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A vestry was a committee for the local secular and ecclesiastical government for a parish in England and Wales, which met in the vestry or sacristy of the parish church, became known colloquially as the "vestry". For many centuries the vestries were the sole de facto local government and presided over local, communal fundraising and expenditure until the mid or late 19th century with local Established Church chairmanship. More punitive matters tended to be dealt with by the manorial court and hundred court during the epoch of the vestries, their initial power derived from custom and was occasionally ratified by the common law or asserted in statute such as the Elizabethan Poor Law. At the high point of their powers before removal of Poor Law responsibilities in 1834, the vestries spent not far short of one-fifth of the budget of the British government which derived much of its income from global trade and imperialism. Secular and ecclesiastical aspects of the vestries were separated, for all areas where they had not earlier been, under a reforming statute of 1894.

Their secular duties have been performed in England since by parish councils or more superior councils, leaving their ecclesiastical duties to the Church of England where they have been performed by parochial church councils since 1921. Realised secularisation of local government was opposed by administrations of the Tory Party preceding the Third Salisbury ministry, the British government led by Lord Salisbury from 1895 to 1900 and several earlier influential High Whigs. A public right in the PCC meeting remains in that all Members of an overlapping civil parish can speak at their annual meetings. A right to tax by a PCC for church chancel repairs remains as to liable local residents and businesses across an apportioned area of many church parishes, in the form of chancel repair liability however in some tithes were replaced by no further such taxation; the vestry was a meeting of the parish ratepayers chaired by the incumbent of the parish held in the parish church or its vestry, from which it got its name.

The vestry committees were not established by any law, but they evolved independently in each parish according to local needs from their roots in medieval parochial governance. By the late 17th century they had become, along with the county magistrates, the rulers of rural England. In England, until the 19th century, the parish vestry committee equated to today's parochial church councils plus all local government responsible for secular local business, now the responsibility of a District Council as well as in some areas a Civil Parish Council, other activities, such as administering locally the poor law; the original unit of settlement among the Anglo-Saxons in England was the town. The inhabitants met to carry out this business in the town moot or meeting, at which they empowered or tasked men with various positions and the common law would be promulgated. With the rise of the shire, the township would send its reeve and four best men to represent it in the courts of the hundred and shire.

However, township independence in the Saxon system was lost to the feudal manorial court leet which replaced the town meeting. Assembly of parishes rested on land ownership, so the manorial system, with parishes assembled by lords of the manor in concert with local clergy and religious institutions by serving via a new church a manor, or more than one manor plus commons, barren land and land set aside for church benefit as rectory or vicarage lands; the manor was the principal unit of local administration, common customs and justice in the rural economy, but over time the church replaced the manorial court as to key elements of rural life and improvement — it levied its local tax on produce, tithes. Much subinfeudation, division of manors and a new mercantile middle class had eroded the old feudal model by the early Tudor period and which changes nationally accelerated with the Reformation in the 1530s seeing the sequestration of religious houses and the greatest estates of the church, but under Mary I and others a turning to the parish system to attend to social and economic needs.

These changes transformed participation in the township or parish meeting, which dealt with an increasing variety of civil and ecclesiastical demands and projects. This new meeting was supervised by the parish priest the best educated of the inhabitants, became dubbed the vestry meeting; as the complexity of rural society increased, the vestry meetings pragmatically acquired greater responsibilities, were given the power to grant or deny payments from parish funds. Although the vestry committees were not established by any law, had come into being in an unregulated ad-hoc process, it was convenient to allow them to develop; this was convenient when they were the obvious body for administering the Edwardian and Elizabethan systems for support of the poor on a parochial basis. This was their first, for many centuries their principal, statutory power. With this gradual formalisation of civil responsibilities, the ecclesiastical parishes acquired a dual nature and could be classed as both civil and ecclesiastical parishes.

In England, until the 19th century, the parish vestry was in effect what would today be called a parochial church council, but was responsible for all the secular parish business now dealt with by civil bodies, such as parish councils. The vestry assumed a variety of tasks, it became responsible for appointing parish officials, such as the parish clerk, overseers of the poor and scavengers, constables and nightwatchmen. At the high

Cemento-osseous dysplasia

Cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign condition of the jaws that may arise from the fibroblasts of the periodontal ligaments. It is most common in African-American females; the three types are periapical cemental dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. Periapical occurs most in the mandibular anterior teeth while focal appears predominantly in the mandibular posterior teeth and florid in both maxilla and mandible in multiple quadrants. Diagnosis is important so that the treating doctor does not confuse it for another periapical disease such as rarefying osteitis or condensing osteitis. Incorrect diagnosis could lead to unnecessary root canal treatments, it can be diagnosed by radiographic appearance. Confirming the tooth is vital, as is noting the demographic. There is no treatment necessary for any type of COD. Kahn, Michael A. Basic Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Volume 1. 2001. Neville and Damm. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 3rd Edition. 2012


Kalabhavan known as Cochin Kalabhavan, is a centre for learning performing arts in Kochi, India. Kalabhavan is notable and known for being the first organized performing mimicry group in Kerala and which popularised the art of mimicry in the state of Kerala. Since its founding, Kalabhavan has served as a grooming centre for acting aspirants. Hence, Kalabhavan has contributed numerous actors as well as film directors to Malayalam cinema. Founded on 3 September 1969, by C. M. I. Priest Fr. Abel,with the help of K. K. Antony, a music teacher, K. J. Yesudas a budding playback singer, started Kalabhavan as the Christian Arts Club to promote Christian music, what Kalabhavan took up was producing Christian religious songs, they moved on to'Ganamela'. Mimicry performances of individual artists were used as'fillers' in between stage programs. Mimicry was organized as a team event to form the now popular'Mimics Parade'; the professional mimicry troupe of Kalabhavan began with a team of 6 consisting of Siddique, Anzar, K. S. Prasad Varkkichan and Rahman.

It was this team. In 2015 Kalabhavan opened its UAE centre at Sharjah Siddique Lal and director K. S. Prasad Zainuddin Jayaram Kalabhavan Ansar Kalabhavan Rahman Harisree Asokan Dileep Nadirshah Kalabhavan Abi actor shane nigam's father N. F. Varghese Kalabhavan Mani Salim Kumar Kalabhavan Shajon Narayanankutty Thesni Khan Hakim Rawther Bindu Panicker Machan Varghese Sujatha Mohan Rafi of Rafi Mecartin duo Mecartin of Rafi Mecartin duo Berny of Berny-Ignatius duo Kalabhavan Prajod Kalabhavan Haneef Kalabhavan Navas

Shou Qiu

Shou Qiu is a historical site on the eastern outskirts of the city of Qufu in Shandong Province, China. According to the legend, Shou Qiu is the birthplace of the Yellow Emperor. Shou Qiu itself is today marked only by a pyramidal monument, covered in stone in the 12th century, that represents the legendary hill itself, it is now part of the same complex as the tomb of the son of the Yellow Emperor. Because Shaohao's tomb stands closely behind the pyramidal monument, the pyramid is mistaken as the tomb itself. Shou Qiu was encased in stone in the 12th century. At its top is a small pavilion; the structure seen today dates from the Qianlong era. The pavilion contains a small statue, the identity of, now uncertain. In the 11th century, a large complex was built around the pyramid, including governmental buildings and a shrine to the Yellow Emperor himself; the reigning Song Dynasty emperors at the time venerated the Yellow Emperor as their ancestor, so the shrine was intended to feature two giant turtle-borne steles that were much larger than was usual for temples.

Today, the two stele are all. They now stand near the Shou Qiu monument with a small lake between them; the western stele is known as the "Qing Shou" Stele. The former shrine to the Yellow Emperor on the site was built in 1012 CE, during the Xuanhe era of the Huizong Emperor of the Song Dynasty; the steles were carved on site during the time, but were left lying on the ground unfinished, because the Song Dynasty lost control of the area to the invading Jurchens in the Jin–Song wars. After suffering further damage during the Cultural Revolution, the steles were restored in 1992. Missing fragments that could not be located had to be replaced; the newer replicas are flabby and lack character."With more than 16 metres in height, the steles are among the tallest in China. The "Wan Ren Chou" Stele, 16.95 m tall, 3.75 m wide, 1.14 m thick, weighs 250 tons, is said to be the largest blank stele in China. Shaohao Tomb, nearby site, traditionally believed to be the burial site of the Yellow Emperor's son, which encloses the Shou Qiu monument itself Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor, in Yan'an, Shaanxi Han Family Tombs, a monumental complex at the graves of the Tang-era jiedushi Han Yunzhong and his relatives, in Shandong's Shen County.

It is centered around a pair of giant tortoise-borne stelae similar to those at Shou Qiu

Feuerhalle Simmering

Feuerhalle Simmering is a crematorium with attached urn burial ground in the Simmering district of Vienna, Austria. It lies at the end of an alley, directly opposite Vienna Central Cemetery's main gate. Opened on 17 December 1922 by Vienna's mayor Jakob Reumann, Feuerhalle Simmering was the first crematorium in Austria, it constituted an element of the social and health services policy of Red Vienna. Advocates of cremation from the labour movement – such as the Workers' Cremation Association "The Flame" –, had been campaigning for decades for crematoria in Austria, but applications were always rejected by the authorities. In 1921, Vienna's City Council, now under Social Democrat rule, approved the construction of a crematorium in Vienna. Reumann had to defend this decision at the Austrian Constitutional Court as he had granted building permission for the crematorium against the order of a federal minister from the Christian Social Party; the lawsuit was decided in 1924 in favour of the crematorium.

Feuerhalle Simmering's main building and its immediate surroundings were planned by Clemens Holzmeister, who designed the crematorium to resemble an oriental fortress. Holzmeister's design placed the crematorium into the walled gardens of the derelict Schloss Neugebäude, thus put the former palace gardens with its many ancient trees to new use as urn burial ground. Robert Danneberg and Käthe Leichter, two prominent Social Democrat politicians associated with Red Vienna, were killed in Nazi concentration camps and have symbolic graves of honour at Feuerhalle Simmering. Manfred Ackermann, politician Hellmut Andics, journalist H. C. Artmann, writer Hugo Bettauer, writer Turhan Bey, actor William Blankenship, opera singer Elfriede Blauensteiner, serial killer Adele Bloch-Bauer, painted as Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer by Gustav Klimt Annie Dirkens, actress Rudolf Eisler, philosopher Roman Felleis, political activist Alfred Hermann Fried, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1911 Joseph Gregor, writer Ferdinand Hanusch, politician Irene Harand, human rights activist Guido Holzknecht, radiologist Hans Kloss, bank manager Friedrich Knauer, zoologist Johann Koplenig, politician Rudolf Kraus, pathologist Minna Lachs, educator Hans Maršálek, political activist Jacob Levy Moreno, psychiatrist Franz von Nopcsa, paleontologist Max Pallenberg, actor Alfred Piccaver, opera singer Rudolf Prikryl, mayor of Vienna Jakob Reumann, mayor of Vienna Hilde Rössel-Majdan, opera singer Alexander Roda Roda, writer Elisabeth Ruttkay, archaeologist Miklós Sárkány, Olympic gold medalist Vera Schwarz, opera singer Amalie Seidel, politician Carl Sternberg, pathologist Teresa Stich-Randall, opera singer Julius Tandler and politician Oswald Thomas, astronomer Stefan Weber, musician Alfred Maria Willner, writer Friedrich Achleitner and architecture critic – ashes given to family Lale Andersen and actress – ashes buried at Langeoog, Germany Alfred Ebenbauer, medievalist – ashes buried in Stammersdorfer Zentralfriedhof, Vienna Nika Brettschneider, Charter 77 signatory – ashes given to family Erich Feigl and filmmaker – ashes buried in Simmeringer Friedhof, Vienna Marlen Haushofer, writer – ashes buried at Steyr City Cemetery Ernst Hinterberger, writer – ashes buried in Vienna Central Cemetery Franz Holzweber, July Putsch assassin – ashes buried in Friedhof Mauer, Vienna Ernst Kirchweger, victim of political violence – ashes buried in Hietzing Cemetery, Vienna György Ligeti, composer – ashes buried in Vienna Central Cemetery Jörg Mauthe, writer – ashes kept at his family's Burgruine Mollenburg Freda Meissner-Blau, politician – ashes given to family Alexander Moissi, actor – ashes buried at Morcote, Switzerland Sabine Oberhauser, politician – ashes buried in Hietzing Cemetery, Vienna Otto Planetta, July Putsch assassin – ashes buried in Dornbacher Friedhof, Vienna Barbara Prammer, politician – ashes buried in Vienna Central Cemetery Werner Schneyder, cabaret performer – ashes buried in Vienna Central Cemetery Otto Tausig, actor – ashes buried in Vienna Central Cemetery Helene Thimig, actress – ashes buried in Neustifter Friedhof, Vienna Lotte Tobisch, actress – ashes buried in Grinzinger Friedhof, Vienna Joe Zawinul, musician – ashes buried in Vienna Central Cemetery Official website

Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority

The Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority is an urban planning agency of the capital, Amaravati. It was notified on 30 December 2014 by the Government of Andhra Pradesh as per Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority Act, 2014, it replaced the Vijayawada Guntur Tenali Mangalagiri Urban Development Authority; the APCRDA was known as VGTM Urban Development Authority, formed in 1978 with an area of 1,954 km2. In 2012, it was expanded to 7,063 km2. Post bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh, it was defunct and was renamed as APCRDA; the head office of the authority is located at Lenin centre in Vijayawada. It has three sub-registrar offices at Thullur and Mandadam; the present commissioner of the authority is P. Lakshmi Narasimham; the authority has a jurisdictional area of 8,352.69 km2, covering the districts of Guntur and Krishna, including 217 km2 of the state capital, Amaravati. Visakhapatnam Metropolitan Region Development Authority APCRDA Facts and Figures