1919 Birthday Honours
The 1919 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, were published in The London Gazette from 3 June to 12 August; the vast majority of the awards were related to the ended War, were divided by military campaigns. A supplementary list of honours, retroactive to the King's birthday, was released in December 1919; the massive list contained nearly 10,000 names, more than half of which were appointments to the Order of the British Empire. "The lists of awards to the Army are so long that only a part of the first section can be published to-day," reported The Times on 3 June. "This section fills 131 pages of the London Gazette." Admiral of the Fleet Sir David Beatty and Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig were both appointed to the Order of Merit. As The Times noted, "The successful leadership of the victorious British Forces by land and sea is recognized by the award of the Order of Merit —, limited in numbers to 24 — to Sir David Beatty and Sir Douglas Haig."The new peers and baronets were not announced until August.
The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, arranged by honour, with classes and divisions as appropriate. Sir Edward Cecil Guinness, Viscount Iveagh Chancellor of Dublin University, 1908. Sir Edward Richard Russell Member of Parliament for Bridgeton Division of Glasgow, 1885–87. For public services during a long career. By the name and title of Baron Russell of Liverpool, of Liverpool in the County Palatine of Lancaster. Col. William Hall Walker Member of Parliament for Widnes Division of Lancashire since 1900. Donor of a magnificent gift of Racehorses to the nation in 1916 in order to start a National Stud. For public and parliamentary Services. By the name and title of Baron Wavertree of Delamere in the County of Chester. Col. Harry Gilbert Barling Vice-Chancellor of Birmingham University. For public services. Sir John George Blaker. Three times Mayor of Brighton. For public and local services. John Arthur Brooke West Riding and County Ross. Prominent and generous in all-religious and charitable movements in the Riding.
For public and local services. Edward Clitherow Brooksbank Deputy-Chairman of Quarter Sessions. Local Services. Coles Child During the War has been Chairman of West Kent War Pensions Committee, Special Grants Committee, other War Committees. For public and local services. Cecil Herbert Edward Chubb. Presented Stonehenge to the nation, 1918. For public services. Captain Douglas Bernard Hall Justice of the Peace for Sussex. Started the first Hospital Barge Flotilla in the War, by which over 6,000 wounded were conveyed on rivers and canals in France. For public services. Sir Arthur Norman Hill. Chairman of the Port and Transit Executive Committee. Special War Services to the Ministry of Shipping. John Henry Holden. Mayor of Leigh for two years. Military representative for whole of Leigh area during the war. For public and local services. William Joynson-Hicks Raised 17th and 23rd Service Battalions, Middlesex Regiment. For public services. Lt.-Col. Alexander Leith Justice of the Peace for County of Northumberland.
Food Commissioner for Northumberland and Durham. For public and local services. Laurence Richard Philipps Founder of Paraplegic Hospital in Wales. For public and local services. Sir Samuel Roberts Lord Mayor of Sheffield, 1899-1900. For public and local services. Sir Gerald Hemmington Ryan Justice of the Peace for Norfolk and London. For public and local services. Col. Charles Edward Warde For long continued public services in Kent. To be personal Aides-de-camp to the King: Col, his Royal Highness Edward A. C. G. A. P. D. Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall Colonel-in-Chief, 12th Royal Lancers and Royal Scots Fusiliers Capt, his Royal Highness Prince Albert Frederick Arthur George Royal Air Force John Baker Superintendent of the Broadmoor Lunatic Asylum Lt.-Col. John George Beharrell Statistical Authority at the Ministry of Munitions and the Admiralty Robert Charles Brown Consulting Medical Officer of Preston Royal Infirmary. Has done much to promote Infant Welfare. Founded Scholarship for Research at Cambridge University.
For public and local services. Henry Busby Bird Mayor of Shoreditch. Chairman of Local Appeal Committee and Local Food Committee. For public and local services. Isaac Connell, Secretary to the Scottish Chamber of Agriculture Harry Courthope-Munroe for valuable services at the Board of Trade Henry Capel Cure, Commercial Attaché, HM Embassy, Rome Charles Davidson, Deputy Chairman Establishment Committee, Ministry of Munitions Alderman George Edmund Davies Member of several Committees in connection with local affairs, during the War served as Chairman of National Registration Act Committee. For Public and local services. Walter de Frece, for services rendered at the Ministry of Pensions Professor William Boyd Dawkins Honorary Professor of Geology and Palaeontology in Victoria University, Manchester. Geologist on Geological Survey of Great Britain, 1861–69. Joseph Duveen. For public services, more in connection with the extension of the Tate Gallery of British Art. Alderman Knowles Edge J
War bonds are debt securities issued by a government to finance military operations and other expenditure in times of war. In practice, modern governments finance war by putting additional money into circulation, the function of the bonds is to remove money from circulation and help to control inflation. War bonds are either retail bonds marketed directly to the public or wholesale bonds traded on a stock market. Exhortations to buy war bonds are accompanied by appeals to patriotism and conscience. Retail war bonds, like other retail bonds, tend to have a yield, below that offered by the market and are made available in a wide range of denominations to make them affordable for all citizens. Governments throughout history have needed to borrow money to fight wars. Traditionally they dealt with a small group of rich financiers such as Jakob Fugger and Nathan Rothschild, but no particular distinction was made between debt incurred in war or peace. An early use of the term "war bond" was for the $11 million raised by the US Congress in an Act of 14 March 1812, to fund the War of 1812, but this was not aimed at the general public.
Until July 2015 the oldest bonds still outstanding as a result of war were the British Consols, some of which were the result of the refinancing of incurring debts during the Napoleonic Wars, but these were redeemed following the passing of the Finance Act 2015. The government of Austria-Hungary knew from the early days of the First World War that it could not count on advances from its principal banking institutions to meet the growing costs of the war. Instead, it implemented a war finance policy modeled upon that of Germany: in November 1914, the first funded loan was issued; as in Germany, the Austro-Hungarian loans followed a prearranged plan and were issued at half yearly intervals every November and May. The first Austrian bonds had a five-year term; the smallest bond denomination available was 100 kronen. Hungary issued loans separately from Austria in 1919, after the war and after it had separated from Austria, in the form of stocks that permitted the subscriber to demand repayment after a year's notice.
Interest was fixed at 6%, the smallest denomination was 50 korona. Subscriptions to the first Austrian bond issue amounted to the equivalent of $440 million; the limited financial resources of children were tapped through campaigns in schools. The initial minimum Austrian bond denomination of 100 kronen still exceeded the means of most children, so the third bond issue, in 1915, introduced a scheme whereby children could donate a small amount and take out a bank loan to cover the rest of the 100 kronen; the initiative was immensely successful, eliciting funds and encouraging loyalty to the state and its future among Austro-Hungarian youth. Over 13 million kronen was collected in the first three "child bond" issues. Canada's involvement in the First World War began in 1914, with Canadian war bonds called "Victory Bonds" after 1917; the first domestic war loan was raised in November 1915, but not until the fourth campaign of November 1917 was the term Victory Loan applied. The First Victory Loan was a 5.5% issue of 5, 10 and 20 year gold bonds in denominations as small as $50.
It was oversubscribed, collecting $398 million or about $50 per capita. The Second and Third Victory Loans were floated in 1919, bringing another $1.34 billion. For those who could not afford to buy Victory Bonds, the government issued War Savings Certificates; the government awarded communities. Unlike France and Britain, at the outbreak of the First World War Germany found itself excluded from international financial markets; this became most apparent after an attempt to float a major loan on Wall Street failed in 1914. As such, Germany was limited to domestic borrowing, induced by a series of war credit bills passing the Reichstag; this took place in many forms. Nine bond drives were conducted over the length of the war and, as in Austria-Hungary, the loans were issued at six-month intervals; the drives themselves would last several weeks, during which there was extensive use of propaganda via all possible media. Most bonds had a rate of return of 5% and were redeemable over a ten-year period, in semi-annual payments.
Like war bonds in other countries, the German war bonds drives were designed to be extravagant displays of patriotism and the bonds were sold through banks, post offices and other financial institutions. As in other countries, the majority investors were not individuals but institutions and large corporations. Industries, university endowments, local banks and city governments were the prime investors in the war bonds. In part because of intense public pressure and in part due to patriotic commitment the bond drives proved successful, raising 10 billion marks in funds. Although successful the war bond drives only covered two-thirds of war-related expenditures. Meanwhile, the interest payable on the bonds represented a growing expense which required further resources to pay it. In August 1914 the gold reserves of the Bank of England, of all banking institutions in Great Britain, amounted to £9 million; the banks feared the declaration of war would trigger a run on the banks, so the Chancellor David Lloyd George extended the August bank holiday for three days to allow time for the passing of the Currency and Bank Notes Act 1914, by which Britain left the gold standard.
Under this Act the Treasury issued £300 million of paper banknotes
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England. Between 1974 and 1998, it was merged with the neighbouring county of Herefordshire as Hereford and Worcester; the cathedral city of Worcester is county town. Other major towns in the county include Bromsgrove, Evesham, Malvern and Stourport-on-Severn; the north-east of Worcestershire includes part of the industrial West Midlands. The county is divided into six administrative districts: Worcester, Wychavon, Malvern Hills, Wyre Forest, Bromsgrove; the county borders Herefordshire to the west, Shropshire to the north-west, Staffordshire only just to the north, West Midlands to the north and north-east, Warwickshire to the east and Gloucestershire to the south. The western border with Herefordshire includes a stretch along the top of the Malvern Hills. At the southern border with Gloucestershire Worcestershire meets the northern edge of the Cotswolds. Two major rivers flow through the county: the Avon; the geographical area now known as Worcestershire was first populated at least 700,000 years ago.
The area became predominantly agricultural in the Bronze Age, leading to population growth and more evidence of settlement. By the Iron Age, hill forts dominated the landscape. Settlement of these swiftly ended with the Roman occupation of Britain; the Roman period saw establishment of the villa system in the Vale of Evesham. Droitwich was the most important settlement in the county in this period, due to its product of salt. There is evidence for Roman settlement and industrial activity around Worcester and King's Norton. Worcestershire was the heartland of the early English kingdom of the Hwicce, it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Mercia during the 7th century and became part of the unified Kingdom of England in 927. It was a separate ealdormanship in the 10th century before forming part of the Earldom of Mercia in the 11th century. In the years leading up to the Norman conquest, the Church, supported by the cathedral, Evesham Abbey, Pershore Abbey, Malvern Priory, other religious houses dominated the county.
During the Middle Ages, much of the county's economy was based on the wool trade. Many areas of its dense forests, such as Feckenham Forest, Horewell Forest and Malvern Chase, were royal hunting grounds subject to forest law; the last known Anglo-Saxon sheriff of the county was Cyneweard of Laughern, the first Norman sheriff was Urse d'Abetot who built the castle of Worcester and seized much church land. On 4 August 1265, Simon de Montfort was killed in the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire. In 1642, the Battle of Powick Bridge was the first major skirmish of the English Civil War; the county suffered from being on the Royalist front line, as it was subject to heavy taxation and the pressing of men into the Royalist army, which reduced its productive capacity. The northern part of the county, a centre of iron production, was important for military supplies. Parliamentarian raids and Royalist requisitioning both placed a great strain on the county. There were tensions from the participation of prominent Catholic recusants in the military and civilian organisation of the county.
Combined with the opposition to requisitioning from both sides, bands of Clubmen formed to keep the war away from their localities. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 ended the third civil war. There was little enthusiasm or local participation in the Scottish Royalist army, whose defeat was welcomed. Parliamentarian forces ransacked the city of Worcester, causing heavy damage and destruction of property. Around 10,000 Scottish prisoners were sent into forced labour in the New World or fen drainage schemes; the small bands of Scots that fled into Worcestershire's countryside were attacked by local forces and killed. In the 19th century, Worcester was a centre for the manufacture of gloves. Droitwich Spa, situated on large deposits of salt, was a centre of salt production from Roman times, with one of the principal Roman roads running through the town; these old industries have since declined. The county is home to the world's oldest continually published newspaper, the Berrow's Journal, established in 1690.
Malvern was one of the centres of the 19th century rise in English spa towns due to Malvern water being believed to be pure, containing "nothing at all". The 2011 census found the population of Worcestershire to be 566,169, an increase of 4.4% from the 2001 population of 542,107. Though the total number of people in every ethnic group increased between 2001 and 2011, the White British share of Worcestershire's population decreased from 95.5% to 92.4%, as did the share of white ethnic groups as whole, which went from 97.5% to 95.7%. While this change is in line with the nationwide trend of White British people's share of the population shrinking, Worcestershire is still much more ethnically homogeneous than the national average. In 2011 England as a whole was 79.8% White British, much lower than Worcestershire's figure of 92.4%. Local government in Worcestershire has changed several times since the middle of the 19th centiry. Worcestershire had several exclaves, which were areas of land cut off from the main geographical area of Worcestershire and surrounded by the nearby counties of Warwickshire, Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire.
The most notable were Dudley, th
Brixton is a district of South London, within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Brixton is residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector, it is a multiethnic community, with a large percentage of its population of Afro-Caribbean descent. It lies within Inner South London and is bordered by Stockwell, Streatham, Tulse Hill and Herne Hill; the district houses the main offices of the London Borough of Lambeth. Brixton is 2.7 miles south-southwest from the geographical centre of London near Brixton Underground station. The name Brixton is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, a Saxon lord. Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey; the location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, long before any settlement in the area.
Brixton marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham. At the time the River Effra flowed from its source in Upper Norwood through Herne Hill to Brixton. At Brixton the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road and Clapham Road; the main roads were connected through a network of medieval country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton Water Lane and Lyham Road Black Lane. It was only at the end of the 18th century that villages and settlements formed around Brixton, as the original woodland was reduced until the area was covered in farmland and market gardens known for game and strawberries; the area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, the main settlements being near Stockwell, Brixton Hill and Coldharbour Lane. With the opening of Vauxhall Bridge in 1816, improved access to Central London led to a process of suburban development; the largest single development, one of the last in suburban character, was Angell Town, laid out in the 1850s on the east side of Brixton Road, so named after a family that owned land in Lambeth from the late 17th century until well into the 20th.
One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill and surrounded by houses built during Brixton's Victorian expansion. When the London sewerage system was constructed during the mid-19th century, its designer Sir Joseph Bazalgette incorporated flows from the River Effra, which used to flow through Brixton, into his'high-level interceptor sewer' known as the Effra sewer. Brixton was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1890s. Railways linked Brixton with the centre of London when the Chatham Main Line was built through the area by the London and Dover Railway in the 1860s. In 1888, Electric Avenue was so named after it became the first street in London to be lit by electricity. In this time, large expensive houses were constructed along the main roads in Brixton, which were converted into flats and boarding houses at the start of the 20th century as the middle classes were replaced by an influx of the working classes. By 1925, Brixton attracted thousands of new people.
It housed the largest shopping centre in South London at the time, as well as a thriving market, pubs and a theatre. In the 1920s, Brixton was the shopping capital of South London with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britain's major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road is the main shopping area, fusing into Brixton Market. A prominent building on Brixton High Street is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1880s. On the western boundary of Brixton with Clapham stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco factory building. Designed by architect F. E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, this is one of the few art deco buildings, still owned by the firm that commissioned it and is still used for its original purpose; the Brixton area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by the building of council housing. In the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants from the West Indies and Ireland, settled in Brixton.
More recent immigrants include other European citizens. Brixton has an ageing population, which affects housing strategies in the area; the first wave of immigrants who formed the British African-Caribbean community arrived in 1948 at Tilbury Docks on the HMT Empire Windrush from Jamaica and were temporarily housed in the Clapham South deep shelter. The nearest Labour Exchange was on Coldharbour Lane and the new arrivals spread out into local accommodation. Many immigrants only intended to stay in Britain for a few years, but although a number returned to the Caribbean, the majority remained to settle permanently; the arrival of the passengers has become an important landmark in the history of modern Britain, the image of West Indians filing off its gangplank has come to symbolise the beginning of modern British multicultural society. In 1998 the area in front of the Tate Library in Brixton was renamed "Windrush Square" to mark the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the Windrush. Brixton was the scene of riots in April 1981 at a time when Brixton underwent deep social and economic problems—high unemployment, high crime, poor housing, no amenities—in a predominantly African-Caribbean community.
The Metropolitan Police began Operation Swamp 81 at the beginning of April, aimed at reducing street crime through the repeated u
Holborn is a district in the London boroughs of Camden and City of Westminster and a locality in the ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London. The area is sometimes described as part of the West End of London; the area's first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar, dated to 959. This mentions "the old wooden church of St Andrew"; the name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English "hol" for hollow, bourne, a brook, referring to the River Fleet as it ran through a steep valley to the east. Historical cartographer William Shepherd in his Plan of London about 1300 labels the Fleet as "Hole Bourn" where it passes to the east of St Andrew's church. However, the 16th-century historian John Stow attributes the name to the Old Bourne, a small stream which he believed ran into the Fleet at Holborn Bridge, a structure lost when the river was culverted in 1732; the exact course of the stream is uncertain, but according to Stow it started in one of the many small springs near Holborn Bar, the old City toll gate on the summit of Holborn Hill.
This is supported by a map of London and Westminster created during the reign of Henry VIII that marks the street as'Oldbourne' and'High Oldbourne'. Other historians, find the theory implausible, in view of the slope of the land, it was outside the City's jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex. In the 12th century St Andrew's was noted in local title deeds as lying on "Holburnestrate"—Holborn Street; the original Bars were the boundary of the City of London from 1223, when the City's jurisdiction was extended beyond the Walls, at Newgate, into the suburb here, as far as the point where the Bars were erected, until 1994 when the boundary moved to the junction of Chancery Lane. In 1394 the Ward of Farringdon Without was created, but only the south side of Holborn was under its jurisdiction with some minor properties, such as parts of Furnival's Inn, on the northern side, "above Bars"; the rest of the area "below Bars" was organised by the vestry board of the parish of St Andrew.
The St George the Martyr Queen Square area became a separate parish in 1723 and was combined with the part of St Andrew outside the City of London in 1767 to form St Andrew Holborn Above the Bars with St George the Martyr. The Holborn District was created in 1855, consisting of the civil parishes and extra-parochial places of Glasshouse Yard, Saffron Hill, Hatton Garden, Ely Rents and Ely Place, St Andrew Holborn Above the Bars with St George the Martyr and St Sepulchre; the Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was created in 1900, consisting of the former area of the Holborn District and the St Giles District, excluding Glasshouse Yard and St Sepulchre, which went to the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury. The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now forms part of the London Borough of Camden. Local politicians include: Keir Starmer MP, the Labour Party Member of Parliament for Holborn and St Pancras, Mark Field Conservative MP for the Cities of London and Westminster, which includes the City of London portion of Holborn, three ward councillors for Holborn and Covent Garden: Cllr Julian Fulbrook, Cllr Sue Vincent and Cllr Awale Olad of the Labour Party.
Holborn is represented in the London Assembly as part of Barnet and Camden by Andrew Dismore, of the Labour Party. Henry VII paid for the road to be paved in 1494 because the thoroughfare "was so deep and miry that many perils and hazards were thereby occasioned, as well to the king's carriages passing that way, as to those of his subjects". Criminals from the Tower and Newgate passed up Holborn on their way to be hanged at Tyburn or St Giles. In the 18th century, Holborn was the location of the infamous Mother Clap's molly house. There were 22 taverns recorded in the 1860s; the Holborn Empire Weston's Music Hall, stood between 1857 and 1960, when it was pulled down after structural damage sustained in the Blitz. The theatre premièred one of the first full-length feature films in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, a 50-minute melodrama filmed in Kinemacolor. Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnival's Inn. Dickens put his character "Pip", in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnard's Inn opposite, now occupied by Gresham College.
Staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery; the most northerly of the Inns of Court, Gray's Inn, is off Holborn, as is Lincoln's Inn: the area has been associated with the legal professions since mediaeval times, the name of the local militia still reflects that. Subsequently, the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street. A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaw's invention of the Marine chronometer, which facilitated long-distance travel. At the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages; until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street. The Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002; the Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, but the site is now occupied by Sainsbury's head office. Further east, in the gated avenue of Ely Place, is St Etheldreda's Church the chapel of the Bishop of Ely's London palace; this ecclesiastical connection allowed the street to remain part of the county of Cambridgeshire until the mid-1930s.
This meant that Ye Olde Mitre, a pub located in a court hidden behind the buildings of the Place and the Garden, was licensed by the Cambridgeshire Magistrates. St Etheldreda's is the oldest
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, 31 miles southwest of Birmingham, 101 miles west-northwest of London, 27 miles north of Gloucester and 23 miles northeast of Hereford. The population is 100,000; the River Severn flanks the western side of the city centre, overlooked by Worcester Cathedral. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 was the final battle of the English Civil War, where Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated King Charles II's Royalists. Worcester is known as the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain, composer Edward Elgar, Lea & Perrins, makers of traditional Worcestershire sauce, University of Worcester, Berrow's Worcester Journal, claimed to be the world's oldest newspaper; the trade route which ran past Worcester forming part of the Roman Ryknild Street, dates to Neolithic times. The position commanded a ford over the River Severn and was fortified by the Britons around 400 BC, it would have been on the northern border of the Dobunni and subject to the larger communities of the Malvern hillforts.
The Roman settlement at the site passes unmentioned by Ptolemy's Geography, the Antonine Itinerary and the Register of Dignitaries, but would have grown up on the road opened between Glevum and Viroconium in the 40s and 50s AD. The river crossing of the Severn at Worcester was the destination of the unfinished east-west Roman-dated road that ran from Magnis, until it disappeared from the historical record east of Stretton Grandison. Worcester may have been the "Vertis" mentioned in the 7th century Ravenna Cosmography. Using charcoal from the Forest of Dean, the Romans operated pottery kilns and ironworks at the site and may have built a small fort. There is no sign of municipal buildings. In the 3rd century, Roman Worcester occupied a larger area than the subsequent medieval city, but silting of the Diglis Basin caused the abandonment of Sidbury. Industrial production ceased and the settlement contracted to a defended position along the lines of the old British fort at the river terrace's southern end.
This settlement is identified with the Cair Guiragon listed among the 28 cities of Britain in the History of the Britons attributed to Nennius. This is not a British name but an adaption of its Old English name Weorgoran ceaster, "fort of the Weorgoran"; the form of the place-name varied as language and history developed over the centuries, with Early English and subsequent Norman French additions. At its settlement in 7th century by the Angles of Mercia it was known as Weogorna. After centuries of warfare against the Vikings and Danelaw it a centre for the Anglo-Saxon army or here known as Weogorna ceastre. At the time of Tenth Century Reformation to twelfth century, when scholasticism flourished it became approximated to its known linguistic origins as Wirccester; the county developed from the shire's name Wigornia from the Anglo-Norman period into the foundations of the Market Fairs during the Henrician and Edwardian parliaments. It was still known as County Wigorn in 1750; the Weorgoran were precursors of Hwicce and the West Saxons who entered the area some time after the 577 Battle of Dyrham.
In 680, their fort at Worcester was chosen—in preference to both the much larger Gloucester and the royal court at Winchcombe—to be the seat of a new bishopric, suggesting there was a well-established and powerful Christian community when the site fell into English hands. The oldest known church was St Helen's, British. Worcester appears in the historic records prior to the Viking era with reference to the church and monastic communities, showing evidence of extensive ecclesiastical ownership of lands. During King Alfred's reign, the earls of Mercia fortified Worcester "for the protection of all the people" at the request of Bishop Werfrith, it appears. A unique document detailing this and privileges granted to the church outlines the existence of Worcester's market and borough court, differentiation between church and market quarters within the city, as well as the role of the King in relation to the roads. Worcester's fortifications would most have established the line of the wall, extant until the 1600s excepting the south east area near the former castle.
It is referred to as a wall by contemporaries. Worcester was a centre of monastic church power. Oswald of Worcester was an important reformer, appointed Bishop in 961, jointly with York; the last Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Worcester, Wulfstan, or St Wulstan, was an important reformer, stayed in post until his death in 1095. Worcester became the focus of tax resistance against the Danish Harthacanute. Two huscarls were killed in May 1041 while attempting to collect taxes for the expanded navy, after being driven into the Priory, where they were murdered. A military force was sent to deal with the non-payment, while the townspeople attempted to defend themselves by moving to and occupying the island of Bevere, two miles up river, where they were besieged. After Harthacnut's men had sacked the city and set it alight, agreement was reached. Worcester was the site of a mint during the late Anglo-Saxon period, with seven moneyers in the reign of Edward the Confessor; this implies a middling role in trade for the city.
Worcester was, for tax purposes, counted within ru