Fado is a music genre that can be traced to the 1820s in Lisbon, but has much earlier origins. Fado historian and scholar Rui Vieira Nery states that "the only reliable information on the history of Fado was orally transmitted and goes back to the 1820s and 1830s at best, but that information was modified within the generational transmission process that made it reach us today."Although the origins are difficult to trace, today fado is regarded as a form of song which can be about anything, but must follow a certain traditional structure. In popular belief, fado is a form of music characterized by mournful tunes and lyrics about the sea or the life of the poor, infused with a sentiment of resignation and melancholia; this is loosely captured by the Portuguese word saudade, or "longing", symbolizing a feeling of loss. This is similar to the character of several musical genres in Portuguese ex-colonies such as morna from Cape Verde, which may be linked to fado in its earlier form but has retained its rhythmic heritage.
This connection to the music of a historic Portuguese urban and maritime proletariat can be found in Brazilian modinha and Indonesian kroncong, although all these music genres subsequently developed their own independent traditions. Famous singers of fado include Amália Rodrigues, Dulce Pontes, Carlos do Carmo, Mafalda Arnauth, António Zambujo, Ana Moura, Camané, Helder Moutinho, Carminho, Mísia, Cristina Branco, Gisela João and Katia Guerreiro. On 27 November 2011, fado was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, it is one of two Portuguese music traditions part of the lists, the other being Cante Alentejano. The word "fado" comes from the Latin word fatum; the word is linked to the music genre itself, although both meanings are the same in the two languages. Many songs play on the double meaning, such as the Amália Rodrigues song "Com que voz", which includes the lyric "Com que voz chorarei meu triste fado"; the English-Latin term vates, the Scandinavian fata and the French name fatiste have been associated with the term fadista.
Fado appeared during the early 19th century in Lisbon, is believed to have its origins in the port districts such as Alfama and Bairro Alto. There are numerous theories about the origin of fado; some trace its origins or influences to the Medieval "cantigas de amigo" and some ancient Moorish influence, but none is conclusive. It evolved and formed, from a mixture of several older musical genres. Fado performers in the middle of the 19th century were from urban working-class namely sailors, courtesans, who not only sang, but danced and beat the fado. During the second half of the 19th century, the dance rhythms would fade away, the performers became singers; the 19th century's most renowned fadista was Maria Severa. More Amália Rodrigues, known as the "Rainha do Fado" was most influential in popularizing fado worldwide. Fado performances today may be accompanied by a string quartet or a full orchestra. Fado employs the Dorian mode, Ionian mode, sometimes switching between the two during a melody or verse change.
The Phrygian mode, is not a traditional feature of this genre. A particular stylistic trait of fado is the use of rubato, where the music pauses at the end of a phrase and the singer holds the note for dramatic effect; the music uses double time rhythm and triple time. There are two main varieties of fado, namely those of the cities of Lisbon and Coimbra; the Lisbon style is more well known - alongside the status of Amália Rodrigues, while that of Coimbra is traditionally linked to the city's University and its style is linked to the medieval serenading troubadours. Modern fado is popular in Portugal, has produced many renowned musicians. According to tradition, to applaud fado in Lisbon one claps one's hands, while in Coimbra one coughs as if clearing one's throat; this fado is linked to the academic traditions of the University of Coimbra and is sung by men. Dating to the troubadour tradition of medieval times, it is sung at night in the dark, in city squares or streets; the most typical venues are the stairsteps of the Santa Cruz Monastery and the Old Cathedral of Coimbra.
It is customary to organize serenades where songs are performed before the window of a woman to be courted. As in Lisbon, Coimbra fado is accompanied by the guitarra portuguesa and viola; the Coimbra guitar has evolved into an instrument different from that of Lisbon, with its own tuning, sound colouring, construction. Artur Paredes, a progressive and innovative singer, revolutionised the tuning of the guitar and its accompaniment style to Coimbra fado. Artur Paredes was the father of Carlos Paredes, who followed in his father's footsteps and expanded on his work, making the Portuguese guitar an instrument known around the world. In the 1950s, a new movement led the singers of Coimbra to adopt the ballad and folklore, they began interpreting lines of the great poets, both classical and contemporary, as a form of resistance to the Salazar dictatorship. In this movement names such as Adriano Correia de Oliveira and
Ponte de Lima
Ponte de Lima, is the oldest vila in Portugal. It is part of the district of Viana; the population in 2011 was 43,498, in an area of 320.25 km². The town proper has about 2,800 inhabitants, it is named after the long medieval bridge that passes over the Lima river that runs next to the town. The present Mayor is Victor Mendes, elected by the People's Party, it is the only municipality in Portugal ruled by this party. The municipal holiday is 20 September. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 39 civil parishes: Ponte de Lima is located in the southern bank of the Lima, a small river with sources in Spain. One of the oldest towns in Portugal, it was significant as a Roman settlement in the road from Braga to Santiago de Compostela and Lugo, the first place in Portugal getting a municipal charter; every second Monday, it holds one of the largest country markets in Portugal. In the second weekend of September, Ponte de Lima hold the Feiras Novas for three days since 1826, granted by the Royal Provision of king Peter IV of Portugal.
The attractive rural area around has the largest concentration of baroque manors in Portugal. Ponte de Lima is known in the region for its red Vinho Verde wines. Municipality official website
Álvaro Siza Vieira
Álvaro Joaquim de Melo Siza Vieira, GOSE, GCIH, GCIP, is a Portuguese architect, architectural educator. He is internationally known in Portugal as Siza Vieira. Siza was born in a small coastal town near Porto, he graduated in architecture in 1955, at the former School of Fine Arts of the University of Porto, the current FAUP – Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade do Porto. He completed his first built work before ending his studies in 1954, the same year that he first opened his private practice in Porto. Siza Vieira taught at the school from 1966 to 1969, returning in 1976. In addition to his teaching there, he has been a visiting professor at the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University. Along with Fernando Távora, he is one of the references of the Porto School of Architecture where both were teachers. Both architects worked together between 1955 and 1958. Another architect he has collaborated with is Eduardo Souto de Moura, e.g. on Portugal's flagship pavilions at Expo'98 in Lisbon and Expo 2000 in Hannover, as well as on the Serpentine Pavillon 2005.
Siza's work is described as "poetic modernism". Among Siza's earliest works to gain public attention was a public pool complex he created in the 1960s for Leça da Palmeira, a fishing town and summer resort north of Porto. Completed in 1966, both of the two swimming pools as well as the building with changing rooms and a cafe are set into the natural rock formation on the site with unobstructed views of the sea. In 1977, following the revolution in Portugal, the city government of Évora commissioned Siza to plan a housing project in the rural outskirts of the town, it was to be one of several that he would do for SAAL, the national housing association, consisting of 1,200 low-cost, housing units, some one-story and some two-story row houses, all with courtyards. He was a member of the team which reconstructed Chiado, the historic center of Lisbon destroyed by a fire in 1988. Most of his best known works are located in his hometown Porto: the Boa Nova Tea House, the Faculty of Architecture, the Serralves Museum of Contemporary Art.
Since the mid-1970s, Siza has been involved in numerous designs for public housing, public pools, universities. Between 1995 and 2009, Siza has been working on an architecture museum on Hombroich island, completed in collaboration with Rudolf Finsterwalder. Most he started coordinating the rehabilitation of the monuments and architectonic heritage of Cidade Velha in Santiago, an island of Cape Verde. Commissioned after winning an international competition in 2010, Siza and Granada-based Juan Domingo Santos unveiled designs for a new entrance and visitors center at the Alhambra in 2014. In July 2014 Siza announced his decision to donate the large part of his architectural archive to the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal, Canada, in order to make his materials "accessible alongside the work of other modern and contemporary architects", while giving specific project archives to the Fundação Gulbenkian in Lisbon and Fundação de Serralves in Porto, Portugal. In 1987, the dean of Harvard Graduate School of Design, the Spanish architect Rafael Moneo, organized the first show of Siza's work in the United States.
In 1992, he was awarded with the renowned Pritzker Prize for the renovation project that he coordinated in the Chiado area of Lisbon, a historic commercial sector, all but destroyed by fire in August 1988. Other prizes include: The Golden Medal of The Superior Council of Architecture of the College of Architects of Madrid in 1988. Siza's Iberê Camargo Foundation in Porto Alegre, his first project built in Brazilian territory, was honoured by the Venice Architecture Biennale with the Golden Lion award in 2002. In 2007 the Brazilian Government awarded him the Cultural Merit Order Medal. More he was awarded the RIBA's 2009 Royal Gold Medal and the International Union of Architects' 2011 Gold Medal. Siza was awarded by the Venice Architecture Biennale with the Golden Lion for lifetime achievement. Siza was conferred the title of Honoris Causa Doctor by the following universities: Polytechnic University of Valencia, he is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences as well as Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects, the American Institute of Architects, the Académie d'Architecture de France and the European Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Grand Officer of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, Portugal Grand-
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
Estaleiros Navais de Viana do Castelo is a medium-sized shipyard in business since 1944, located in the town of Viana do Castelo, on the Atlantic Coast in the north of Portugal. Occupying an area of 400,000 square metres and employing 625 people, it is a major Portuguese shipbuilder. In 2013 its assets and operations are sub-licensed to Martifer and its employees are to be laid off; the shipyards were funded in June 1944 as a private limited liability company with a capital of 750,000$00 escudos by a group of technicians and workers from the shipyards of the port of Lisbon. Two of the first investors were Vasco D'Orey and João Alves Cerqueira, from the cod fishing industry, its creation was part of a Portuguese government program to modernize the national fishing fleet. In 1948 the company delivered its first three ships, all fishing trawlers for cod fishing: Senhor dos Mareantes and Senhora das Candeias were delivered to the company Empresa de Pesca de Viana, São Gonçalinho to the company Empresa de Pesca de Aveiro.
In May 1949, the ENVC were constituted as a anonymous society with a PTE 37,000,000$00 capital. In 1950 the company H. Parry & Son, Lda. became the main shareholder and in 1971 the CUF group took over as the major shareholder. In 1975, following the Carnation Revolution the previous year, the shipyards were nationalized and became a state-owned company with a capital of PTE 330,000,000$00. In 1987 its capital was changed to 3 million contos. In 1991 the company was made an anonymous society with the Portuguese government remaining the major shareholder. Since the early years Viana shipyard has developed its own design and had the capacity to design, build and repair different sophisticated and specialized ships. Up to the present, the yard has delivered more than 200 vessels including barges, ferry boats, fishing vessels, general cargo and bulk carriers, container ships and chemical tankers, LPG's, cement carriers and war vessels. Shipbuilding EMPORDEF Martifer Viana do Castelo-class patrol vessel List of shipbuilders and shipyards Arsenal do Alfeite Portuguese Navy ENVC, official website ENVC Subconcessão, EMPORDEF campaign website regarding the sub-licensing
Geraz do Lima Carriage Museum
Geraz do Lima Carriage Museum is a museum in Geraz do Lima, Viana do Castelo, Portugal dedicated to Carriage. It contains equine-related artifacts and artwork, as well as over 50 antique horse-drawn carriages from Europe and Americas; the Geraz do Lima Carriage museum
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe