valley Railway, part of the larger Hejaz Railway. Since 1913 it had been the terminus station of the branch connecting it to Jenin and also to Nablus. Sabotage actions of Jewish underground militias in 1945, 1946 and shortly before the 1948 Arab–Israeli War rendered first the connection to Jenin progressively the entire Valley Railway, inoperable. Repairs to the Jezreel Valley Railway after 1948 restored service to Haifa, but only until 1949 when it was abandoned. In 2011 construction began on a large-scale project to build a new standard gauge railway from Haifa to Beit She'an with stations in Afula and other towns, along the same route as the historic valley railway. Israel Railways began passenger service on the new railway on October 16, 20


Simandhara is a Tīrthaṅkara, an arihant, said to be living in another world in the Jain cosmological universe. Tirthankara Simandhar Swami resides at Mahavideh Kshetra, another land within the Jain cosmological universe; the five lands of the Bharat Kshetra are in the 5th Ara. The most recent Tirthankara present on Bharat Kshetra was Vardhamana Mahavira, whom historians estimate lived between 599-527 BCE, the last in a cycle of 24 Tirthankaras. On Mahavideh Kshetra, the 4th Ara exists continuously. There, Tirthankaras perpetually are born. There are 5 Mahavideh Kshetras. At present, there are 4 Tirthankars residing in each Mahavideh Kshetra, thus there are a total of 20 Tirthankaras residing there. Simandhar Swami is a living Tirthankar, an Arihant, said to be present on another world in the Jain mythological universe; the Arihant Simandhar Swami is believed to be 150,000 earth years old, has a remaining lifespan of 125,000 earth years. He lives in the city of Pundarikgiri, the capital of Pushpakalavati, one of 32 geographical divisions on Mahavideh Kshetra.

Pundarikgiri is ruled by King Shreyans, Simandhar Swami’s father. His mother is Queen Satyaki. While pregnant with Simandhar Swami, Queen Satyaki had a sequence of auspicious dreams indicating that she would give birth to a Tirthankara. Simandhar Swami was born with three complete aspects of Gnan, Self-knowledge: Mati Gnan, knowledge of the 5-sense realm Shruta Gnan, knowledge of all forms of communication Avadhi Gnan, clairvoyant knowledgeAs a young adult, he married Rukamani Devi and later in life, took diksha, renunciation from worldly life. Simandhar Swami’s height is 500 dhanushya 1,500 feet, considered an average height for the people of Mahavideh Kshetra. Simandhara is depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture with the symbol of a bull beneath him; every Tīrthankara has a distinguishing emblem that allows worshippers to distinguish similar-looking idols of the Tirthankaras. Trimandir, Adalaj Akram Vignan Movement Bhagwan, Shree Simandhar Swami, Ahmedabad: Mahavideh Foundation Dundas, The Jains and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X Humphrey and Laidlaw.

The archetypal actions of ritual: a theory of ritual illustrated by the Jain rite of worship. Indiana University: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198279477. Jaini, Padmanabh S; the Jaina Path of Purification, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1578-5 King. C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6CS1 maint: location Britannica Tirthankar Definition, Encyclopædia Britannica Krishna, Sacred Animals of India, Penguin UK, ISBN 9788184751826 Shah, Umakant Premanand, Jaina-rūpa-maṇḍana:, 1, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 9788170172086

Nur Land

Nur Land, named after the town of Nur, was an administrative unit of the Duchy of Mazovia, Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. With its capital in Nur, it belonged to Masovian Voivodeship. In the Middle Ages, Nur was one of the most important towns of Mazovia, the seat of a starosta. In 1377, during a meeting of Mazovian dukes, which took place in Sochaczew, boundaries of the Land of Nur were established, it covered 3655 km2, was divided into three counties: Kamienczyk and Ostrow Mazowiecka. In 1526, Nur Land was annexed into the Kingdom of Poland, until the Partitions of Poland, it belonged to Masovian Voivodeship. Local sejmiks took place at Nur. History of Nur Land and County of Ostrow Mazowiecki Adolf Pawiński: Polska XVI wieku pod względem geograficzno-statystycznym. T. 5: Mazowsze. Warszawa: Księgarnia Gebethnera i Wolffa, 1895