SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Via Domitia

The Via Domitia was the first Roman road built in Gaul, to link Italy and Hispania through Gallia Narbonensis, across what is now southern France. The route that the Romans regularised and paved was ancient when they set out to survey it, so old that it traces the mythic route travelled by Heracles; the construction of the road was commissioned by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whose name it bore, following the defeat of the Allobroges and Averni by himself and Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus. Gnaeus Domitius established a fortified garrison at Narbo on the coast, near Hispania, to guard its construction, it soon developed into a full Roman colony Colonia Narbo Martius. The lands on the western part of the route, beyond the River Rhône had been under the control of the Averni who, according to Strabo, had stretched their control to Narbo and the Pyrenees; the Via Domitia connected Italy to Hispania. Crossing the Alps by the easiest passage, the Col de Montgenèvre, it followed the valley of the Durance, crossed the Rhône at Beaucaire passed through Nîmes followed the coastal plain along the Gulf of Lion.

At Narbonne, it met the Via Aquitania. Thus Narbonne was a crucial strategic crossroads of the Via Domitia and the Via Aquitania, it was an accessible, but well-defensible, port at that time; this "cusp point" in the Roman westwards expansion and ensuing supply and fortification was a important asset, was treated as such. In between the cities that it linked, the Via Domitia was provided with a series of mansiones at distances of a day's journey for a loaded cart, at which shelter and fresh horses could be obtained for travellers on official business; the route as it was in Late Antiquity is represented in schematic fashion on the Tabula Peutingeriana. This route can be traced on topographical maps overprinted with the ancient route, in G. Castellve, J.-B. Compsa, J. Kotarba and A. Pezin, eds. Voies romaines du Rhône à l'Èbre: Via Domitia et Via Augusta Paris 1997. Briançon Chorges Gap Le Monetier Allemont Embrun Sisteron Lurs Céreste Apt Notre Dame des Lumières Cavaillon Saint-Rémy-de-Provence Saint-Gabriel Beaucaire Nîmes Ambrussum Lunel-Vieil Castelnau-le-Lez Montpellier route remains unknown Montbazin Mèze Pinet Saint-Thibéry and its Roman bridge Béziers Narbonne At Narbonne, a section of the Via Domitia is exposed in the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville.

The Via Domitia crossed the Atax by a seven-arched bridge at the site of the Pont des Marchands. Fitou Salses Perpignan RuscinoAt Ruscino, the road separates in two: the Inland Route and the Coastal Route, which rejoin at La Junquera. Coastal Route Elne Saint-Cyprien Argelès Collioure Port-Vendres BanyulsInland Route Montescot Le Boulou Les Cluses Le Perthus, at the Trophy of PompeyRejoins at: La Junquera Here the Via Augusta begins. For an overview of the location of Roman bridges, see List of Roman bridges. There are the remains of several Roman bridges along the road, including the Roman Bridge of Saint-Thibéry, the Pont Ambroix at Ambrussum, the Pont Julien and the Pont Serme. Roman roads Roman bridge Roman engineering Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus Raymond Chevalier, Les Voies Romaines, Paris, 1997. ISBN 2-7084-0526-8 Pierre A. Clement and Alain Peyre, La Voie Domitienne: De la Via Domitia aux routes de l'an 2000, Presses du Languedoc/Max Chaleil Editeur, 1992.

ISBN 2-85998-097-0 Pierre A. Clement, La Via Domitia: Des Pyrénées aux Alpes, Editions Ouest-France, Rennes, 2005. ISBN 2-7373-3508-6 "Suivez la Via Domitia" DVD 60 mins. English - French - German Luberon News - Via Domitia Traces of the Via Domitia St Thibery - Via Domitia

Feminist views on sexuality

Feminist views on sexuality vary. Many feminists radical feminists, are critical of what they see as sexual objectification and sexual exploitation in the media and society. Radical feminists are opposed to the sex industry, including opposition to prostitution and pornography. Other feminists define themselves as sex-positive feminists and believe that a wide variety of expressions of female sexuality can be empowering to women when they are chosen; some feminists support efforts to reform the sex industry to become less sexist, such as the feminist pornography movement. The feminist sex wars and lesbian sex wars, or the sex wars or porn wars, were acrimonious debates amongst feminists in the late 1970s and early 1980s; the sides were characterized by anti-porn and pro-sex groups with disagreements regarding sexuality, sexual representation, sadomasochism, the role of trans women in the lesbian community, other sexual issues. The debate pitted anti-pornography feminism against sex-positive feminism, the feminist movement was divided as a result.

The feminist sex wars are sometimes viewed as part of the division that led to the end of the second-wave feminist era and the beginning of third-wave feminism. The two sides included sex-positive feminists. One of the more significant clashes between the pro-sex and anti-pornography feminists occurred at the 1982 Barnard Conference on Sexuality. Anti-pornography feminists were excluded from the events' planning committee, so they staged rallies outside the conference to show their disdain. Many feminists denounce industries such as the sex industry as examples of misogynistic exploitation. Important anti-sex industry feminists included Catharine MacKinnon; the pair wanted civil laws restricting pornography. They viewed male sexual dominance as the root of all female oppression, thus condemned pornography and other manifestations of male sexual power; the anti-pornography movement gained ground with the creation of Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media. During the time of the sex wars, it organized marches against the creators and distributors of pornography in San Francisco and led to Women Against Pornography, Feminists Fighting Pornography, similarly-oriented organizations and efforts across the United States.

The response by "sex-positive feminists" was one that promoted sex as an avenue of pleasure for women. Gayle Rubin and Patrick Califia were influential in this part of the movement. Other feminists who identify as "sex-positive" include Ellen Willis, Kathy Acker, Susie Bright, Carol Queen, Annie Sprinkle, Avedon Carol, Tristan Taormino, Rachel Kramer Bussel, Nina Hartley, Betty Dodson; the Sex-positive feminism movement has become more popular in current times. Feminist views of pornography range from condemnation of pornography as a form of violence against women, to an embracing of some forms of pornography as a medium of feminist expression. Feminist debate on this issue reflects larger concerns surrounding feminist views on sexuality, is related to feminist debates on prostitution, BDSM, other issues. Pornography has been one of the most divisive issues in feminism among feminists in Anglophone countries. Radical feminist opponents of pornography—such as Andrea Dworkin, Catharine MacKinnon, Robin Morgan, Diana Russell, Alice Schwarzer, Gail Dines, Robert Jensen—argue that pornography is harmful to women, constitutes strong causality or facilitation of violence against women.

Anti-pornography feminists, notably MacKinnon, charge that the production of pornography entails physical, and/or economic coercion of the women who perform and model in it. This is said to be true when the women are being presented as enjoying themselves, it is argued that much of what is shown in pornography is abusive by its nature. Gail Dines holds that pornography, exemplified by gonzo pornography, is becoming violent and that women who perform in pornography are brutalized in the process of its production. Anti-pornography feminists hold the view that pornography contributes to sexism, arguing that in pornographic performances the actresses are reduced to mere receptacles—objects—for sexual use and abuse by men, they argue that the narrative is formed around men's pleasure as the only goal of sexual activity, that the women are shown in a subordinate role. Some opponents believe pornographic films tend to show women as being passive, or that the acts which are performed on the women are abusive and for the pleasure of their sex partner.

On-face ejaculation and anal rape are popular among men, following trends in porn. MacKinnon and Dworkin defined pornography as "the graphic sexually explicit subordination of women through pictures or words". Pornography is seen as being a medium for women's sexual expression in this view. Sex-positive feminists view many radical feminist views on sexuality, including views on pornography, as being as oppressive as those of patriarchal religions and ideologies, argue that anti-pornography feminist discourse ignores and trivializes women's sexual agency. Ellen Willis states "As we saw it, the claim that'pornography is violence against women' was code for the neo-Victorian idea that men want sex and women endure it."Sex-positive feminists take a variety of views towards existing pornography. Many sex-positive feminists see pornography as subverting many traditional ideas about women that they oppose, such as ideas that women do not like sex only enjoy sex in a relational context, or that women only enjoy vanilla sex.

They argue that pornography sometimes shows women in sex

BBC Northern Ireland

BBC Northern Ireland is a division of the BBC and the main public broadcaster in Northern Ireland. It is one of the three BBC national regions, together with BBC Cymru Wales. Based at Broadcasting House, Belfast, it provides television, radio and interactive television content. BBC Northern Ireland employs 700 people in Belfast. BBC Northern Ireland has two TV channels - BBC Two Northern Ireland. BBC Northern Ireland operates two television stations. Since 28 October 2006, BBC Two Northern Ireland has been the on-air name for both services which have been merged. BBC Northern Ireland has its own team of continuity announcers which introduce the vast majority of programmes on BBC One and BBC Two in Northern Ireland. BBC Northern Ireland makes some of its own programmes itself. However, unlike the radio stations, the television stations' content is for the most part identical to that broadcast by the BBC One and BBC Two channels in England; some network programmes may however be time-shifted to make room for more local programming.

Most local programmes are broadcast on BBC One Northern Ireland. BBC Newsline is the regional news service, its main presenters are Tara Mills. The main bulletin is from 18.30–19.00 with shorter bulletins at 13.30 and 22.30. Summaries are broadcast during Breakfast and the early afternoon. Regional political programmes, notably Spotlight, The View, Nolan Live regional arts programmes. There is coverage of the Orange parades on St. Patrick's Day parades on 17 March, etc.. As well as programmes intended purely for a regional audience, BBC Northern Ireland produces programmes for national consumption on the BBC's channels across the UK; the main part of BBC Northern Ireland's network productions are in drama. This has included producing the high-profile drama series Messiah. BBC Northern Ireland is involved in co-productions with other broadcasting networks, most notably with the Irish broadcaster RTÉ. BBC One Northern Ireland and BBC Two Northern Ireland are available across the border in the Republic of Ireland.

These channels are carried on pay-TV platforms in the Republic including Sky Ireland, Virgin Media Ireland, Magnet Networks, SCTV and Crossan Cable. BBC One NI and BBC Two NI are available in the Republic via signal overspill by Freeview in counties near the Northern Ireland border. Prior to the digital switchover in 2012, they were available in these areas via analogue television. Additional BBC channels such as BBC Four, BBC News, BBC World News, are available within the Republic of Ireland via a free-to-air satellite receiver or, in some areas near the border, via overspill from the Freeview service. Leading subscription TV providers carry these channels. On 1 February 2010 the Republic of Ireland's Minister for Communications Eamon Ryan signed an agreement with the UK's Ben Bradshaw; this agreement has enabled viewers within Northern Ireland to watch RTÉ One, RTÉ Two and TG4 on Freeview after the digital switchover took place in 2012. BBC Northern Ireland operates two radio stations: BBC Radio Ulster, on 92–95 FM and 1341 Medium Wave, which broadcasts throughout Northern Ireland, BBC Radio Foyle, on 93.1 FM and 792 Medium Wave, which broadcasts to the North West of Northern IrelandBBC Northern Ireland takes part in the'Regionalisation' of some of the BBC's national radio output.

Until 2012, for example, Radio 1 split the home nations on Thursday morning from midnight to 2–am, with Scotland and Northern Ireland broadcasting their own shows to showcase regional talent. The Radio 1 session from Northern Ireland was last presented by Phil Taggart from Omagh. BBC Northern Ireland's online service provides News, Schools and Programme information for television and radio programmes, it provides a streaming audio service for Radio Ulster and Radio Foyle as well as every programme on demand for up to a week after transmission. Bbc.co.uk / northernireland / operated from the Belfast base. It provides multi platform interactivity for TV programmes including the annual Schools' Cup Rugby union and Gaelic Athletic Association finals. In recent years BBC Northern Ireland in conjunction with Libraries NI, have launched an interactive road show visiting libraries across Northern Ireland; the road show allows people to learn more about day-to-day life in the BBC as well as allowing them to take part in activities such as presenting the news or weather, starring in a radio drama or making jingles.

For the majority of the days, there is an outside broadcast from BBC Radio Ulster's Hugo Duncan. Good Morning Ulster The Nolan Show Gardeners’ Corner Talkback Country Afternoon Evening Extra Sunday Sequence BBC Newsline Spotlight The View The Blame Game Beauty Queen & Single Ulster Mirror Scene Around Six Inside Ulster Newsline 6.30/Newsline/BBC Newsline Ballykissangel Gunpowder and Plot, historical drama Holy Cross Messiah Murphy's Law The Ambassador Patrick Kielty Almost Live In 2010 BBC Northern Ireland with RTÉ Sport, TG4 and BBC Alba bought the rights for Celtic League rugby. Setanta Sports had held the Irish and