Robert Zarate

Robert Alexander Zárate Ladera is a Venezuelan professional baseball pitcher for the Rieleros de Aguascalientes of the Mexican League. From 2012 through 2013, he pitched for the Hanshin Tigers of Nippon Professional Baseball. Zarate was released by the Pirates on June 13, 2016, he was scouted by the Rays after spending the 2014 season with the Gunma Diamond Pegasus of Japan's Baseball Challenge League. On January 4, 2018, Zarate signed a minor league contract with an invitation to spring training with the Cleveland Indians, he pitched for the Triple-A Columbus Clippers, appearing in 29 games as a reliever and finishing with a 3-1 record, 3.30 ERA, 40 strikeouts. He was released by the organization on July 23, 2018. On July 27, 2018, Zárate signed with the Toros de Tijuana of the Mexican Baseball League, he was traded to the Leones de Yucatán on August 15, 2018. He became a free agent following the season. On January 28, 2020, Zárate signed with the Rieleros de Aguascalientes of the Mexican League.

Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference


OAuth is an open standard for access delegation used as a way for Internet users to grant websites or applications access to their information on other websites but without giving them the passwords. This mechanism is used by companies such as Amazon, Facebook and Twitter to permit the users to share information about their accounts with third party applications or websites. OAuth provides to clients a "secure delegated access" to server resources on behalf of a resource owner, it specifies a process for resource owners to authorize third-party access to their server resources without sharing their credentials. Designed to work with Hypertext Transfer Protocol, OAuth allows access tokens to be issued to third-party clients by an authorization server, with the approval of the resource owner; the third party uses the access token to access the protected resources hosted by the resource server. OAuth is a service, complementary to and distinct from OpenID. OAuth is unrelated to OATH, a reference architecture for authentication, not a standard for authorization.

However, OAuth is directly related to OpenID Connect since OIDC is an authentication layer built on top of OAuth 2.0. OAuth is unrelated to XACML, an authorization policy standard. OAuth can be used in conjunction with XACML where OAuth is used for ownership consent and access delegation whereas XACML is used to define the authorization policies. OAuth began in November 2006. Meanwhile, Ma.gnolia needed a solution to allow its members with OpenIDs to authorize Dashboard Widgets to access their service. Cook, Chris Messina and Larry Halff from Magnolia met with David Recordon to discuss using OpenID with the Twitter and Magnolia APIs to delegate authentication, they concluded. The OAuth discussion group was created in April 2007, for the small group of implementers to write the draft proposal for an open protocol. DeWitt Clinton from Google learned of the OAuth project, expressed his interest in supporting the effort. In July 2007, the team drafted an initial specification. Eran Hammer joined and coordinated the many OAuth contributions creating a more formal specification.

On 4 December 2007, the OAuth Core 1.0 final draft was released. At the 73rd Internet Engineering Task Force meeting in Minneapolis in November 2008, an OAuth BoF was held to discuss bringing the protocol into the IETF for further standardization work; the event was well attended and there was wide support for formally chartering an OAuth working group within the IETF. The OAuth 1.0 protocol was published as RFC 5849, an informational Request for Comments, in April 2010. Since 31 August 2010, all third party Twitter applications have been required to use OAuth; the OAuth 2.0 framework was published as RFC 6749, the Bearer Token Usage as RFC 6750, both standards track Requests for Comments, in October 2012. OAuth 2.0 is not backwards compatible with OAuth 1.0. OAuth 2.0 provides specific authorization flows for web applications, desktop applications, mobile phones, smart devices. The specification and associated RFCs are developed by the IETF OAuth WG. Facebook's Graph API only supports OAuth 2.0.

Google supports OAuth 2.0 as the recommended authorization mechanism for all of its APIs. Microsoft supports OAuth 2.0 for various APIs and its Azure Active Directory service, used to secure many Microsoft and third party APIs. The OAuth 2.0 Framework and Bearer Token Usage were published in October 2012. On 23 April 2009, a session fixation security flaw in the 1.0 protocol was announced. It affects the OAuth authorization flow in OAuth Core 1.0 Section 6. Version 1.0a of the OAuth Core protocol was issued to address this issue. In January 2013, the Internet Engineering Task Force published a threat model for OAuth 2.0. Among the threats outlined is one called "Open Redirector". OAuth 2.0 has been analyzed using formal web protocol analysis. This analysis revealed that in setups with multiple authorization servers, one of, behaving maliciously, clients can become confused about the authorization server to use and may forward secrets to the malicious authorization server; this prompted the creation of a new best current practice internet draft that sets out to define a new security standard for OAuth 2.0.

Assuming a fix against the AS Mix-Up Attack in place, the security of OAuth 2.0 has been proven under strong attacker models using formal analysis. One implementation of OAuth 2.0 with numerous security flaws has been exposed. In April–May 2017, about one million users of Gmail were targeted by an OAuth-based phishing attack, receiving an email purporting to be from a colleague, employer or friend wanting to share a document on Google Docs; those who clicked on the link within the email were directed to sign in and allow a malicious third-party program called "Google Apps" access their "email account and online documents". Within "approximately one hour", the phishing attack was stopped by Google, who advised those who had given "Google Apps" access to their email to revoke such access and change their passwords. OAuth can be used as an authorizing mechanism to consume secured RSS/ATOM feeds. Consumption of RSS/ATOM feeds. For example, an RSS feed from a secured Google Site could not have been consumed using Google Reader.

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