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Very Large Array

The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array is a centimeter-wavelength radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles west of Socorro; the VLA comprises twenty-eight 25-meter radio telescopes deployed in a Y-shaped array and all the equipment and computing power to function as an interferometer. Each of the massive telescopes is mounted on double parallel railroad tracks, so the radius and density of the array can be transformed to adjust the balance between its angular resolution and its surface brightness sensitivity. Astronomers using the VLA have made key observations of black holes and protoplanetary disks around young stars, discovered magnetic filaments and traced complex gas motions at the Milky Way's center, probed the Universe's cosmological parameters, provided new knowledge about the physical mechanisms that produce radio emission; the VLA stands at an elevation of 6970 ft above sea level. It is a component of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The radio telescope comprises 27 independent antennas, each of which has a dish diameter of 25 meters and weighs 209 metric tons; the antennas are distributed along the three arms of a track, shaped in a wye -configuration. Using the rail tracks that follow each of these arms—and that, at one point, intersect with U. S. Route 60 at a level crossing—and a specially designed lifting locomotive, the antennas can be physically relocated to a number of prepared positions, allowing aperture synthesis interferometry with up to 351 independent baselines: in essence, the array acts as a single antenna with a variable diameter; the angular resolution that can be reached is between 0.04 arcseconds. There are four used configurations, designated A through D; the observatory cycles through all the various possible configurations every 16 months. Moves to smaller configurations are done in two stages, first shortening the east and west arms and shortening the north arm.

This allows for a short period of improved imaging of northerly or southerly sources. The frequency coverage is 74 MHz to 50 GHz; the Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center for the VLA is located on the campus of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, New Mexico; the DSOC serves as the control center for the Very Long Baseline Array, a VLBI array of ten 25-meter dishes located from Hawaii in the west to the U. S. Virgin Islands in the east that constitutes the world's largest dedicated, full-time astronomical instrument. In 2011, a decade-long upgrade project resulted in the VLA expanding its technical capacities by factors of up to 8,000; the 1970s-era electronics were replaced with state-of-the-art equipment. To reflect this increased capacity, VLA officials asked for input from both the scientific community and the public in coming up with a new name for the array, in January 2012 it was announced that the array would be renamed the "Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array".

On March 31, 2012, the VLA was renamed in a ceremony inside the Antenna Assembly Building. The VLA is a multi-purpose instrument designed to allow investigations of many astronomical objects, including radio galaxies, pulsars, supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts, radio-emitting stars, the sun and planets, astrophysical masers, black holes, the hydrogen gas that constitutes a large portion of the Milky Way galaxy as well as external galaxies. In 1989 the VLA was used to receive radio communications from the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it flew by Neptune. A search of the galaxies M31 and M32 was conducted in December 2014 through January 2015 with the intent of searching trillions of systems for powerful signals from advanced civilizations, it has been used to carry out several large surveys of radio sources, including the NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters. In September 2017 the VLA Sky Survey began; this survey will cover the entire sky visible to the VLA in three full scans.

Astronomers expect to find about 10 million new objects with the survey — four times more than what is presently known. The driving force for the development of the VLA was David S. Heeschen, he is noted as having "sustained and guided the development of the best radio astronomy observatory in the world for sixteen years." Congressional approval for the VLA project was given in August 1972, construction began some six months later. The first antenna was put into place in September 1975 and the complex was formally inaugurated in 1980, after a total investment of $78.5 million. It was the largest configuration of radio telescopes in the world. With a view to upgrading the venerable 1970s technology with which the VLA was built, the VLA has evolved into the Expanded Very Large Array; the upgrade has enhanced the instrument's sensitivity, frequency range, resolution with the installation of new hardware at the San Agustin site. A second phase of this upgrade may add up to eight additional dishes in other parts of the state of New Mexico, up to 300 km away, if funded.

Magdalena Ridge Observatory is a new observatory under construction a few miles south of the VLA. It includes an optical interferometer and is run by VL

Cycling at the 2009 Southeast Asian Games

The Cycling Events will be held from 9 December to 14 December 2009 with 8 gold medals up for contention. December 13 Location: That LuangLan Xang Avenue – Samsenethai – Thadeua 10KM-T 4 December 14 Location: Done Noune Tri Square, Ban Keun and return at Thalath Distance: 156.6 km. December 13 Location: That Luang – Lan Xang Avenue – Samsenethai – Thadeua 10KM-T 4 December 14 Location: Dane Soung, Saythany District Distance: 120 km. December 9 - Seeding Run December 10 - Final Location: Dane Soung, Saythany District. December 11 Venue:Tad Song, Saythany District. Distance: 49.7 km. December 9 - Seeding Run December 10 - Final Location: Dane Soung, Saythany District. December 11 Venue:Tad Song, Saythany District. Distance: 28.4 km. Southeast Asian Games Official Results

Buenos Aires Belgrano Sur Line railway station

Buenos Aires is a former passenger railway station in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The station was terminus of the Belgrano Sur line that runs trains along Greater Buenos Aires region; the station is located a short distance north of the Riachuelo River, on the boundaries between the barrios of Parque Patricios and Barracas, two outlying neighbourhoods in the southern part of the city. Despite its name, Buenos Aires was not the principal railway station of the city but only a secondary commuter rail station; the local transport company Argentren operates various daily diesel trains to and from the Buenos Aires suburbs along two branches of the Belgrano Sur line. Destinations include several stations in La Matanza and Morón partidos; the station was accessible by some city bus services but it is the only railway station in Buenos Aires that has no access to the Subte of Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires was opened in 1911 as part of the French-owned company Compañía Gral. de Buenos Aires railway network, that reached several cities in the Buenos Aires Province such as Patricios in 9 de Julio Partido, General Villegas, Victorino de la Plaza, La Plata and Vedia among other destinations.

When the entire Argentine railway network was nationalised in 1948, state-owned company Ferrocarriles Argentinos took over the services of the line. In August 1977, National decree 2294 stated the closure of 225-km. of the line and all rail tracks were removed. Due to increasing population in the region, the "Marinos del Crucero Gral. Belgrano" was built for passenger services. With the railway privatisation carried out by Carlos Menem's presidency, concession was granted to Metropolitano although the concession would be revoked in 2007 because of the poor service conditions, being consortium UGOFE the operator of the line until 2013; when UGOFE was dissolved, private company Argentren took over the Belgrano Sur line. In May 2018, Buenos Aires and Sáenz stations were closed as part of a project that includes the construction of a viaduct where Belgrano Sur trains will run, which will allow to eliminate several level crossings in the city; the viaduct will connect Belgrano Sur trains with Constitución station of Roca Line.

Moreover, new Buenos Aires and Sáenz stations will be built over the viaduct. Meanwhile, a provisional station is being used as terminus. Belgrano Sur Line Compañía General de Buenos Aires Trenes Argentinos

Carl Conrads

Carl H. Conrads was an American sculptor best known for his work on Civil War monuments and his two works in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the U. S. Capitol in Washington, D. C, he was known as Charles Conrads. He was born in Sinzig-on-the-Rhine, the son of Heinrich Joseph Conrads and Johanna Maria Catherina Fleischer, his father was mayor of their town until removed from office by the Prussians in 1850. In 1853 his parents and brother Robert emigrated to Texas, where they became farmers and furnituremakers. Carl remained in Munich and received a diploma from the Koeniglich Bayerische Akademie der Bildenden Kunste, he emigrated to New York in 1860, served as an artilleryman in the 20th New York Volunteers during the American Civil War. He moved to Hartford, Connecticut in 1866 to work for James G. Batterson at the New England Granite Works, where he worked until 1903. A reference from 1879: Another German artist, Carl Conrads, has been for twelve years connected with the Hartford Granite Company.

He is over-modest regarding his work as a sculptor, very good of its kind. Among his best designs are the figures on the Antietam Monument. In 1871 he returned to Munich for a short visit, availing himself of the opportunity for still further study; as a designer of monuments, his work stands high. Sculptor and sculpture historian Lorado Taft said of him: "a German of good training, has identified himself with sculpture in granite, has done much creditable work well adapted to the requirements of that ungrateful material." Noteworthy among his granite works are his colossal American Volunteer statue at Antietam National Cemetery in Sharpsburg, Maryland. Conrads is buried in Connecticut. Oswin Welles Memorial, bronze figure, Cedar Hill Cemetery, Connecticut, 1873. Bust of Laurent Clerc, American School for the Deaf, West Hartford, Connecticut, 1874; the pedestal features a frieze of Clerc's name spelled in sign language. Moorhead Column, Allegheny Cemetery, Pennsylvania, 1877. Alexander Hamilton, Central Park, New York City, 1880.

Conrads's plaster model for this is at the Museum of American Finance in New York City. Joel Thayer Monument, Lake View Cemetery, New York, 1882–83, George Keller, architect. Colonel Sylvanus Thayer Monument, U. S. Military Academy, West Point, New York, 1883. Relief bust of Noah Webster, Connecticut State Capitol, Connecticut, 1885. Relief bust of Reverend Horace Bushnell, Connecticut State Capitol, Connecticut, circa 1885. General Henry W. Halleck, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California, 1886. National Monument to the Forefathers, Massachusetts, 1889. With sculptors William Rimmer, John D. Perry, Alexander Doyle and James H. Mahoney. Morality, granite. Embarkation at Delft Haven, marble. General John Stark, New Hampshire Statehouse, New Hampshire, 1890, John A. Fox, architect. John B. Ford, Third Street Park, Ford City, Pennsylvania, 1891. John Stark from New Hampshire, National Statuary Hall Collection, United States Capitol, Washington D. C. 1894. Residing in the United States Capitol crypt. Daniel Webster from New Hampshire, National Statuary Hall Collection, United States Capitol, Washington D.

C. 1894. Samuel J. Tilden Monument, Cemetery of the Evergreens, New Lebanon, New York, 1895, Ernest Flagg, architect; the Archangel Gabriel, George H. Thacher Monument, St. Agnes Cemetery, New York, 1896. Minute Man, Union Square, New Jersey, 1905. Relief bust of Henry Keney, Keney Park Entrance Gates, Connecticut, circa 1905. Obituary: Hartford Daily Courant, May 25, 1920. Carl H. Conrads from SIRIS


The DN-1 was the US Navy's first airship. Captain Mark L. Bristol, the second Director of Naval Aviation, supported the development of the dirigible in the anti-submarine role. Victor Herbster, Holden Richardson and LCDR Frank McCrary drew up the specifications for the DN-1; the contract was awarded on 1 June 1915 to the Connecticut Aircraft Company of New Haven, CT. The U. S. Navy had no experience with airships and it seems neither had any of the principals of Connecticut Aircraft Company, they were a lawyer, the financial backer, an amusement park owner who acted as manager. Jerome Clarke Hunsaker of MIT and his assistant Donald Wills Douglas founder of the Douglas Aircraft Company, aided the Connecticut Aircraft Company in the design of DN-1; the Chief Engineer was James F. Boyle and the Production Manager was J. J. DeLunay; the civilian inspector was Thomas Scott Baldwin and the resident Navy inspector was Frank M. McCrary; the DN-1 was based on the German Parseval type of non-rigid airship. The envelope was made with rubber between them.

The outer layer of fabric was yellow to prevent deterioration caused by light. The gondola control car, built by George Lawley & Son of Dorchester, was a large rectangular box with two four-bladed propellers on outriggers. There were two engines, built by the B. F. Sturtevant Company of Hyde Park, MA, were mounted in the open gondola, the propellers could be swiveled to provide thrust in either the horizontal or vertical planes. A 1 1⁄2 hp Indian engine was provided to maintain air pressure in the two ballonets when the engine was not running; the gondola was water-tight as the Navy intended to operate the DN-1 to take-off from and land on water. The specification for the DN-1 provided for being capable of being moored to a mooring mast which had first been used with HMA No. 1 in 1911. The DN-1 was photographed beside a mooring mast but there appears to be no evidence it was moored to it; the DN-1 was ballyhooed in the press before its flight program. The DN-1 was shipped to Pensacola, Florida, in late 1916 and assembled in a floating hangar constructed for it.

The day of the planned first flight, the DN-1 was removed from its hangar, only to lose lift and sink. Crew member Petty Officer James F. Shade, up to his chin in the water, invited spectators to come aboard for "the first submerged flight of the DN-1." The DN-1 lightened. One step taken to lighten the DN-1 was the removal of one engine; when the test program began on 20 April 1917 the DN-1 was a disappointment. DN-1 lacked lift met the speed requirement of 35 miles per hour and the transmission overheated, melting the bearings; the DN-1 was piloted for its first flight by LCDR Frank M. McCrary USN, LT Stanley V. Parker assisted by PO Jimmy Shade, it was 27 April. Two days the handling party, attempting to tow the airship across the water damaged the DN-1; the Navy decided that the airship was not worth repairing and the DN-1 was scrapped. The "Rigid Airship Manual commented upon the DN-1 "was so overweight that it could lift itself off the ground. It's envelope leaked and the power plant functioned badly.

It did, however fly and since the firm had built the ship in good faith and at a cost in excess of the contract price, it was formally accepted."The DN-1 was an inept failure, being capable of flight, delivered long after the planned time, way over budget. The DN-1 made the Navy realize it did not have the technical skills and knowledge needed to construct airships; the authoritative Jane's All the World's Aircraft described the DN-1 as "of small size, that it was of no practical value. The DN-1 forced the Navy to take a more effective approach to following airship development depending upon more reliable contractors and closer involvement of the Navy in design and management; the subsequent B, C, D-Class airships were quite successful. After its demise the DN-1 came to be considered the A class; such designation was never used by the Navy, nor was it used during DN-1's short life. General characteristics Length: 175 ft 0 in Diameter: 35 ft 0 in Volume: 115,000 ft3 Powerplant: 1 × Sturtevant Model 5, 140 hp Performance Maximum speed: 35 mph Related lists List of airships of the United States Navy Grossnick, Roy A. Kite Balloons to Airships... the Navy's Lighter-than-Air Experience 1986, Government Printing Office, Washington D.

C. Althoff, William F. SkyShips 1990, Orion Books, New York, ISBN 0-517-56904-3 Lord Ventry and Koleśnik, Eugène M. Airship Saga 1982, Blandford Press, Dorset, UK, ISBN 0713710012 Shock, James R. US Navy Airships 1992, Atlantis Publications, Florida, ISBN 0-9639743-8-6 Buchanan, Drew. "A century ago, the Navy's first airship takes flight in Pensacola". The Pulse Pensacola. Retrieved March 12, 2019

Sahibi River

The Sahibi river called the Sabi River, is an ephemeral, rain-fed river flowing through Rajasthan and Delhi states in India. It drains into Yamuna in Delhi, where its channeled course is called the Najafgarh drain, which serves as Najafgarh drain bird sanctuary. Sahibi is a seasonal river, 300 km long and flows from Aravalli hills in Rajasthan to Haryana, of which 100 km is in Haryana; the current and paleochannels of Sahibi river have several important wetlands that lie in series, including the Masani barrage wetland, Matanhail forest, Chhuchhakwas-Godhari, Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, Outfall Drain Number 6, Outfall Drain Number 8, Sultanpur National Park, Basai Wetland, Najafgarh lake and Najafgarh drain bird sanctuary, The Lost lake of Gurugram, all of which are home to endangered and migratory birds, yet remain unprotected under extreme threat from the colonisers and builders. Several Ochre Coloured Pottery culture sites have been found along the banks of Sahibi river and its tributaries such as Krishnavati river, Dohan river and Sota River.

The drainage pattern for all these rivers is dendritic. The Sahibi River originates from the eastern slopes of the Saiwar Protected Forest hills in Aravalli Range near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Sikar district of Rajasthan state. After covering about 157 km distance in the Rajasthan state. After gathering volume from a hundred tributaries, the Sahibi River forms a broad stream around Alwar and Kotputli; these west to north-west flowing rivers originate from the western slopes of Aravalli range in Rajasthan, flow through semi-arid historical Shekhawati region, drain into southern Haryana. Sahibi River, originates near Manoharpur in Sikar district flows through Haryana, along with its following tributaries:Dohan river, tributary of Sahibi river, originates near Neem Ka Thana in Alwar district). Sota River, tributary of Sahibi river, merges with Sahibi river at Behror in Alwar district. Krishnavati river, former tributary of Sahibi river, originates near Dariba copper mines in Rajsamand district of Rajasthan, flows through Patan in Dausa district and Mothooka in Alwar district disappears in Mahendragarh district in Haryana much before reaching Sahibi river.

The catchment area of the Sahibi River encompasses the following cities and towns: Sikar and Alwar in northeastern Rajasthan state. The catchment area of the Sahibi River in Rajasthan is 4,523.67 square kilometres of Jaipur and Sikar Districts, between latitudes 27°16' and 28°11' and longitudes 75°42' and 76°57'. Sahibi Basin falls in three Districts of Rajasthan namely: Alwar district, Jaipur district and Sikar district. Mean Annual Rainfall in Sahibi Basin is 627.60 mm. Highest maximum temperature ranges from 45.45-45.99 °C with a mean value of 45.8 °C, while Lowest minimum temperature ranges from 1.64-3.14 °C with a mean value of 2.45 °C. It leaves Rajasthan state beyond Kotkasim in Alwar district near village Ujauli and covers a total distance of about 222 km up to Dhasa Bund, it enters Haryana state at Jhabua, near the city of Rewari in Rewari district, after which it re-enters first Rajasthan state near Kotkasim, Haryana again near the village of Jarthal. The dry riverbed near Jarthal is 2 kilometres wide.

During light monsoon rainfall, the river's flat and sandy bottom absorbs all rainwater. Masani barrage on the river lies near Dahuhera. During heavy rains, the river has defined course up to Pataudi railway station and branches off into two smaller streams to Jhajjar reaching the outskirts of Delhi through Najafgarh drain and ending at the Yamuna River; the Najafgarh Drain or Najafgarh Nallah is another name for the Sahibi River, which continues its flow through Delhi where it is channelised for flood control purposes. It is a tributary to the Yamuna River; the Najafgarh Drain gets its name from the once famous and huge Najafgarh Lake near the town of Najafgarh in southwest Delhi. The Najafgarh Drain is the capital’s most polluted body of water due to the direct inflow of untreated sewage from surrounding populated areas. Assessing the water quality of wetlands in wildlife habitats, a January 2005 report by the Central Pollution Control Board rated the Najafgarh Drain under category D, along with 13 other polluted wetlands.

Regulators at the Keshopur Bus Depot on the Outer Ring Road are wide with thick and high embankments. A vast amount of water is retained in this widened drain by closing the Kakrola regulators under Najafgarh Road to recharge the local groundwater table. Several bridges cross the Sahibi River. A bridge on State Highway 14 crosses the river between Sodawas. On State Highway 52, a bridge crosses the river between Dadhiya; the Masani barrage is used as the bridge on NH 919 which merges with NH 48 at this barrage near Dharuhera, Rewari. Railway bridges between Ajaraka and Bawal and near Pataudi cross the river. A railway bridge near Nangal Pathani crosses the river. Prior to 1960, the rain-fed Sahibi River entered Delhi near Dhansa and spilled its overflow in the Najafgarh Lake basi