Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels (Los Angeles)
The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, informally known as COLA or the Los Angeles Cathedral, is a cathedral of the Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles, United States of America. Opened in 2002, it serves as the mother church for the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, as well as the seat of Archbishop José Horacio Gómez; the structure replaced the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Under Cardinal Roger Mahony, Our Lady of the Angels was begun in 1998 and formally opened in September 2002. There was considerable controversy over both its deconstructivist and modern design and exceptional costs incurred in its construction and furnishing, as well as the archdiocese's decision to build a crypt under the Cathedral; the Cathedral is named in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the patronal title of Our Lady of the Angels, echoing the full name of the original settlement of Los Angeles. The Cathedral is known for enshrining the relics of Saint Vibiana and tilma piece of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
It is the mother church to five million professed Catholics in the archdiocese. The Cathedral of Saint Vibiana had served as the cathedral of the Los Angeles see since its completion in 1876. Soon after its completion, the diocese noted it to be of inferior construction quality and too small for Los Angeles' growing population. In 1904, Bishop Thomas James Conaty gained permission from the Holy See to build a new cathedral to be named after Our Lady of Guadalupe and purchased a site on which to build the cathedral. However, an economic downturn in 1907 put a stop to the project. In the 1940s, plans were drawn up for a new cathedral on Wilshire Boulevard that would seat 3,000 people, in 1945 Archbishop John Joseph Cantwell announced that the Holy See approved the name "Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels"; that cathedral was never built, however, as Cantwell died in 1947 and his successor, James Francis McIntyre, decided that building churches and schools was a more pressing need for the archdiocese.
McIntyre gained permission from donors to redirect money donated to Cantwell's cathedral fund to fund construction of churches and schools. The 1994 Northridge earthquake damaged the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, which led the archdiocese to close the cathedral due to safety concerns. In January 1995 the archdiocese announced plans to build a new cathedral on the Saint Vibiana site, plans which necessitated the demolition of the old cathedral; this led to a lengthy legal battle between the archdiocese and preservationists, who argued that the cathedral was a city landmark and that it should be either incorporated into the new cathedral or otherwise saved. The archdiocese contended that restoring the old cathedral would cost $18–20 million, an amount that it contended no one would donate; this legal battle prompted the archdiocese to look to build the cathedral on a new site. In December 1996, the archdiocese announced it was purchasing a 5.6-acre site between Temple Street and the Hollywood Freeway from Los Angeles County at a cost of $10.85 million.
The archdiocese chose to retain the "Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels" name approved by the Vatican in the 1940s. The proposed budget for the project was $150 million, rising to a final cost of $189.7 million. The construction was supervised by Father Richard S. Vosko, a liturgical design consultant and priest of the Diocese of Albany who has overseen the design and renovation of numerous churches and cathedrals in the United States. Construction began in 1998 and was completed in September 2002. Meanwhile, the old cathedral was restored by developers Tom Gilmore and Richard Weintraub, who spent around $6 million converting it into an events center and performance venue; the architect was Pritzker Prize-winning Spaniard Rafael Moneo. Using elements of postmodern architecture, the church and the Cathedral Center feature a series of acute and obtuse angles while avoiding right angles. Contemporary statuary and appointments decorate the complex. Prominent of these appointments are the bronze doors and the statue called The Virgin Mary, all adorning the entrance and designed by Robert Graham.
In addition to the church, the cathedral grounds include a mausoleum, gift shop, conference center, clergy residences. The relics of Saint Vibiana are interred in the mausoleum, as are the remains of several past bishops and auxiliary bishops of Los Angeles; the size of the cathedral is 6,038 square metres. Cardinal Roger Mahony's decision to build so large and expensive a new cathedral in such non-traditional architecture drew great criticism, earning it such epithets as the "Taj Mahony" and the "Rog Mahal". Many argued that a church of that size and expense was unnecessary, overly-elaborate and the money could have been better spent on social programs. Many felt that either St. Vincent Church on West Adams Boulevard or St. Basil Church on South Kingsley Drive could perform the functions required of a cathedral with minimal additional cost -- except for the fact that neither church has adequate seating for a cathedral of an archdiocese the size of Los Angeles; some criticised the structure for being a "failed architecture" as it did not convey Christianity through its lack of iconography, iconography, aimed at being'inclusive' instead of Catholic.
But, the Cathedral and Cardinal Roger Mahony enjoyed staunch supporters such as Roy and Patty Disney and Meredith A. Disney and her sons Charles Elias Disney and Daniel H. Disney; the cost of and pri
Saint Bibiana is a Roman Virgin and Martyr. The earliest mention in an authentic historical authority occurs in the "Liber Pontificalis,", where the biography of Pope Simplicius states that this pope "consecrated a basilica of the holy martyr Bibiana, which contained her body, near the'palatium Licinianum' "; the Basilica of Santa Bibiana still exists. According to legend, Bibiana was the daughter of a former prefect, banished by Julian the Apostate, his wife Dafrosa, two daughters and Bibiana, were persecuted by Julian. Dafrosa and Demetria were buried by Bibiana in their own house. Two days after her death a priest named John buried Bibiana near her mother and sister in her home, the house being transformed into a church, it is evident that the legend seeks to explain in this way the origin of the church and the presence in it of the bodies of the above-mentioned confessors. The account contained in the martyrologies of the ninth century is drawn from the legend. An alternate account says. Bibiana suffered in the persecution started by him.
She was the daughter of Christians, Flavian, a Roman knight, Dafrosa, his wife. Flavian was tortured and sent into exile. Dafrosa was beheaded, their two daughters and Demetria, were stripped of their possessions and left to suffer poverty. However, they remained in their house, spending their time in prayer. Apronianus, seeing that want had no effect upon them, summoned them. Demetria, after confessing her faith, fell dead at the feet of the tyrant. Bibiana was reserved for greater sufferings, she was placed in the hands of a wicked woman called Rufina. She used blows as well as persuasion. Enraged at the constancy of this saintly virgin, Apronianus ordered her to be tied to a pillar and beaten with scourges, laden with lead plummets, until she died; the saint endured the torments with joy, died under the blows inflicted by the hands of the executioner. Her body was put in the open air to be torn apart by wild animals, yet none would touch it. After two days she was buried; the above-mentioned Saint Bibiana should not be confused with Saint Vibiana, the patroness of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles.
Santa Bibiana, the church where the body of the saint rests Saint Bibiana - Patron Saints Index
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles
The Archdiocese of Los Angeles is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the U. S. state of California. Based in Los Angeles, the archdiocese comprises the California counties of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and Ventura; the cathedral is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, its present archbishop is José Horacio Gómez. With five million professing members, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles is numerically the single largest diocese in the United States; the Archbishop of Los Angeles serves as metropolitan bishop of the suffragan dioceses within the Ecclesiastical Province of Los Angeles, which includes the Dioceses of Fresno, Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego. Following the establishment of the Spanish missions in California, the diocese of the Two Californias was established on 1840, when Los Angeles region was still part of Mexico. In 1848, the Mexican California was ceded to the United States, the U. S. portion of the diocese was renamed the Diocese of Monterey. The diocese was renamed the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles in 1859, the episcopal see was moved to Los Angeles upon the completion of the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana in 1876.
Los Angeles split from Monterey to become the Diocese of Los Angeles-San Diego in 1922. The diocese was split again in 1936 to create the Diocese of San Diego, the Los Angeles see was elevated to an archdiocese; the archdiocese's present territory was established in 1976, when Orange County was split off to establish the Diocese of Orange. Christianity in southern California dates back to the Spanish establishment of missions in what was known as the Las Californias province of New Spain. From 1769 to 1823, the Franciscan order led by Junípero Serra and by Fermín de Francisco Lasuén established twenty-one missions between present-day San Diego and Sonoma, six of which were located in the present-day territory of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. In response to the 1781 establishment of the Pueblo de Los Angeles, in 1784 priests from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel set out for the pueblo and established the Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles Asistencia as a sub-mission; the asistencia fell into disrepair after being abandoned several years and La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles was built on the site in 1814.
Las Californias was split into two provinces in 1804, the area comprising present-day California became part of Alta California. In 1840, the diocese of the Two Californias was erected to recognize the growth of the provinces of Alta California and Baja California; the diocese was a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Mexico with its episcopal see located in Monterey, included all Mexican territory west of the Colorado River and the Gulf of California. In 1848, Alta California was ceded to the United States after the Mexican–American War, the Mexican government objected to an American bishop having jurisdiction over parishes in Mexican Baja California; the diocese was split into American and Mexican sections, the American section was renamed the Diocese of Monterey. Another large split occurred in 1853, when much of present-day northern California, as well as present-day Nevada and Utah, formed the Archdiocese of San Francisco. In 1859 the diocese became known as the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles to recognize the growth of the city of Los Angeles.
On June 1, 1922, the diocese split again, this time into the Dioceses of Monterey-Fresno and Los Angeles-San Diego. On July 11, 1936 the diocese was elevated to become the Archdiocese of Los Angeles with John Joseph Cantwell as its first archbishop. On March 24, 1976, Orange County was split to form the Diocese of Orange, establishing the archdiocese's present-day territory consisting of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Ventura Counties. In addition to the dioceses of Monterey and San Diego, the archdiocese's present-day suffragan dioceses are Fresno and San Bernardino. In 1986, Archbishop Roger Mahony subdivided the Archdiocese of Los Angeles into five administrative pastoral regions; each region is geographical, is headed by an auxiliary bishop who functions as the region's episcopal vicar. The five regions are: Our Lady of the Angels, covering downtown and central Los Angeles west to Malibu, south to Los Angeles International Airport; the region has 78 parishes, 11 Catholic high schools, 5 Catholic hospitals, 5 missions.
The Episcopal Vicar is Bishop Edward William Clark. San Fernando, covering the San Fernando, Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys and northeast Los Angeles; the region has 12 Catholic high schools, 2 Catholic hospitals and 5 missions. Archbishop Gomez appointed Bishop Joseph V. Brennan Episcopal Vicar for the San Fernando Pastoral Region in 2015. San Gabriel, covering East Los Angeles through the San Gabriel Valley and th
Early Christianity covers the period from its origins until the First Council of Nicaea. This period is divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period; the first Christians were Jewish Christians, either by conversion. Important practices were baptism, which made one a member of the Christian community, the communal meals, from which the Eucharist developed, the participation in Christ's death and resurrection; the inclusion of Gentile God-fearers lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. A variety of Christianities developed throughout the 2nd and 3rd century, alongside a developing proto-orthodoxy, which defined orthodoxy and heresy. Proto-orthodoxy developed in tandem with the growing number of Christians, which necessitated the devlopment of eccelsiastical structure. Early Christians used and revered the Hebrew Bible as religious text in the Greek or Aramaic translations, but developed their own Canon of the New Testament, which includes the canonical gospels, letters of the Apostles, Revelation, all written before 120.
Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. Christianity "emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine" in the syncretistic Hellenistic world of the first century CE, dominated by Roman law and Greek culture. During the early first century CE there were many competing Jewish sects in the Holy Land, those that became Rabbinic Judaism and Proto-orthodox Christianity were but two of these. There were Pharisees and Zealots, but other less influential sects, including the Essenes; the first century BCE and first century CE saw a growing number of charismatic religious leaders contributing to what would become the Mishnah of Rabbinic Judaism.
A central concern in 1st century Judaism was the covenant with God, the status of the Jews as the chosen people. Many Jews believed; the Law was given by God to guide them in their worship of the Lord and in their interctions with each other, "the greatest gift God had given his people."The Jewish messiah concept has its root in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd century BC to 1st century BC, promising a future leader or king from the Davidic line, expected to be anointed with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age and world to come. The Messiah is referred to as "King Messiah" or malka meshiḥa in Aramaic. In the Synoptic Gospels Jewish eschatology stands central. After being baptized by John the Baptist, Jesus teaches extensively for a year, or maybe just a few months, about the Kingdom of God, in aphorisms and parables, using similes and figurs of speech. In the Gospel of John, Jesus himself is the main subject; the Kingdom is described as eschatological, becoming reality in the near future.
Jesus talks as expecting the coming of the "Son of Man" from heaven, an apocalyptic figure who would initiate "the coming judgment and the redemption of Israel." According to Davies, the Sermon on the Mount presents Jesus as the new Moses who brings a New Law, the Messianic Torah. His ministry was ended by his execution by crucifixion, his early followers believed that three days after his death, Jesus rose bodily from the dead and was exalted to Divine status. Paul's letters and the Gospels document a number of post-resurrection appearances, the resurrection of Jesus "signalled for earliest believers that the days of eschatological fulfilment were at hand." The resurrection was seen as the exaltation of Jesus to the status of divine Son and Lord. His followers expected Him to return in the near future. Since the 18th century, three scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were developed during each specific phase.
Scholars involved in the third quest for the historical Jesus have constructed a variety of portraits and profiles for Jesus, most prominently that of Jesus as a Jewish apocalyptic prophet or eschatological teacher. The first part of the period, named after the lifetimes of the Twelve Apostles as narrated in the Acts of the Apostles, is called the Apostolic Age; the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. After the death of Jesus, "Christianity emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine." The first Christians were all Jews, either by birth or conversion, who constituted a Second Temple Jewish sect with an apocalyptic eschatology. The New Testament's Acts of the Apostles and Epistle to the Galatians record the existence of a Christian community centered on Jerusalem, that its leaders included Peter, the "brother of Jesus", John the Apostle; the Jerusalem Church "held a central place among all the churches,".
Christian missionary activity spread Christianity
Mission Santa Inés
Mission Santa Inés was a Spanish mission in the present-day city of Solvang and named after St. Agnes of Rome. Founded on September 17, 1804 by Father Estévan Tapís of the Franciscan order, the mission site was chosen as a midway point between Mission Santa Barbara and Mission La Purísima Concepción, was designed to relieve overcrowding at those two missions and to serve the Indians living east of the Coast Range; the mission was home to the first learning institution in Alta California and today serves as a museum as well as a parish church of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. It is designated a National Historic Landmark, noted as one of the best-preserved of the 21 California missions. Most of the original church was destroyed on December 21, 1812 in an earthquake centered near Santa Barbara that damaged or destroyed several California missions; the quake severely damaged other mission buildings, but the complex was not abandoned. A new church, constructed with 5-to-6-foot-thick walls and great pine beams brought from nearby Figueroa Mountain, was dedicated on July 4, 1817.
A water-powered grist mill was built in about half a mile from the church. In 1821, a fulling mill was designed by newly arrived American immigrant Joseph John Chapman, he oversaw the building of a grist mill for Mission San Gabriel, he prepared timbers for the construction of the first church in Los Angeles. The mill he built near San Gabriel is now a museum. Chapman was baptized at San Buenaventura in 1822, that same year married Guadalupe Ortega of Santa Barbara, with whom he had five children. In 1824, Chapman bought land in Los Angeles and developed a vineyard, but still continued to perform odd jobs at the missions. On February 21, 1824 a soldier beat a young Chumash Native. Two separate Chumash accounts, written in the early 1900s, state that around the time the Native was beaten, a Spanish page overheard Santa Inés priests talking about having the Natives of the mission killed the next summer when they arrived; the page was found out by the priests after having alerted the Natives, his tongue and feet were cut off before he was burned to death.
Upon learning of this news, the Natives sought the help of the other Santa Barbara Channel Mission Natives and a week the Chumash Revolt of 1824 was sparked. When the fighting was over, the Natives themselves put out the fire. Many of the Indians left to join other tribes in the mountains. In 1833 the missions in California began to be secularized, however, it wasn’t until 1835 that the Santa Inés Mission became secularized by the Mexican government. Secularization involved replacing the Padres as managers of the missions with government appointed overseers. In this case, the existing Spanish Franciscans were replaced by Mexican Franciscans who were restricted to provide only for the spiritual needs of the Chumash; the Chumash were mistreated under this new policy and began to leave the mission, returning to their villages or working at settlers’ ranches. As a result, much of their land was given to settlers in land grants. In 1843, California's Mexican governor Micheltorena granted 34,499 acres of Santa Ynez Valley land, called Rancho Cañada de los Pinos, to the College of Our Lady of Refuge, the first seminary in California.
Established at the mission by Francisco García Diego y Moreno, first Bishop of California, the college was abandoned in 1881. By the mission buildings were disintegrating. Highwayman Jack Powers took over Mission Santa Inés and the adjacent Rancho San Marcos in 1853, intending to rustle the cattle belonging to rancher Nicolas A. Den. Powers was defeated in a bloodless armed confrontation, he was not ousted from the Santa Barbara area until 1855. The Danish town of Solvang was built up around the mission proper in the early 1900s, it was through the efforts of Father Alexander Buckler in 1904 that reconstruction of the mission was undertaken, though major restoration was not possible until 1947 when the Hearst Foundation donated money to pay for the project. The restoration continues to this day, the Capuchin Franciscan Fathers take excellent care of Mission Santa Inés. Many Natives of missions in the Southwestern region of what is presently U. S. territory and North Mexico fell victim to Euro-Asiatic diseases to.
However, demographic studies have shown that the Santa Barbara Channel Missions and many other Alta California Missions do not follow this trend. Though the missions weren’t free of epidemics, the censuses taken in the 1800s display that women and children had a much higher mortality rate than men. Diseases are not partial to gender or age, which meant that something outside of disease had a drastic effect on the Indian population in the missions. Researchers discovered that the population decline was focused by the unique conditions of the Alta California missions: tight, overcrowded living arrangements which fostered the spread of diseases; these conditions were met as a part of the program the missions made to culturally and religiously change the Natives. For instance, to control the sexual intercourse of the women, the Franciscans would lock up all the single women together at night in small, damp rooms; the Alta California mission system was installed not only to civilize the natives and assimilate them into European culture, but to introduce European architecture, animal domestication, agriculture to the native landscape.
The natives at Santa Inés were used as laborers and the mission's agriculture caused great ecolo
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed